Read the text and name the paragraphs. Translate the text
1. Mathematics is one of the oldest and most fundamental sciences. Mathematiciansuse mathematical theory, computational techniques, algorithms, and the latest computer technology to solve economic, scientific, engineering, physics and business problems. The work of mathematicians falls into two broad classes – theoretical (pure) and applied mathematics. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical knowledge by developing new principles and recognising previously unknown relationships between existingprinciples of mathematics. Many theoretical mathematicians are employedat university faculty, and divide their time between teaching and conducting research. Applied mathematicians use theories and techniques to formulate and solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and social sciences. Applied mathematicians start with a practical problem, envisionthe separate elements of the process under consideration, and then reducethe elements to mathematical variables. They often use computers to analyse relationships among the variables and solve complex problems by developing models with alternative solutions.
2. Mathematicians usually work in comfortable offices. They often are part of an interdisciplinary team that may include economists, engineers, computer scientists, physicists, technicians, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for information or analysis may be part of their job. Mathematicians who work in academia usually have a mix of teaching and research responsibilities.
3. Mathematicians held about 2,900 jobs in 2002. In addition, about 20,000 persons held full-time mathematics faculty positionsin colleges and university in 2002, according to the American Mathematical Society. Many nonfaculty mathematicians work for Federal or State governments. In the private sector, major employers include insurance carriers, scientific research, management, development services, and scientific and technical consulting services. Within manufacturing, the aerospace and pharmaceutical industries are the key employers. Some mathematicians also work for investment banks, insurance companies, and securities.
4. A Ph.D. degree in mathematics usually is the minimum education needed for prospective mathematicians, except in the Federal Government. In the Federal Government, entry-level job candidates usually must have a 4 – year degree with a major in mathematics.In private industry, candidates for mathematician jobs typically need a master’s or Ph.D. degree. Most of the positions designated for mathematicians are in research and development laboratories, as part of technical teams. A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this degree include calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract algebra.For jobs in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Mathematicians also should have substantial knowledge of computer programming, because most complex mathematical computation and much mathematical modelling are done on a computer.
5. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence in order to identify, analyse, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills are important, as mathematicians must be able to interact and discuss proposed solutions with people who may not have an extensive knowledge of mathematics.
6.According to 2003 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, starting salary offers averaged $40,512 a year for mathematics graduates with a bachelor’s degree, and $42,348 for those with a master’s degree. Doctoral degree candidates averaged $55,485. In early 2003, the average annual salary for mathematicians employed by Federal Government in supervisory and managerial positions was $80,877; that for mathematical statisticians was $83,472; and for cryptanalysts, the average was $78,662.
7. Employment of mathematicians is expected to decline through 2012, reflecting the decline in the number of jobs with the title mathematicians. However, master’ s and Ph.D. degree holders with a strong background in mathematics and related discipline should have better opportunities. The most common fields in which mathematicians study and find work are computer science and software development, physics, engineering, and operations research. Mathematicians also are becoming involved in financial analysis. Mathematicians must compete for jobs, however, with people who have degrees in these other disciplines. The most successful jobseekers will be able to apply mathematical theory to real-world problems.
1. to solve problems – решать проблемы, задачи
2. theoretical (pure) mathematics – теоретическая математика
3. applied mathematics – прикладная математика
4. to conduct research – проводить исследование
5. to advance – развиваться, делать успехи, продвигать вперёд
6. to exist - существовать
7. to employ – нанимать на работу
8. envision – воображать, предвидеть
9. to be under consideration – рассматриваемый, обсуждаемый
10. to reduce – понижать, сокращать
11. mathematical variable – математическая величина (переменная)
12. reasoning ability – способность к рассуждению, аргументации
13. persistence – настойчивость, упорство
14. full-time position – работа на полный рабочий день
2.3 Match the words and expressions in column A with the definitions in column B:
1. to solve problems a). to demand
2. solution b). to regard
3. to be under consideration c). answer to a problem
4. to require d). to find the answer
5. to advance e). to decrease
6. to employ f). to make progress
7. to reduce g). to work for one
2.4 Read the following words and state the part of speech:
Mathematics, mathematician, apply, application, solution, reduction, existence, employment, research, advance, advantage, reasoning, differential, probability, extensively, substantial, basic.
2.5 Complete the table:
2.6 Fill in the blanks with the corresponding words:
1. Mathematics is one of the oldest and most … sciences.
2. …use mathematical theory, computational techniques, algorithms.
3. The work of mathematicians falls into two broad classes… .
4. Many theoretical mathematicians are …as university faculty, and divide their time between teaching and … .
5. Applied mathematicians start with … .
6. Theoretical mathematicians … mathematical knowledge by developing new principles and recognizing previously unknown relationships between principles of mathematics.
7. Mathematicians who work in academia usually have a mix of teaching and research….
8. About 20,000 persons held …mathematics faculty positionsin colleges and university in 2002.
9. Mathematicians also should have substantial knowledge of….
10. Mathematicians need good … …and …in order to identify, analyse, and apply basic principles to technical problems.
11. Mathematicians must … jobs with people who have degrees in other disciplines.
2.7 Make up questions to which the following sentences might be the answers:
1. It consists of two main classes - theoretical and applied mathematics.
2. Mathematicians work for Federal and state governments.
3. A Ph.D. degree is usually needed for Federal government.
4. It is offered by most colleges and universities.
5. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence.
6. Mathematicians should have good knowledge of computer programming.
7. The aerospace and pharmaceutical are the main employers.
8. Their average salary is $ 42,348.
2.8 Comprehension questions:
1. What do mathematicians use to solve scientific and business problems?
2. What are two broad classes of mathematicians?
3. What does the job of theoretical mathematicians involve?
4. Where do they work?
5. What does the job of applied mathematicians comprise?
6. What do applied mathematicians start with?
7. What are working conditions of high school mathematicians?
8. In what fields of industry and economy can mathematicians apply their knowledge?
9. What is the minimum education needed for working in the Government, in private industry?
10. What skills and qualities are required for mathematicians?
2.9 Translate into English:
1. Математики используют теорию, чтобы сформулировать и решить практические проблемы.
2. Математики, работающие в университетах, делят свое время между преподаванием и исследовательской деятельностью.
3. Степень бакалавра по математике предлагается большинством колледжей и университетов.
4. Сложные математические вычисления и математическое моделирование выполняется на компьютере.
5. Средняя годовая зарплата выпускника со степенью бакалавра по математике $ 40,512.
2.10 Review the text according to your plan.
Careers in Physics
2.11 Work in pairs and discuss the following questions:
1. Where do you want to work after graduating the University?
2. What spheres of industry can you work as a physicist in Tyumen?
3. Is it difficult to find the job of physicist?
Trainingfor a career in physicsbegins in the home when boys and girls learn to make things and to discover why things work. It continues with elementary and high school studies in scienceand mathematics.
The chief trainingof physiciststakes place in college. They learn higher mathematics, the basic toolof physics. After a year or two of general courses in physics, students may begin to specialise. They may take courses in electricity, optics, or nuclear physics. Most physicists continue their training after receiving a bachelor’s degree. Most positions of responsibility in physics require a doctorate.
Employment.More than half of the physicists in the United States are engaged in research and developmentactivities. Large numbers of physicists also teach in colleges and universities. Others have positions in administration and management.
Some physicists conduct experiments and work with instruments and other equipment. Others trained in mathematical analyses of physical problems, work with theories. These two sides of physics are closely related, and many physicists excel equally in both.
Many industries employ physicists in their research departments. These scientists work in applied physics, which deals with fields directly related to improvinga manufacturing process or a product. They may also work in basic physics, the study of general physical principles that may or may not have practical applications. Many physicists work in government research
laboratories. Others work in the laboratories of foundations and research institutions. Physicists in colleges and universities may conduct research and help train other physicists.
1. training - обучение
2. tool - инструмент
3. to specialize in - специализироваться на
4. to take courses – ходить на курсы
5. to be engaged in – быть занятым
6. to conduct an experiment – ставить опыт
7. equipment - оборудование
8. applied physics – прикладная физика
9.basic physics – физические основы
10. application - применение
11. research laboratory – научно-исследовательская лаборатория
2.12 Read the following words correctly. Mind reading rules:
Career, physicist, science, higher, specialise, course, nuclear, electricity, bachelor, doctorate, engage, experiment, equipment, analysis, equally, industry, development, manufacturing, laboratory, foundation, scientist.
2.13 Make up sentences using the following words and phrases:
Career, to specialise in, to be engaged in, to conduct research, to take courses in, to require, to receive a degree, equipment.
2.14 Give the Russian equivalents for the following:
trainingfor a career, to take place in,a basic tool, to specialise,
to be engaged in research and development activities, to be closely related, to improvea manufacturing process, to have practical applications,conduct research.
2.15 Complete the following sentences:
1. Training for a career in physics begins… .
2. It continues with… .
3. After a year or two of general courses in physics… .
4. They may take courses in… .
5. More than half of the physicists in the United States are engaged in… .
6. Some physicists conduct experiments and work with… .
7. Many industries employ physicists in… .
8. Many industries employ physicists in their research departments. These scientists work in… .
9. They may also work in… .
2.16 Comprehension questions:
1. Where does training for a career begin?
2. Is physics studied at elementary and high schools?
3. What is the basic tool for studying physics?
4. What are courses taken by students studying physics?
5. What is required for most positions of responsibility in physics?
6. What do physicists trained in mathematical analyses work with?
7. What do physicists employed in industry deal with?
Translate into English
1. Они работают в одной команде.
2. Вопрос, который сейчас рассматривается, очень важен.
3. В прошлом году он ходил на компьютерные курсы.
4. Обучение этих специалистов будет длиться 3 месяца.
5. Новое оборудование устанавливается сейчас в исследовательской лаборатории.
6. Сын Джона решил специализироваться по ядерной физике.
Speak on career in physics.