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MAIN BRANCHES OF ENGINEERING



Engineering, much like other science, is a broad discipline which is often divided into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will usually be trained in a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Engineering is often characterized as having four main branches:

Chemical engineering – The exploitation of chemical principles in order to carry out large scale chemical process, as well as designing new specialty materials and fuels.

Civil engineering – The design and construction of public and private works, such as infrastructure (roads, railways, water supply and treatment etc.), bridges and buildings.

Electrical engineering – a very broad area that may encompass the design and study of various electrical and electronic systems, such as electrical circuits, generators, motors, electromagnetic/electromechanical devices, electronic devices, electronic circuits, optical fibers, optoelectronic devices, computer systems, telecommunications and electronics.

Mechanical engineering – The design of physical or mechanical systems, such as power and energy systems, aerospace/aircraft products, weapon systems, transportation products engines, compressors, kinematic chains, vacuum technology, and vibration isolation equipment.

Historically, naval engineering and mining engineering were major branches. New specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches.

In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles. Financial engineering has similarly borrowed the term.

 

Раздел 1. Чтение

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.



Задание 2. Найдите эквиваленты для данных слов.

1. infrastructure 2. fuel 3. exploitation 4. branch 5. equipment 6. weapon 7. optical fiber 8. naval 9. electronic circuits 10. construction a. оружие b. подразделение c. оборудование d. военно-морской e. оптическое волокно f. использование, эксплуатация g. электрические цепи h. топливо i. сооружение j. инфраструктура

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

 

discipline, civil, mechanical, encompass, branches

 

1. Engineering, much like other science, is a broad … .

2. There are several … of engineering.

3. Electrical engineering is a very broad area that may … the design and study of various electrical and electronic systems.

4. … engineering is the design of physical or mechanical systems.

5. … engineering is the design and construction of public and private works.

 

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из второй колонки, преобразовав их лексически и грамматически.

 

ПРИМЕР: There are connections between engineering and art. connect
1) Among … historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance engineer. fame
2) He was also a prime …of the connection between art and engineering. exemplify
3) Some engineering disciplines view the human body as a … machine worth studying. biology
4) Civil engineering is the design and … of public and private works. construct
5) Historically, naval engineering and mining engineering were the most … branches. importance

 



Задание 5. Составьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

 

Раздел 2. Грамматика

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрывая скобки, ставя глаголы в нужную временную форму Present Perfect или Past Perfect.

 

1. In Political science the term engineering (to be borrowed) for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering.

2. She thought I (to read) her book.

3. When it started raining, they already (to leave) the house.

4. Among the philosophies that (to influence) modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, post structuralism, and phenomenology.

5. I (to leave) before you (to come).

Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу предлоги.

 

1. Engineering is a broad discipline which is often divided … several sub-disciplines.

2. Engineer is usually trained … a specific discipline.

3. … an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having worked … several areas.

4. In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed … the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering

5. Social engineering and Political engineering deal … forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles.

 

Задание 3. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения some, any, no или производные от них.

 

1. Do you know … outstanding American engineer?

2. I have … doubts choosing my carrier.

3. There is … I can not understand in this theory.



4. There are … products that cannot be advertised on television.

5. I don’t think there is … wrong with the processor.

 

Раздел 3. Устная речь

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы (на английском языке).

 

1) What is civil engineering?

2) What are the main branches of engineering?

3) What is chemical engineering?

4) What does the word multi-disciplined mean?

5) What is mechanical engineering?

 

Задание 2. Подготовьте сообщение на тему “Which branch of engineering do you like best of all? Why?” (15-20 предложений).

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

Текст


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