Paul Smith (fashion designer)
Sir Paul Smith, CBE, RDI, (born in Beeston, Nottinghamshire on 5 July 1946) is an English fashion designer, whose business and reputation is founded upon his menswear. He is both commercially successful and highly respected within the fashion industry.
Smith was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2000, after nearly three decades as a menswear icon. His collections of clothing and accessories for both men and women are usually identified by the presence of Smith's multistripe signature somewhere on each item.
Paul Smith left school at the age of 14. His only ambition was to become a racing cyclist until his father hauled him off to work at a clothing warehouse. Smith had no real interest in his work during his first two years there except for the cycle journey to and from his home. A terrible cycling accident put an end to his cycling ambitions, and it was only then that Smith's career in fashion design began. He enjoyed his job and had forgotten everything about cycling. Six months in hospital followed and during this time Smith made some new friends. After leaving hospital he arranged to meet them all at a local pub that was popular with art students. It was then that Paul Smith knew he wanted to be part of this colourful world of ideas, excitemen and fashion.
Paul Smith started to take evening classes for tailoring. Later on Paul Smith joined Lincroft Kilgour in Savile Row after being spotted by chairman Harold Tillman, where his designs were worn by celebrities including footballer George Best. With the help of his then girlfriend (now wife) Pauline Denyer, who was an RCA fashion graduate, and a small amount of savings, he managed to open his first shop in Nottingham in 1970. By 1976 Paul showed his first menswear collection in Paris, under the Paul Smith label. He gradually expanded the retail business, being the first fashion brand to open on Floral Street in London's Covent Garden in 1979, where his shop offered an eclectic combination of clothes and 'finds' for men which reflected his own magpie personality.
The international growth of his business began. A converted town-house in Notting Hill, London opened in 1998 and is now his flagship shop, with the company's operational heart remaining between Nottingham and London. In 1998 Paul showed his first women's collection at London Fashion Week. The women's mainline collection continues to this day.
Since 2007, Smith has opened shops in Dubai, Bangalore, Leeds, Antwerp, Los Angeles and another shop in London, in addition to a brand new warehouse building in Nottingham.Paul Smith remains fully involved in the business, designing clothes, choosing fabrics, approving the shop locations and overseeing every development within the company. He has showrooms in London, Paris, Milan, New York and Tokyo.
The success of Smith's business may be attributed to his understanding of his dual roles of both designer and retailer; the success of his designs to his combination of the classic and the quirky, which allows men to buy relatively traditional (and hence commercially popular) designs that offer a 'twist' of individuality
Sir Elton Hercules John, CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947), is an English rock singer-songwriter, composer, pianist and occasional actor. He has worked with lyricist Bernie Taupin as his songwriter partner since 1967; they have collaborated on more than 30 albums to date.
In his four-decade career John has sold more than 250 million records, making him one of the most successful artists of all time. His single "Candle in the Wind 1997" has sold over 33 million copies worldwide, and is the best selling single in the history of the UK Singles Chart and the US Billboard Hot 100. He has more than 50 Top 40 hits, including seven consecutive No. 1 US albums, 56 Top 40 singles, 16 Top 10, four No. 2 hits, and nine No. 1 hits. He has won six Grammy Awards, four Brit Awards, an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award and a Tony Award. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked him Number 49 on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time.
John was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994. Having been named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1996, John received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II for "services to music and charitable services" in 1998. John has performed at a number of royal events, such as the funeral of Princess Diana at Westminster Abbey in 1997, and the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Concert outside Buckingham Palace in 2012.
He has been heavily involved in the fight against AIDS since the late 1980s. In 1992, he established the Elton John AIDS Foundation and a year later began hosting the annual Academy Award Party, which has since become one of the highest-profile Oscar parties in the Hollywood film industry. Since its inception, the foundation has raised over $200 million. In 2008, Billboard magazine ranked him as the most successful male solo artist on "The Billboard Hot 100 Top All-Time Artists" (third overall, behind only The Beatles and Madonna).
NORMAN FOSTER (ARCHITECT)
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM, FRIBA, FCSD, RDI (born 1 June 1935) is an English architect. His company has an international design practice. He is the United Kingdom's biggest builder of landmark office buildings.
Foster was born in Reddish, Stockport, England, to a working-class family. He did well at school and became interested in architecture. Foster was particularly interested in the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Le Corbusier.
He left school at 16 and worked in the Manchester City Treasurer's office. Next he joined the National Service in the Royal Air Force. After he was discharged, in 1956 Foster attended the University of Manchester's School of Architecture and City Planning. He graduated in 1961. He earned his Master's degree at the Yale School of Architecture. He then travelled in America for a year. He returned to the UK in 1963. Then he set up an architectural practice as Team 4. Team 4 quickly earned a reputation for high-tech industrial design. After Team 4 broke up, in 1967 Foster and Wendy Cheesman started Foster Associates. This later became Foster and Partners. From 1968, Foster worked with American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller until Fuller died in 1983. They worked on several projects that became important in the development of an environmentally sensitive approach to design.
Foster + Partners' first important building in the UK was the Willis Faber & Dumas headquarters in Ipswich, from 1974. The client was a family firm insurance company which wanted to restore a sense of community to the workplace. Foster created open-plan office floors long before open-plan became the standard. In a town that did not have a lot of public facilities, the roof gardens, 25m swimming pool and gymnasium are good benefits for the company's 1,200 employees. The building is wrapped in a full-height glass facade. This wall follows the medieval street plan. The facade shifts from opaque, reflective black to a glowing backlit transparency as the sun sets.
Today, Foster + Partners works with its engineers to use computer systems. They pay attention to basic physical laws such as convection. They have created efficient buildings like the Swiss Re London headquarters. The walls let in air for passive cooling and then let it out as it warms and rises.
Foster was knighted in 1990 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1997. In 1999, he was created a life peer, as Baron Foster of Thames Bank. He is the second British architect to win the Stirling Prize twice.
Foster married business partner Wendy Cheesman. She died in 1989, leaving him with four sons. He next married Indian-born Begum Sabiha Rumani Malik. Foster and Sabiha divorced in 1998. Foster is now married to Elena Ochoa, Chairman of the Tate International Council, and founder of Ivory Press. He has five children and three grandchildren.
Foster flies his own private jet and helicopter between his homes in London, France, and Switzerland.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts, 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British Conservative Party politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century, and is the only woman to have held the post. A Soviet journalist called her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Originally a research chemist before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970 government. In 1975 Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, and the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.
After moving into 10 Downing Street, Thatcher introduced a series of political and economic initiatives to reverse what she perceived to be Britain's precipitous national decline. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity during her first years in office waned amid recession and high unemployment, until economic recovery and the 1982 Falklands War brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her re-election in 1983.
Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987, but her Community Charge (popularly referred to as "poll tax") was widely unpopular and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. Thatcher held a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire, which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords.
Marks & Spencer
Marks and Spencer plc (also known as M&S; colloquially known as Marks and Sparks, Marks's or, simply, Marks) is a major British retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, with 703 stores in the United Kingdom and 361 stores spread across more than 40 countries. It specialises in the selling of clothing and luxury food products.
M&S was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds.The next few years saw Michael Marks and Tom Spencer open market stalls in many locations around the North West of England. Marks and Spencer, known colloquially as "Marks and Sparks", or "M&S", made its reputation in the early 20th century on a policy of only selling British-made goods (a policy discontinued in 2002). It entered into long term relationships with British manufacturers, and sold clothes and food under the "St Michael" brand, that was introduced in 1928. The St Michael honours Michael Marks. By 1950, virtually all goods were sold under the "St Michael" label. It also accepted the return of unwanted items, giving a full cash refund if the receipt was shown, no matter how long ago the product was purchased, which was unusual for the time. It adopted a 90-day returns policy in 2005 and on 12 April 2009 the refund policy changed once again to 35 days.
The company always put its main emphasis on quality, For most of its history it also had a reputation for offering fair value for money. Arguably, M&S has historically been an iconic retailer of 'British Quality Goods'. The uncompromising attitude towards customer relations was summarised by the 1953 slogan: "The customer is always and completely right!"
Energy efficiency was improved by the addition of thermostatically controlled refrigerators in 1963. As a later measure to improve food quality food labelling was improved and "sell by dates" was introduced between 1970 and 1972.
A cautious international expansion began with the introduction of Asian food in 1974. M&S opened stores in continental Europe in 1975 and in Ireland four years later. All international shops are operated under franchise, with the exception of those in the Republic of Ireland and Hong Kong, which remain in company ownership. In 1998, it became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over £1 billion, though a few years later it plunged into a crisis which lasted for several years.
Marks & Spencer launched an online shopping service in 1999. In February 2007, M&S announced the opening of the world's largest M&S shop outside the UK at Dubai Festival City. M&S is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
Unilever is an Anglo–Dutch multinational consumer goods company. Its products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. It is the world's third-largest consumer goods company measured by 2011 revenues (after Procter & Gamble and Nestlé) and the world's largest maker of ice cream.
Unilever owns over 400 brands, amongst the largest selling of which are Axe/Lynx, Ben & Jerry's, Dove, Knorr, Lipton, Lux/Radox, Omo/Surf, Rexona/Sure and Sunsilk. Its 25 largest brands account for over 70 % of total sales. Unilever focuses resources on 13 "billion-Euro brands", each of which has annual sales in excess of €1 billion. Unilever organises its brands into four categories: Homecare, Personal Care, Foods and Refreshment (which includes tea, ice-cream and beverages).
Unilever was founded on 1 January 1930 by the merger of the British soapmaker Lever Brothers and the Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie. It has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of the brand Brooke Bond (maker of PG Tips tea), Chesebrough-Ponds (in 1987); Best Foods, Ben & Jerry's and Slim Fast (in 2000), Body Care products world wide and European Detergents from Sara Lee and Alberto-Culver (in 2010). On 14 October 2011, it was announced that Unilever had agreed to acquire 82 % of the Russia-based beauty company Kalina.
It is a dual-listed company consisting of Unilever N.V., based in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and Unilever PLC, based in London, United Kingdom. Both companies have the same directors and they operate as a single business. Unilever PLC has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of £27.3 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 18th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Unilever N.V. has a primary listing on Euronext Amsterdam and is a constituent of the AEX index. Both Unilever PLC and Unilever N.V. have secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange.
Unilever is multinational with operating companies and factories on every continent except Antarctica and research laboratories in England, the Netherlands, the United States, India and China. The company owns more than 400 brands, although its 25 largest brands account for over 70% of total sales. Unilever focuses resources on 13 "billion-Euro brands", each of which has annual sales in excess of €1 billion. Unilever organises its brands into four categories: Homecare, Personal Care, Foods and Refreshment (which includes tea, ice-cream and beverages).
Unilever is one of the largest media buyers in the world, and invested around €6 billion (US$8 billion) in advertising and promotion in 2010.Unilever's largest international competitors are Nestlé and Procter&Gamble.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British multinational pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines and consumer healthcare company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's fourth-largest pharmaceutical company measured by 2009 prescription drug sales (after Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi). It was established in 2000 by the merger of Glaxo Wellcome plc and SmithKline Beecham plc.
In 1880, Burroughs Wellcome & Company was founded in London by the American pharmacists Henry Wellcome and Silas Burroughs. Glaxo was founded in Bunnythorpe, New Zealand, in 1904. Originally Glaxo was a baby food manufacturer processing milk into a baby food of the same name: the product was sold under the slogan "Glaxo builds bonny babies" from 1908. Glaxo became Glaxo Laboratories, and opened new units in London in 1935. After the company bought Meyer Laboratories in 1978, it started to play an important role in the US market. Burroughs Wellcome and Glaxo merged in 1995 to form GlaxoWellcome. Three years later GlaxoWellcome bought Polfa Poznan Company in Poland.
In 1843, Thomas Beecham launched his Beecham's Pills laxative in England giving birth to the Beecham Group. By the 1960s, Beecham was extensively involved in pharmaceuticals.In 1830, John K. Smith opened its first pharmacy in Philadelphia. In 1865, Mahlon Kline joined the business which 10 years later became Smith, Kline & Co. In 1989 it merged with Beecham to form SmithKline Beecham plc. The headquarters of the company was moved to England. To expand research & development in the US, SmithKline Beecham bought a new research center in 1995.
Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham merged on in December 2000, forming GlaxoSmithKline.
GSK has a portfolio of products for major disease areas including asthma, cancer, virus control, infections, mental health, diabetes and digestive conditions. It also has a large consumer healthcare division that produces and markets oral healthcare and nutritional products, drinks and over-the-counter medicines, including Sensodyne, Boost, Horlicks, Lucozade, Ribena and Gaviscon.
GSK has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it had a market capitalisation of £74.8 billion, the fifth-largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.
GSK employs 97,000 people worldwide of whom about 12,500 work in research and development. Its global headquarters are GSK House in Brentford, United Kingdom, with its United States headquarters based in Research Triangle Park in North Carolina and its consumer products division based in the Pittsburgh suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania. The research and development division has major facilities in South East England, Philadelphia and Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. GSK has a presence in 99 cities across 39 countries.
GSK's single largest market is in the United States, which generates approximately 45 % of its revenues, although the company sells its products in around 70 countries.
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. It is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations and second largest measured by passengers carried, behind easyJet.
The British Airways Board was established in 1971 to control the two nationalised airline corporations, BOAC and BEA, and two smaller, regional airlines, Cambrian Airways, from Cardiff, and Northeast Airlines, from Newcastle upon Tyne. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After almost 13 years as a state company, that was sold in February 1987 as part of a privatisation plan by the Conservative Government. The carrier soon expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987 and Dan-Air, Gatwick-based carrier, in 1992.
A long-time Boeing customer, British Airways ordered 59 Airbus A320 family aircraft in August 1998. In 2007, it purchased 12 Airbus A380s and 24 Boeing 787 Dreamliners, marking the start of its long-haul fleet replacement. The centrepiece of the airline's long-haul fleet is the Boeing 747-400; with 52 examples in service, British Airways is the largest operator of this type in the world.
British Airways is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Qantas, and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third largest, after SkyTeam and Star Alliance. British Airways' parent company, International Airlines Group, is listed on the London Stock Exchange and in the FTSE 100 Index.
On 12 November 2009, British Airways confirmed that it had reached a preliminary agreement to merge with Iberia. On 14 July 2010, the European Commission approved the merger under competition law, also allowing American Airlines to co-operate with the merged entity on transatlantic routes to the United States. The merger was completed on 21 January 2011, formally creating the International Airlines Group, IAG, the world's third-largest airline in terms of annual revenue and the second largest airline group in Europe. In 2012, IAG purchased British Midland International (BMI) and announced plans to open a new subsidiary based at London City Airport operating Airbus A318s.
British Airways was the airline partner of the London 2012 Olympic Games. On 18 May 2012 it flew the Olympic flame from Athens International Airport to RNAS Culdrose while carrying various dignitaries including Lord Sebastian Coe, Princess Anne, Olympics minister Hugh Robertson and London Mayor Boris Johnson, together with footballer David Beckham.
Airbus is the world’s leading aircraft manufacturer whose customer focus, commercial know-how, technological leadership and manufacturing efficiency have propelled it to the forefront of the industry.
Airbus’ modern and comprehensive product line comprises highly successful families of aircraft ranging from 107 to 525 seats: the single-aisle A320 Family, the wide-body long-range A330/A340 and the all-new next generation A350 XWB Family, and the ultra long-range, double-decker A380 Family. The company also continues to broaden its scope and product range by applying its expertise to the military market. It is as well extending its portfolio of freighter aircraft that will set new standards in the general and express freight market sectors.
Across all its fly-by-wire aircraft families Airbus’ unique approach ensures that aircraft share the highest possible degree of commonality in airframes, on-board systems, cockpits and handling characteristics, which reduces significantly operating costs for airlines.
Dedicated to helping airlines enhance the profitability of their fleets, Airbus also delivers a wide range of customer services in all areas of support, tailored to the needs of individual operators all over the world.
Headquartered in Toulouse, Airbus is owned by EADS, a global leader in aerospace, defence and related services. This group – which is comprised of Astrium, Cassidian and Eurocopter, in addition to Airbus – has a presence on every continent, and employs a total workforce of more than 119,000.
Airbus itself is a truly global enterprise of some 59,000 employees, with fully-owned subsidiaries in the United States, China, Japan and in the Middle East, spare parts centres in Hamburg, Frankfurt, Washington, Beijing and Singapore, training centres in Toulouse, Miami, Hamburg and Beijing and more than 150 field service offices around the world.
Airbus also relies on industrial co-operation and partnerships with major companies all over the world, and a network of some 1,500 suppliers in 30 countries.
Airbus today consistently captures about half of all commercial airliner orders.
BOEING IN BRIEF
Boeing is the world's largest aerospace company and leading manufacturer of commercial jetliners and defense, space and security systems. A top U.S. exporter, the company supports airlines and U.S. and allied government customers in 150 countries. Boeing products and tailored services include commercial and military aircraft, satellites, weapons, electronic and defense systems, launch systems, advanced information and communication systems, and performance-based logistics and training.
Boeing has a long tradition of aerospace leadership and innovation. The company continues to expand its product line and services to meet emerging customer needs. Its broad range of capabilities includes creating new, more efficient members of its commercial airplane family; integrating military platforms, defense systems and the warfighter through network-enabled solutions; creating advanced technology solutions; and arranging innovative customer-financing options.
With corporate offices in Chicago, Boeing employs more than 170,000 people across the United States and in 70 countries. This represents one of the most diverse, talented and innovative workforces anywhere. More than 140,000 employees hold college degrees -- including nearly 35,000 advanced degrees - in virtually every business and technical field from approximately 2,700 colleges and universities worldwide. Our enterprise also leverages the talents of hundreds of thousands more skilled people working for Boeing suppliers worldwide.
Boeing is organized into two business units: Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defense, Space & Security. Supporting these units are Boeing Capital Corporation, a global provider of financing solutions; the Shared Services Group, which provides a broad range of services to Boeing worldwide; and Boeing Engineering, Operations & Technology, which helps develop, acquire, apply and protect innovative technologies and processes.
BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES
Boeing has been the premier manufacturer of commercial jetliners for more than 40 years. With the merger of Boeing and McDonnell Douglas in 1997, Boeing's leadership in commercial jets, joined with the lineage of Douglas airplanes, gives the combined company a 70-year heritage of leadership in commercial aviation. Today, the main commercial products are the 737, 747, 767 and 777 families of airplanes and the Boeing Business Jet. New product development efforts are focused on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, and the 747-8. The company has nearly 12,000 commercial jetliners in service worldwide, which is roughly 75 percent of the world fleet. Through Boeing Commercial Aviation Services, the company provides unsurpassed, around-the-clock technical support to help operators maintain their airplanes in peak operating condition. Commercial Aviation Services offers a full range of world-class engineering, modification, logistics and information services to its global customer base, which includes the world's passenger and cargo airlines, as well as maintenance, repair and overhaul facilities. Boeing also trains maintenance and flight crews in the 100-seat-and-above airliner market through Boeing Training & Flight Services, the world's largest and most comprehensive provider of airline training.