I. Consider your answers to the following. 1. Which word in a synonymic group is considered to be the dominant synonym?
1. Which word in a synonymic group is considered to be the dominant synonym? What are its characteristic features?
2. Can the dominant synonym be substituted for certain other members of a group of synonyms? Is the criterion of interchangeability applicable in this case?
3. Which words are called euphemisms? What are their two main types? What function do they perform in speech? What is the effect of overusing' euphemisms in speech?
4. Show that euphemisms may be regarded as a subtype of synonyms. Which type of connotation is characteristic for them?
5. Which words do we usually classify as antonyms? Give your own examples of such words.
6. To which parts of speech do most antonyms belong? How do you account for this?
7. Antonyms characterized by common occurrences may be said to possess certain "reflected associations". Explain what is meant by this phrase.
8. Explain why antonyms can be regarded as an important group of the language's expressive means. Illustrate your answer with your own examples.
II. Find the dominant synonym in the following groups of synonyms. Explain your choice.
1. to glimmer — to glisten — to blaze — to shine — to sparkle— to flash— to gleam. 2. to glare— to gaze — to peep — to look — to stare — to glance. 3. to astound — to surprise — to amaze — to puzzle — to astonish. 4. strange — quaint — odd — queer. 5. to saunter — to stroll — to wander — to walk — to roam. 6. scent — perfume — smell — odour — aroma. 7. to brood — to reflect — to meditate — to think. 8. to fabricate — to manufacture — to produce — to create — to make. 9. furious — enraged — angry. 10. to sob — to weep — to cry.
III. The following sentences and jokes contain members of groups of synonyms. Provide as many synonyms as you can for each, explaining the difference between them; single out their dominant synonyms giving reasons for your choice.
1. "Why is it. Bob," asked George of a very stout friend, "that you fat fellows are always good-natured?" "We have to be," answered Bob. "You see, we can't either fight or run."
2. A teacher was giving a lesson on the weather idiosyncrasies of March. "What is it," she asked, "that comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb?" And little Julia, in the back row, replied'. "Father."
3. "Just why do you want a married man to work for you, rather, than a bachelor?" asked the curious chap. "Well," sighed the boss, "the married men don't get so upset if I yell at them."
4. A kind-hearted English Vicar one day observed an old woman laboriously pushing a perambulator up a steep hill. He volunteered his assistance and when they reached the top of the hill, said, in answer to her thanks: "Oh, it's nothing at all. I'm delighted to do it. But as a little reward, may I kiss the baby?" "Baby? Lord bless you, sir, it ain't no baby, it's the old man's beer."
5. "The cheek of that red cap! He glared at me as if I hadn't my pass." "And what did you do?" "I glared back as if I had."
6. Comic Dictionary: ADULT — a person who has stopped growing at both ends and started growing in the middle. ADVERTISING — makes you think you've longed all your life for something you never even heard of before. BORE — one who insists upon talking about himself when you want to talk about yourself. FAME — chiefly a matter of dying at the right moment. PHILOSOPHER — one who instead of crying over spilt milk consoles himself with the thought that it was over four-fifths water.
IV. Find the dominant synonyms for the following italicized words and prove that they can be used as substitutes. Are they interchangeable? What is lost if we make the substitution?
1. Never for a moment did he interrupt or glance at his watch. 2. The girl looked astonished at my ignorance. 3. Sometimes perhaps a tramp will wander there, seeking shelter from a sudden shower of rain. 4.1 am very different from that self who drove to Manderiey for the first time filled with an intense desire to please. 5. The stony vineyards shimmer in the sun. 6. The restaurant was filled now with people who chatted and laughed. 7. I've got a sister and an ancient grandmother. 8. A bowl of roses in a drawing-room had a depth of colour and scent they had not possessed in the open. 9. He saw our newcomers, arms wound round each other, literally staggering from the bus. 10. Chicken-pox may be a mild children's disease. 11. In a funny way she wanted to reach out for that friendliness as if she needed it. Which was odd. 12. It could be a dream world. So pretty, yet so sad.
V. Reread Ch. 11 and find the euphemistic substitutes for the following words: die, drunk, prison, mad, liar, devil, lavatory, god, eat, pregnant, stupid. Write them out into two columns: A. euphemistic substitutes for social taboos. B. euphemistic substitutes for superstitions taboos.