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ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF SCOTLAND 3 часть



The third style, referred to as cither “ international stripped classicism,” or simply “ classical moderne,” also came to the forefront during the Depression, a period of severe economic difficult in the 1930’s. This was amore conservative style, blending a simplified modernistic style with a more austere form of geometric and stylized relief sculpture and other ornament, including interior murals. May buildings in this style were erected nationwide through government programs during the Depression .Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern, it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art deco also used plant motifs, but regularized the forms into abstracted repetitive patterns rather than presenting them as flowing, asymmetrical foliage, Like the Viennese craftspeople of the Wiener Werkstatte, art deco designers worked with exotic materials, geometricized shapes, and colorfully ornate patterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and the United States, art deep practitioners considered it their mission to transform the domestic environment through well-designed furniture and household accessories.

 

1. What aspect of art deco does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The influence of art deco on the design of furniture and household accessories

(B) Ways in which government programs encouraged the development of art deco

(C) Architectural manifestations of art deco during the 1920’s and 1930’s

(D) Reasons for the popularity of art deco in New York and California

2. In line 9, the author mentions “an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower ” in order to

(A) describe the exterior shape of certain “art deco” buildings

(B) explain the differences between ancient and modern architectural styles

(C) emphasize the extent of architectural advances

(D) argue for a return to more traditional architectural design

3. The streamlined moderne style is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

(A) animal motifs

(B) flat roofs

(C) round windows

(D) “speed stripes”

4. According to the passage, which of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between art deco and art nouveau?

(A) They were art forms that competed with each other for government support during the Depression era.



(B) They were essentially the same art form.

(C) Art nouveau preceded art deco and influenced it.

(D) Art deco became important in the United States while art nouveau became popular in England.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.

 

1). I persuaded my boss to pay me more money.

2). Do you want me to cook the dinner?

3). She is said to work 16 hours a day.

4). The police are looking for a missing boy. The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.

 

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие причастия I и II.

 

1). Emma was sitting in an armchair reading a book.

2). Margaret had an accident driving to work yesterday.

3). Having bought our tickets, we went into the theater.

4). Not knowing his address I wasn’t able to contact him.

5). Warned by air traffic control, the airport fire service prepared to fight a fire.

 

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

 

1). If he took the examination, he would fail.

2). What would you do if your car was stolen?

3). If the driver in front hadn’t stopped so suddenly, the accident wouldn’t have happened.

4). Unless you go now, you’ll miss the train.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

History books record that the first film with sound was The Jazz Singer in 1927. But sound films, or "talkies," did not suddenly appear after years of silent screenings. From the earliest public performances in 1896, films were accompanied by music and sound effects. These were produced by a single pianist, a small band, or a full-scale orchestra; large movie theaters could buy sound-effects machines. Research into sound that was reproduced at exactly the same time as the pictures - called "synchronized sound" - began soon after the very first films were shown. With synchronized sound, characters on the movie screen could sing and speak. As early as 1896, the newly invented gramophone, which played a large disc carrying music and dialogue, was used as a sound system. The biggest disadvantage was that the sound and pictures could become unsynchronized if, for example, the gramophone needle jumped or if the speed of the projector changed. This system was only effective for a single song or dialogue sequence.



In the "sound-on-film" system, sounds were recorded as a series of marks on celluloid which could be read by an optical sensor. These signals would be placed on the film alongside the image, guaranteeing synchronization. Short feature films were produced in this way as early as 1922. This system eventually brought us "talking pictures."

 

1. The passage is mainly about the

(A) history of silent movies

(B) disadvantages of synchronized sound

(C) development of sound with movies

(D) research into sound reproduction

2. According to the passage, films using sound effects were screened

(A) before 1896

(B) as early as 1896

(C) as early as 1922

(D) in 1927

3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a producer of sound to accompany movies

(A) A jazz singer

(B) A single pianist

(C) A small band

(D) A gramophone

4. According to the passage, gramophones were ineffective because they

(A) got out of synchronization with the picture

(B) were too large for most movie theaters

(C) were newly invented and still had imperfections

(D) changed speeds when the needle jumped

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.

 

1). The strike started three weeks ago. It is expected to end soon.

2). A friend of mine has been arrested. He is alleged to have kicked a policeman.

3). Would you like me to go now?

4). He doesn’t want anybody to know about it.

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие причастия I и II.

 

1). This small country is most farmland. The animals seen most often are cows and sheep.

2). Mary worked round the town looking at the sights and taking photographs.

3). Having done all her shopping, the woman went for a cup of coffee.

4). Not being able to understand English, the man didn’t know what I wanted.

5). Worried by the risk of fire, everyone hurried to get out of the building.

 

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

 

1). You won’t pass your exams unless you work hard.

2). If he spoke more clearly, people would understand him.

3). I wish I had a big garden.

4). If I had known that you had to get up early, I would have woken you up.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

In some rural agricultural societies, the collection of available fuel such as firewood, dung cake, and agricultural waste can take 200 to 300 person-days per year. As well as being time consuming, the typical patterns of collection lead to deforestation, soil erosion, and ecological imbalances. In the future, experts predict that even if food supplies are adequate for rural populations, fuel supplies for domestic use may not be.

In the light of such considerations, a team in India has developed a solar oven for home use. The oven is cheaply constructed, easily operated, and extremely energy efficient. The device consists of an inner and outer metal box, a top cover, and two panes of plain glass. The inner box is painted black to absorb maximum solar radiation. The space between the two boxes is filled with an insulating material, such as rice husks, which are easily available and which, because of their high silicon content, neither attract insects nor rot easily. Other easily available materials for insulation are ground nutshells or coconut shells. An adjustable mirror mounted on one side of the oven box reflects the sunlight into the interior, boosting the temperatures by 15-10 degrees Celsius. This is most useful during the winter when the sun is lower. Inside the oven, a temperature between 80 and 120 degrees Celsius above ambient temperature can be maintained. This is sufficient to cook food gradually but surely. Trials have shown that all typical food dishes can be prepared in this solar device without loss of taste or nutrition.

 

1. This passage is mainly about

(A) deforestation in the rural agricultural societies

(B) use of rice husks in an insulation material

(C) design and use of a solar oven

(D) maintenance of temperature in a solar oven

 

2. All of the following are mentioned as typical fuels in parts of rural agricultural societies EXCEPT

(A) firewood

(B) dung cake

(C) solar power

(D) agricultural waste

 

3. According to the passage, the use of an adjustable mirror increases the oven temperature by

(A) 80-120 degrees Celsius

(B) at least 80 degrees Celsius

(C) up to 30 degrees Celsius

(D) up to 15 degrees Celsius

 

4. According to the passage, the adjustable mirror is most useful

 

(A) at midday

(B) during the winter

(C) when firewood is lacking

(D) to improve taste and nutrition

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 3

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.

 

1). I didn’t expect it to rain.

2). Glasses make him look older.

3). Those two houses belong to the same family. There is said to be a secret tunnel between them.

4). It’s nearly eight o’clock and I’m supposed to be meeting Ann at 8.15.

 

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие причастия I и II.

 

1). There are hundreds of badly damaged houses after the earthquake.

2). Linda was in London for two years working as a tourist guide.

3). I got wet walking home in the rain.

4). Being a foreigner, she needs a visa to stay in Russia.

5). Having spent all our money, we couldn’t afford to stay in a hotel.

 

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

 

1). If my father hadn’t lent me the money, I wouldn’t have been able to buy the car.

2). I wish I could speak English fluently.

3). If I didn’t have to work tomorrow evening, I could meet you.

4). Unless he gets a residents permit, he won’t be able to stay in the USA.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

Many folk cures which have been around for centuries may be more therapeutic than previously suspected. A case in point is that of penicillin. Alexander Fleming did not just randomly choose cheese molds to study when he discovered this very important bacteria-killing substance. Moldy cheese was frequently given to patients as a remedy for illness at one time. Fleming just isolated what it was about the cheese which cured the patients.

In parts of South America, a powder obtained from grinding sugar cane is used for healing infections in wounds and ulcers. This usage may date back to pre-Colombian times. Experiments carried out on several hundred patients indicate that ordinary sugar in high concentrations is lethal to bacteria. Its suction effect eliminates dead cells, and it generates a glasslike layer which protects the wound and ensures healing.

Another example of folk medicine which scientists are investigating is that of Arab fishermen who rub their wounds with a venomous catfish to quicken healing. This catfish excretes a gellike slime which scientists have found to contain antibiotics, a coagulant that helps close injured blood vessels, anti-inflammatory agents, and a chemical that directs production of a gluelike material that aids healing.

It is hoped that by documenting these folk remedies and experimenting to see if results are indeed beneficial, an analysis of the substances can be made, and synthetic substances can be developed for human consumption.

 

1. This passage is mainly about

 

(A) using folk medicines in place of modern medicines

(B) antibiotics in the field of medicine

(C) the validity of folk remedies and their use for advances in modern medicine

(D) isolating antibiotics in cheese, sugar, and slime

 

2. It can be inferred from the passage that Alexander Fleming

 

(A) discovered moldy cheese

(B) isolated infectious patients

(C) suspected medicinal properties of mold

(D) enjoyed eating cheese

 

3. According to the passage,

 

(A) bacteria feed on sugar

(B) sugar kills unhealthy cells

(C) glass is formed from sugar

(D) sugar promotes healing

 

4. The gellike substance which promotes healing comes from

 

(A) catfish bodies

(B) Arab fishermen

(C) coagulants

(D) catfish venom

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.

 

1). You were supposed to clean the windows. Why didn’t you do it?

2). The building is reported to have been badly damaged by fire.

3). Peter persuaded me to apply for the job.

4). My lawyer advised me not to say anything to the police.

 

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие причастия I и II.

 

1). Having travelled a lot, he knows a lot about other countries.

2). The man slipped getting of a bus.

3). I fell asleep watching television.

4). She went out saying she would be back in an hour.

5). Delayed by technical problems, the plane took off one hour late.

 

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

 

1). I won’t call a doctor unless my temperature goes up.

2). Will she go to college if she gets good grades in her exams?

3). If we are lucky we’ll be able to see the whole football match on TV.

4). If you had had breakfast, you wouldn’t be hungry now.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

The use of multiple-choice testing in American society has its beginnings in the idea of a meritocracy, that is, a society where the rulers or elites are chosen not through their wealth or connections but on their ability or merit. This idea can be traced as far back as the ancient Greeks. Even the ancient Chinese created examinations for the purpose of electing government officials. The notion of a society based on merit has always been favored in the United States. This has also been a country where the belief in universal individual opportunity has been greatly admired.

Until the Second World War, however, elite selection through higher education, and the opportunity for ordinary citizens to achieve their goals were separate and unrelated ideas. The introduction of widespread testing which was both reliable and valid meant that both these goals could be pursued together. This opportunity occurred when the United States entered the Second World War. The U.S. Navy decided to test new recruits in order to find which of them were suitable for college education before beginning military service. The eventual aim was for these recruits to be better able to perform higher-level military, tasks.

Because of the large number of people who had to be tested, it was necessary to use a test which could be quickly and reliably administered and scored at several test sites simultaneously. On April 2, 1943, the first mass testing was administered to 325,000 young men. The success of the program meant that educational testing could be performed not just for elite selection but to give opportunity to the large mass of ordinary citizens.

 

1. What is the main topic of the passage?

(A) The idea of a meritocracy

(B) The development of multiple-choice testing

(C) The opportunities for the ordinary citizen

(D) The United States's contribution to the war effort

 

2. Why does the author mention the Greeks and Chinese?

(A) To demonstrate how well-educated ancient people were

(B) To indicate that multiple-choice testing is not new

(C) To show that selection based on merit is not a new idea

(D) To give examples of societies governed by the wealthy and connected

3. According to the passage, before World War II

(A) educational testing was widespread

(B) the military elite was better educated

(C) individual opportunity had been increased

(D) selection and individual opportunity were unconnected

 

4. Which of the following is NOT given as a trait of a multiple-choice test?

(A) Its high level of performance

(B) Its reliability

(C) Its validity

(D) Its ease of administration

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 5

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.

 

1). Jim said the switch was dangerous and warned me not to touch it.

2). The hotel was very bad. I wouldn’t recommend anybody to stay in it.

3). The company is said to be losing a lot of money.

4). The prisoner is thought to have escaped by climbing over a wall.

 

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие причастия I и II.

 

1). Having travelled only a short distance from Heathrow, the pilot decided to turn back.

2). Encouraged by his success, Peter hopes to make football his career.

3). Thinking they might be hungry, I offered them something to eat.

4). Having got up early, I felt pretty tired.

5). The injured man was taken to hospital.

 

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.

 

1). I wish I had learned to play a musical instrument.

2). If Margaret hadn’t been wearing a seat belt, she would have been injured.

3). I’ll send you a postcard if I go to Paris.

4). Don’t phone me unless it’s urgent.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

Diamond value is based on four characteristics: carat, color, clarity, and cut. A diamond's size is measured by carat weight. There are 100 points in a carat and 142 carats in an ounce. Each point above 1 carat is more valuable than each point below 1 carat. Thus, a stone that weighs more than 1 carat is more valuable per point than a stone that is smaller than 1 carat.

The scale used for rating a diamond's color begins with "D," which means the stone is absolutely colorless and therefore most valuable. "E" and "F" are almost colorless. All three are good for investments. A stone rated between "G" and "J" is good for jewelry. After that the stones take on a slightly yellowish color, which gets deeper as the grade declines.

The clarity of a stone is determined by its lack of carbon spots, inner flaws, and surface blemishes. While most of these are invisible to the unaided eye, they do affect the diamond's brilliance. For jewelry, a diamond rated VVS1 (very very slight imperfections) is as close to flawless as one will find. After that the scale goes to VVS2, VS1, VS2, SI1, SI2, II, 12, and so on.

The final characteristic is cut. When shaped (round, oval, emerald, marquise, pear, or heart), the diamond should be faceted so that light is directed into the depths of the prism and then reflected outward again. A well-cut diamond will separate the light into different colors when the light is reflected. Only stones of similar shape should have their reflective qualities compared, as some shapes are more reflective than others. For example, the round shape is the most reflective.

 

1. The passage is mainly about

(A) the cost of diamonds

(B) qualities affecting diamond values

(C) how to judge an expensive diamond

(D) buying diamonds for jewelry

 

2. A stone that has no color at all is rated

(A) A

(B) Z

(C) D

(D) J

 

3. Clarity of a stone

(A) is invisible to the unaided eye

(B) affects the diamond's brilliance

(C) has spots, flaws, and blemishes

(D) is determined by imperfections

 

4. All of the following ratings refer to the clarity of a stone EXCEPT

(A) perfection

(B) very slight imperfection

(C) slight imperfection

(D) imperfection

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 6

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив, причастие I и герундий.

 

1). When I’m tired, I enjoy watching television. It’s relaxing.

2). It was a nice day, so we decided to go for a walk.

3). He seems to have lost weight.

4). It’s a nice day. Does anyone fancy going for a walk?

5). I’m not in a hurry/ I don’t mind waiting.

 

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие обороты с причастием I.

 

1). He hurt his arm playing tennis.

2). Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.

3). Feeling tired, I went to bed early.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие фразовые глаголы.

 

1). He took up writing when he was at college.

2). You’d better do up your jacket. It’s very cold out.

3). I think the baby looks after his father.

4). We have to get away early in the morning to catch the ferry.

5). She wasn’t hungry and only picked at her food.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

People who suffer from excessive drowsiness during the daytime may he victims of a condition known as "narcolepsy." While most people may feel sleepy while watching TV or after eating a meal, narcoleptics may fall asleep at unusual or embarrassing times, They may doze while eating, talking, taking a shower, or even driving a car. Victims can be affected in one of two ways. Most narcoleptics have several sleeping spells during each day with alert periods in between. A minority of others feel drowsy almost all the lime and are alert for only brief intervals.

There are no reliable data showing how many people have narcolepsy. Some estimates put the number as high as 300.000 in the United States alone. The cause of this illness has not been identified, although recent research suggests that the problem may stem from an immune system reacting abnormally to the brain's chemical processes. There is currently no cure tor narcolepsy, so sufferers of this condition can only have their symptoms treated through a combination of counseling and drugs.

 

1. What is the main topic of this passage?

(A) Aspects of narcolepsy

(B) Causes of narcolepsy

(C) Treatment of narcolepsy

(D) Development of narcolepsy

 

2. Narcolepsy is a condition in which people

(A) doze after eating a meal

(B) have unusual brain chemistry

(C) only sleep in the day

(D) doze at unusual times

 

3. A person is most likely to be narcoleptic if he or she falls asleep while

(A) watching a movie

(B) eating at a restaurant

(C) lying on the beach

(D) taking a long car trip

 

4. The passage implies that narcolepsy

(A) is an imaginary problem

(B) can be a serious disorder

(C) is easily cured

(D) is really laziness

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

 

ВАРИАНТ 7

 

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие инфинитив, причастие I и герундий.

 

1). I was interested to hear that Peter has got a new job.

2). I’m trying to sell my car but nobody is interested in buying it.

3). We were prevented from leaving the building.

4). He likes people to be on time.

5). I would like to play tennis today.

 

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие обороты с причастием I.

 

1). Having finished his work, he went home.

2). Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.

3). Being a foreigner, she needs a visa to stay in this country.

 

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие фразовые глаголы.

 

1). The car is being repaired and I find it difficult to do without it.

2). He picked the magazine up from the floor where it had fallen.

3). His problem is that he can’t get his ideas across.

4). If I were you, I’d look up the word in a dictionary.

5). At last there’s some good economic news! They are going to take on a hundred new workers at our local furniture factory.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

A few scientists are dedicated to researching mysterious unclassified beasts which other scientists refuse! To believe exist. While these cryptozoologists keep an open mind about their object of study, they are quick to point to cases in which the skeptics were proved mistaken. For example, the pygmy hippopotamus, once claimed to be extinct, was found to exist in East Africa. The giant squid was dismissed as the product of an overactive imagination until a specimen was washed up on a beach in 1873.

One of the most intriguing mysteries being investigated by cryptozoologists is "Bigfoot," a large hairy humanoid creature which many people claim to have seen in parts of North America. In 1967, a film of Bigfoot was actually taken by an amateur photographer. Some scientists are convinced of Bigfoot's existence, while others argue that Bigfoot is just an elaborate hoax.

The Loch Ness monster provokes similar disagreements among researchers. In this case some scientists argue that while some creature may have been seen, it is probably a type of whale which penetrates the loch when the Ness River floods.


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