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I. Consider your answers to the following. 1. Where are formal words used?


1. Where are formal words used?

2. Are learned words used only in books? Which type of learned words, do you think, is especially suitable for verbal communication? Which is least suitable and even undesirable?

3. What are the principal characteristics of archaic words?

4. What are the controversial problems connected with professional terminology?

5. Do you think that students of English should learn terms? If so, for which branch or branches of knowledge?

6. What is understood by the basic vocabulary?

7. Which classes of stylistically marked words, in your opinion, should be included in the students' functional and recognition vocabularies in 1) junior and 2) senior school vocabularies?

II. a. The italicized words and word-groups in the following extracts belong to formal style. Describe the stylistic peculiarities of each extract in general and say whether the italicized represents learned words, terms or archaisms. Look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary.


1. "Sir,

in re1 Miss Ernestina Freeman

We are instructed by Mr. Ernest Freeman, father of the above-mentioned Miss Ernestina Freeman, to request you to attend at these chambers at 3 o'clock this coming Friday. Your failure to attend will be regarded as an acknowledgement of our client's right to proceed."

(From The French Lieutenant's Woman by J. Fowles)


2. "I have, with esteemed advice ..." Mr. Aubrey bowed briefly towards the sergeant, ... "... prepared an admission of guilt. I should instruct you that My, Freeman's decision not to proceed immediately is most strictly contingent upon your client's signing, on this occasion and in our presence, and witnessed by all present, this document."



3. Romeo ... So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows,


As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows.

The measure1 done, I'll watch her place of stand,

And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand.

Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight!

For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night.


Tybalt. This, by his voice should be a Montague.


Fetch me my rapier, boy. What! dares the slave

Come hither, cover'd with an antick face,

To fleer and scorn at our solemnity?

Now, by the stock and honour of my kin,

To strike him dead I hold it not a sin.

(From Romeo and Juliet by W. Shakespeare, Act1, Sc. 5)


4. "... I want you to keep an eye on that air-speed indicator. Remember that an airplane stays in the air because of its forward speed. If you let the speed drop too low, it stalls — and falls out of the air. Any time the ASI shows a reading near 120, you tell George instantly. Is that clear?" "Yes, Captain. I understand." "Back to you, George... I want you to unlock the autopilot — it's clearly marked on the control column — and take the airplane yourself. ... George, you watch the artificial horizon ... Climb and descent indicator should stay at zero."

(From Runway Zero-Eight by A. Hailey, J. Castle)


5. Mr. Claud Gurney's production of The Taming of the Shrew shows a violent ingenuity. He has learnt much from Mr. Cochran; there is also a touch of Hammersmith in his ebullient days. The speed, the light, the noise, the deployment of expensively coloured figures ...amuse the senses and sometimes divert the mind from the unfunny brutality of the play, which evokes not one natural smile.

(From a theatrical review)


6. Arthur: Jack! Jack! Where's the stage manager?

Jасk: Yes, Mr. Gosport?

Arthur: The lighting for this scene has gone mad.

This isn't our plot. There's far too much light. What's gone wrong with it?

Jack: I think the trouble is they have crept in numbers two and three too early. (Calling up to the flies).Will, check your plot, please. Number two and three spots should be down to a quarter instead of full.... And .you've got your floats too high, too.

(From Harlequinade by T. Rattigan)


7. It was none other than Grimes, the Utility outsider, Connie had been forced to use in the last game because of the injury to Joyce — Grimes whose miraculous catch in the eleventh inning had robbed Parker of home run, and whose own homer — a fluky one — had given the Athletics another World's Championship.

(From Short Stories by R. Lardner)

b. Make up lists from the italicized words classifying them Heto: A. learned: 1) officialese, 2) literary; B. terms (subdivide them into groups and state to what professional activity each belongs); C. archaic words.

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