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1 By the vocabulary of a language is understood the total sum of its words. Another term for the same is the stock of words

1 Bruddersford, the scene of the extract, is easily recognizable as Bradford, Priestley's birthplace.

2 United — the name of a football team.

1 Eliza means the money that Higgins gave her on their previous meeting.

1 tall stories — stories that are hard to believe.

1 Usually in modern correspondence you will find the form re [ri:] without the in.

1 measure (here) — dance.

1 By etymology of words is understood their origin.

2 By a borrowing or loan-word we mean a word which came into the vocabulary of one language from another and was assimilated by the new language. (For more about the assimilation of borrowings see Ch. 4.)

1 Phenomenon, philosophy, method, music, etc. were borrowed into English from Latin and had earlier come into Latin from Greek.

1 By the native element we mean words which were not borrowed from other languages but represent the original stock of this particular language.

1 The classification and examples are taken from Аракин В. Д. Очерки по истории английского языка, с. 251.

1 Autumn is a French borrowing.

2 Cognates — words of the same etymological root, of common origin.

1 Skeat W. A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Oxford, 1961; Weckley E. An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. V. I—II. No 4, 19.

1 caster (chester) < Lat. "military-camp"

2 wick, thorpe, by < Sc. "place"

1 Also see Supplementary Material, p.p. 276. 71

1 Veni, Vidi, Vici (Lat.) — I came, I saw, I conquered (famous words ascribed to Julius Caesar)

2 Weeny, Weedy, Weaky means "tiny", "frail", "weak".

1 By word-building are understood processes of producing new words from the resources of this particular language. Together with borrowing, word-building provides for enlarging and enriching the vocabulary of the language.

2 Stem is part of the word consisting of root and affix. In English words stern and root often coincide.

1 The table gives examples of especially frequent native affixes.

1 International suffixes.

1 Some of the listed adjectives have several meanings, but only one is given so as to keep the list manageable.

2 The italicized words roughly convey the meanings of the suffixes in each adjective.

1 The extract is taken from the book "Daddy-Long-Legs" by an American writer Jean Webster. The novel is written in the form of letters. The author of these letters, a young girl, Judy by name, writes them to her guardian, a rich man whom she has never seen.

Judy was brought up in the John Grier Home orphan asylum where her life was hard. She was a very bright girl and when she finished school, her guardian sent her to college. The girl knows almost nothing about him. She knows only that he is a very tall man. That is why she jokingly calls him Daddy-Long-Legs.

1 See footnote on p. 97.

1 R. "цвета гремучей змеи". The father of the family is absolutely against the idea of buying the car, and the choice of this word reflects his mood of resentment.

1 Knids — fantastic monsters supposed to inhabit the Cosmos and invented by the author of this book for children.

1 [Pnqmxtq`pIq]. This type of word-formation is now also called echoism (the term was introduced by O. Jespersen).

1 bob — a shilling (pl. bob).

2 a free-for-all — a fight without rules in which any number of people join or become involved.

1 U-turn ['ju:t3:n] — R. поворот "кругом".

2 M-day – the first day of mobilization.

1 mammal — one of the class of animals which feed their young with milk from the breast (e. g. human beings, dogs, whales).

2 tidbit — very important news.

3 The Afro-American — the name of a newspaper.

4 A. A. fire — anti-aircraft fire (R. зенитный огонь).

5 stowaway — one who hides himself on a ship to make a journey without paying.

1 bluecoat — policeman.

2 roughhouse — play that has got out of hand and turned into brawling (R. скандал, драка).

3 booby trap — a trap laid for the unawary as a practical joke, often humiliating (R. ловушка)

4 black shirt — a fascist (black shirts were part of uniform of the Italian Fascist party).

5 We'll put you up front. — R. 1. Мы пошлем вас на передовую. 2. Мы посадим вас в первый ряд (игра слов).

6 pro — (here) professional actor (sl.)

7 GI — Government issue. WWII servicemen.

1 O. D. — officer of the day, officer on duty.

2 to hob-nob — to be on familiar terms.

3 whipper-snapper— young, esp. undersized boy who behaves with more self-importance than is proper.

4 ha-ha — fence, hedge or wall hidden in a ditch or trench so as not to interrupt a landscape.

5 SALT — strategic armament limitation talks.

6 greenhorn — a raw, simple, inexperienced person, easily fooled.

7 dress coat — a black, long-tailed coat worn by men for formal evening occasions.

8 D-region — the lowest region of the ionosphere extending from 60 to 80 km.

9 See footnote on p. 63.

1 We give only a fragment of the semantic structure of bar so as to illustrate the point.

1 kick, n. — 1. thrill, pleasurable excitement (inform.);2. a blow with the foot.

1 It is of some interest to note that the Russian language found a different way of filling the same gap: in Russian, all the parts of the theatre are named by borrowed words: партер, ложа, амфитеатр, бельэтаж

1 Most scholars distinguish between the terms development of meaning (when a new meaning and the one on the basis of which it is formed coexist in the semantic structure of the word, as in mill, carriage, etc.) and change of meaning (when the old meaning is completely replaced by the new one, as in the noun meat which in Old English had the general meaning of "food" but in Modern English is no longer used in that sense and has instead developed the meaning "flesh of animals used as a food product").

1 Also: see Supplementary Material, p. 186.

1 Groups of synonyms here and further on in the text are given selectively.

1 A. Gandelsman. English Synonyms Explained and Illustrated. M., 1963; G. Crabb. English Synonyms. H. Y. Grosset and Dunlap, 1945; N. Webster. Webster's Synonyms, Antonyms and Homonyms. N. Y., 1962; Ю. Д. Апресян, В. В. Ботякова, Т. Э. Латышева и др. Англо-русский синонимический словарь.M., 1979.

1 The explanations are taken from A. Gandelsman's English Synonyms Explained and Illustrated. M., 1963.

1 Ю. Д. Апресян, В. В. Ботякова, Т. Э. Латышева и др. Англо-русский синонимический словарь. М., 1979.

1 naughty — wicked, evil (obs.)

2 For information on Hyponymy see Supplementary Material, p. 187.

1 The text is borrowed from Look, Laugh and Learn to Speak by I. B. Vasilyeva, I. A. Kitenko, D. V. Menyajlo. L., 1970.

1 O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;

It is the green-eyed monster, which doth mock

The meat it feeds on ...

(Iago's words from Act III, Sc. 3)

1 The origin of the phrase is in a passage in Othello where Iago says:

...'tis not long after

But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve

For daws to peck at.

(Act I, Sc. 1)

1 The allusion is to a fable of Aesop.

1 It should be pointed out that most Russian scholars do not regard these as phraseological units; so this is a controversial point.

1 Bear in mind that some of the examples explained in the text do not represent phraseology, but simply words with transferred meanings. So be careful in your choice.

1 In this book two prominent scholars, an American and an Englishman, discuss the differences between the American and British varieties of English.

1 bird dog — person who helps to sell cars.

1 VIP — very important person.

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