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ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF SCOTLAND 2 часть



3). There was nothing to worry about.

4). I wanted to have reminded you of it earlier.

5). You ought to have remembered the date of their marriage.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

A national political struggle is continuing over the issue of protection for the remnants of vast ancient forests that once covered the northwestern areas of the United States. These old forests, called "old growth," contain trees from 200 to 1,200 years old. There are now about 6 million acres of virgin forest in Washington and Oregon, only about one-tenth of what existed before the 1800s. This old-growth area contains some of the most valuable timber in the nation, but its economic worth is also contained in its water, wildlife, scenery, and recreational facilities.

Conservationists want the majority of existing old growth protected from harvesting. They emphasize the vital relationship between old growth and the health of the forest's ecosystem. They cite studies that show that both downed and standing old trees store and release nutrients necessary to younger trees.

 

On the other hand, much of the Northwest's economy is developed around the logging industry. Trees are cut down to make wood products, and many mills are geared for old growth industry. In recent years, 500 acres of old growth have been logged, including trees up to 500 years old and eight feet in diameter. As the U.S. Forest System wrestles with the problem of how much of the forest to save, the harvesting of timber continues. The district office refuses to remove any of the old growth from timber production. The struggle is continuing at the national level, with strong proponents on both sides.

 

1. With what topic is this passage mainly concerned?

(A) ancient forests in the northwestern United States

(B) a dilemma concerning timber

(C) protecting trees from being harvested

(D) the wood-based economy of the Northwest



 

2. Before the 1800s

(A) there were 6 million trees

(B) old growth was not cut down

(C) the trees had more economic value

(D) there were more virgin forests

 

3. According to the information in this passage, conservationists would most likely agree that

(A) old-growth trees are not necessary for the health of the forest

(B) fallen trees should not be taken away

(C) most of the old-growth trees do not need protection

(D) young trees should not be logged

 

4. According to the passage, young trees gain nutrients from

(A) wildlife

(B) conservationists

(C) old trees

(D) wood products

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 5

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). Why … (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?

2). Why … (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?

3). The company is not independent. It … (own) by a much larger company.

4). I saw an accident last night. Somebody … (call) an ambulance but nobody … (injure) so the ambulance … (not/need).

5). Where … (there photographs/take)? In London? … (you/take) them?

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.



 

1). The car we hired broke down after a few miles.

2). We stayed at a hotel Tom recommended to us.

3). Are these the keys you were looking for?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). The government made companies hold down wage increases.

2). Everyone was made to take the exam.

3). I red the story the second time to remember the script better.

4). The boy is clever enough to solve this problem.

5). According to the schedule the plane was to have landed long ago.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

Bees are insects that live in almost every part of the world except the northernmost and southernmost sections. There are 10,000 species, or kinds, of bees. One species is the honeybee, which is the only bee that produces honey and wax. Humans use the wax in making candles, lipsticks, and other products. We use the honey they produce as a food.

Bees are truly amazing because while they are gathering the nectar and pollen with which they make honey, they are helping to fertilize the flowers on which they land. Many fruits and vegetables would not survive if bees did not carry the pollen from blossom to blossom. The worker bee carries nectar to the hive in a special stomach called a honey stomach.

The hive is a nest with storage space for honey. Other workers make some beeswax and shape it into a "honeycomb," which is a mass of six-sided compartments, or cells, and which is waterproof. The queen lays eggs in completed cells. As the workers build more cells, the queen lays more eggs.

All workers, like the queen, are female, but are smaller than the queen. The male honeybees are called drones; they do no work and cannot sting. They are developed from unfertilized eggs, and their only job is to impregnate a queen. The queen must be fertilized in order to lay worker eggs. During the season in which less honey is available, and the drone is of no further use, the workers block the drones from eating the honey so that they will starve to death.

 

1. Which of the following is the best title for this reading?

(A) The Many Species of Bees

(B) The Useless Drone

(C) The Honeybee—Its Characteristics and Usefulness

(D) Making Honey

 

2. Which of the following is correct about the drones?

(A) They collect less honey than the workers.

(B) Their only purpose is to mate with the queen.

(C) They come from eggs that have been fertilized by other drones.

(D) They can be male or female.

 

3. In what way does the reading imply that bees are useful in nаtuге?

(A) They pollinate fruit and vegetable plants.

(B) They make marvelous creations from wax.

(C) They kill the dangerous drones.

(D) They create storage spaces.

 

4. All of the following are characteristics of a honeycomb EXCEPT

(A) it contains hexagonal sections

(B) it is made of honey

(C) it is made of wax

(D) it is impermeable

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 6

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). Why … Bob ... (resign) from his job? Didn’t he enjoy it?

2). Bill …(offer) a new job but he refused.

3). The men … (pay) 500 pounds to do the work.

4). I saw an accident last night. Somebody … (call) an ambulance but nobody … (injure) so the ambulance … (not/need).

5). Ann … (like) by everybody.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). The coach we were going by to Europe broke down near the border.

2). They stayed at a hotel their travel agent recommended to them.

3). Is this the book you were looking for?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). The government is expected to make companies hold down wage increases.

2). Many employees were made to take early retirement.

Mozart is said to be the most famous Austrian composer.

3). The boy opened the window to air the room.

4). According to the schedule the train was to have arrived an hour ago.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

In 1877, to celebrate the centennial anniversary of America’s independence from England, the French government presented the United States with a colossal statue that has come to be one of the most beloved symbols of America. The gift was presented in honor of the alliance between France and America during the Revolutionary War. The formal name of the figure is Liberty Enlightening the World, but it is almost universally known as the Statue of Liberty.

Since the French government donated the money for the project, French sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi and engineer Gustav Eiffel were put in charge of the design. The massive structure was assembled in Paris, where it was put on exhibition before being dismantled, then shipped to New York and finally reassembled on Bedloe Island, which was later renamed Liberty Island.

The statue is made of thin copper sheets, each just a tenth of an inch thick. They are riveted to an iron framework, which forms the shape of the statue. The statue itself is 151 feet tall, but it stands on top of a large pedestal made of concrete and granite, which was designed by American architect Richard Morris Hunt. The total height of the statue and the pedestal is 305 feet, making it a spectacular sight on the New York City skyline, visible from miles away. The statue holds a torch in one hand, which is meant to symbolize liberty. In the other hand, the figure clutches a book, upon which the date of America’s declaration of independence, July 4, 1776, is marked.

Due to the difficulty and expense of working on an isolated island, construction took nearly a decade. After the statue was completed in 1886, President Grover Cleveland came to New York to preside over the dedication ceremony. After the unveiling, the Statue of Liberty became a beacon of freedom for both newly arriving immigrants and longtime city dwellers. But after decades of exposure to pollution and harsh ocean air, time had taken its toll on Lady Liberty, as the statue is sometimes called. A full century after the dedication, a restoration effort was launched to repair damage from age and the elements. Funded by both the French and American governments, the renovation of the statue required enclosing it in a scaffold while workers renovated the copper sheeting and replaced the glass torch with a gold one. The newly restored monument was unveiled a few years later, as vibrant and inspiring as ever.

 

1. Which two countries formed an alliance during the Revolutionary War?

(A) France and Britain

(B) Britain and the United States

(C) France and the United States

(D) Britain and New York

2. Why were French artists responsible for designing the monument?

(A) because the French are the best artists

(B) because the French were funding the project

(C) because America did not want the monument

(D) because France owed money to the American government

 

3. Where was the statue first assembled?

(A) Bedloe Island

(B) Liberty Island

(C) New York

(D) Paris

 

4. Which of the following is NOT a name by which the monument is called?

(A) Lady Liberty

(B) Statue of Liberty

(C) Liberty Island

(D) Liberty Enlightening the World

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 7

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). The boat … (sink) quickly but fortunately nobody … (get drowned).

2). Elton John’s parents … (divorce) when he was six. He … (raise) by his maternal grandparents.

3). She was born in London but she … (grow up) in the north of England.

4). While he was on holiday, his flat … (burgle).

5). While he was on holiday, burglars … (break into) his flat.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). Who is the author of the book you are going to read?

2). Some of the people I invited couldn’t come.

3). Have you finished the work you had to do?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). To stay long in the sun is very dangerous for your health.

2). It was typical of him to have completely forgotten about his promise.

3). The weather is expected to be warm tomorrow.

4). I used to drive to work every day, but now I usually go by bike.

5). You ought to have remembered the birthday of your boss.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

In 1972, a century after the first national park in the United States was established at Yellowstone, legislation was passed to create the National Marine Sanctuaries Program.The intent of this legislation was to provide protection to selected coastal habitats similar. To that existing for land areas designated as national parks. The designation of an areas a marine sanctuary indicates that it is a protected area, just as a national park is. People are permitted to visit and observe there, but living organisms and their environments may not be harmed or removed.

The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, a branch of the United States Department of Commerce. Initially, 70 sites were proposed as candidates for sanctuary status. Two and a half decades later, only fifteen sanctuaries had been designated, with half of these established after 1978. They range in size from the very small (less than I square kilometer) Fagatele BayNational Marine Sanctuary in American Samoa to the Monterey Bay National MarineSanctuary in California, extending over 15,744 square kilometers.

The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is a crucial part of new management practices in which whole communities of species, and not just individual species, are offered some degree of protection from habitat degradation and overexploitation. Only in this way can a reasonable degree of marine species diversity be maintained in a setting that also maintains the natural interrelationships that exist among these species. Several other types of marine protected areas exist in the United States and other countries. The National Estuarine Research Reserve System, managed by the United States government, includes 23 designated and protected estuaries. Outside the United States, marine protected-area programs exist as marine parks, reserves, and preserves.

Over 100 designated areas exist around the periphery of the Caribbean Sea. Others range from the well-known Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park to lesser-known parks in countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, where tourism is placing growing pressures on fragile coral reef systems. As state, national, and international agencies come to recognize the importance of conserving marine biodiversity, marine projected areas. whether as sanctuaries, parks, or estuarine reserves, will play an increasingly important role in preserving that diversity.

 

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) Differences among marine parks, sanctuaries, and reserves

(B) Various marine conservation programs

(C) International agreements on coastal protection

(D) Similarities between land and sea protected environments

 

2. The passage mentions the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary as anexample of a sanctuary that

(A) is not well know

(B) covers a large area

(C) is smaller than the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary

(D) was not originally proposed for sanctuary status

 

3. According to the passage, when was the National Marine Sanctuaries Program established?

(A) Before 1972

(B) After 1987

(C) One hundred years before national parks were established

(D) One hundred years after Yellowstone National Park was established

 

4. According to the passage, all of the following are achievements of the National Marine Sanctuaries Program EXCEPT

(A) the discovery of several new marine organisms

(B) the preservation of connections between individual marine species

(C) the protection of coastal habitats

(D) the establishment of areas where the publiccan observe marine life

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 8

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). The situation is serious. Something must … (do) before it’s too late.

2). The room … (clean).

3). Somebody … (do) the washing up.

4). The concert … (postpone).

5). The administration of the concert hall … (postpone) the concert.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). He is the actor I told you about.

2). The people we wanted to talk to about the job didn’t come.

3). Have you sent the letter of application we were talking about yesterday?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). To know the history of your country, you have read a lot.

2). It was typical of her to have completely forgotten to give me a ring.

3). He is said to be the most talented young musician in the country.

4). The company is reported to have lost a lot of money in the credit crunch.

5). You ought to have remembered the appointment time.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

From their inception, most rural neighborhoods in colonial North America included at least one carpenter, joiner, sawyer, and cooper in woodworking; a weaver and a tailor for clothing production; a tanner, currier, and cordwainer (shoemaker) for fabricating leather objects; and a blacksmith for metalwork, Where stone was the local building material, a mason was sure to appear on the list of people who paid taxes. With only an apprentice as an assistant, the rural artisan provided the neighborhood with common goods from furniture to shoes to farm equipment in exchange for cash or for “goods in kind” from the customer’s field, pasture, or dairy. Sometimes artisans transformed material provided by the customer: wove cloth of yam spun at the farm from the wool of the family sheep; made chairs or tables from wood cut in the customer’s own woodlot; produced shoes or leather breeches from cow, deer, or sheepskin tanned on the farm.

Like their farming neighbors, rural artisans were part of an economy seen, by one historian, as “an orchestra conducted by nature.” Some tasks could not be done in the winter, other had to be put off during harvest time, and still others waited on raw materials that were only produced seasonally. As the days grew shorter, shop hours kept pace, since few artisans could afford enough artificial light to continue work when the Sun went down. To the best of their ability, colonial artisans tried to keep their shops as efficient as possible and to regularize their schedules and methods of production for the best return on their investment in time, tools, and materials, While it is pleasant to imagine a woodworker, for example, carefully matching lumber, joining a chest together without resort to nails or glue, and applying all thought and energy to carving beautiful designs on the finished piece, the time required was not justified unless the customer was willing to pay extra for the quality—and few in rural areas were, Artisans, therefore, often found it necessary to employ as many shortcuts and economics as possible while still producing satisfactory products.

1. What aspect of rural colonial North America does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) Farming practices

(B) The work of artisans

(C) The character of rural neighborhoods

(D) Types of furniture that were popular

 

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the use of artificial light in colonial times was

(A) especially helpful to woodworkers

(B) popular in rural areas

(C) continuous in winter

(D) expensive

 

3. Why did colonial artisans want to “regularize their schedules their schedules”?

(A) To enable them to produce high quality products

(B) To enable them to duplicate an item many times

(C) To impress their customers

(D) To keep expenses low

 

4. It can inferred that the artisans referred to in the passage usually produced products that were

(A) simple

(B) delicate

(C) beautifully decorated

(D) exceptionally long-lasting

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №3

 

ВАРИАНТ 9

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). I didn’t realize that our conversation…(record).

2). I didn’t realize that somebody … (record) our conversation.

4). They … (build) a new ring road round the city.

5). A new ring road … (build) round the city.

6). All flights … (cancel) because of fog.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). What’s the name of the girl you are going to marry?

2). The train he was planning to go by was cancelled.

3). Did you visit the place you have been dreaming of when you were in London?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). To say such a thing to a boss would be reckless.

2). He was lucky to have been rescued from a burning house.

3). There was nothing for him to worry about.

4). I wanted my colleague to have reminded me about the meeting.

5). You ought to have remembered the date of your parents’ marriage.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

Cities develop as a result of functions that they can perform. Some functions result directly from the ingenuity of the citizenry, but most functions result from the needs of the local area and of the surrounding hinterland (the region that supplies goods to the city and to which the city furnishes services and other goods). Geographers often make a distinction between the situation and the site of a city. Situation refers to the general position in relation to the surrounding region, whereas site involves physical characteristics of the specific location. Situation is normally much more important to the continuing prosperity of a city. if a city is well situated in regard to its hinterland, its development is much more likely to continue. Chicago, for example, possesses an almost unparalleled situation: it is located at the southern end of a huge lake that forces east-west transportation lines to be compressed into its vicinity, and at a meeting of significant land and water transport routes. It also overlooks what is one of the world’s finest large farming regions. These factors ensured that Chicago would become a great city regardless of the disadvantageous characteristics of the available site, such as being prone to flooding during thunderstorm activity.

Similarly, it can be argued that much of New York City’s importance stems from its early and continuing advantage of situation. Philadelphia and Boston both originated at about the same time as New York and shared New York’s location at the western end of one of the world’s most important oceanic trade routes, but only New York possesses an easy-access functional connection (the Hudson-Mohawk lowland) to the vast Midwestern hinterland. This account does not alone explain New York’s primacy, but it does include several important factors. Among the many aspects of situation that help to explain why some cities grow and others do not, original location on a navigable waterway seems particularly applicable. Of course, such characteristic as slope, drainage, power resources, river crossings, coastal shapes, and other physical characteristics help to determine city location, but such factors are normally more significant in early stages of city development than later.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The development of trade routes through United States cities

(B) Contrasts in settlement patterns in United States

(C) Historical differences among three large United States cities

(D) The importance of geographical situation in the growth of United States cities

2. The passage suggests that a geographer would consider a city’s soil type part of its

(A) hinterland

(B) situation

(C) site

(D) function

3. According to the passage, a city’s situation is more important than its site in regard to the city’s

(A) long-term growth and prosperity

(B) ability to protect its citizenry

(C) possession of favorable weather conditions

(D) need to import food supplies

4. According to the passage, Philadelphia and Boston are similar to New York City in

(A) size of population

(B) age

(C) site

(D) availability of rail transportation

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 10

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). The wooden house … (burn down) quickly but fortunately all the dwellers … (rescue).

2). He and his sister … (bring) up by their grandparents.

3). Ben was born in London but I … (grow) up in Scotland.

4). While I was on holiday, my passport … (steal) from my hotel room.

4). While I was on holiday, my passport … (disappear) from my hotel room.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). What’s the name of the hotel you stayed at in Prague?

2). Some of the people I wanted to thank for collaboration couldn’t attend the meeting.

4). Have you finished the work you were supposed to do?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). To be healthy you don’t have to smoke at all.

2). It was typical of him to have come to the party without invitation.

3). She had to work hard in order to pass her exam well.

4). I wanted you to have reminded me of it earlier.

5). You ought to have remembered the time of their arrival.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

The tern “art deco” has come to encompass three distinct but related design trends of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequently referred to as “zigzag moderne” –the exotically ornamental style of such skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building in New York City and related structures such as the Paramount Theater in Oakland, California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylized ornamentation of zigzags, angular patterns, abstracted plant and animal motifs, sunbursts, astrological imagery, formalized fountains, and related themes that were applied in mosaic relief. and mural form to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of these buildings were shaped in the ziggurat form, a design resembling an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower that recedes in progressively smaller stages to the summit, creating a staircase-like effect. The second manifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlined moderne” style—a Futuristic-looking aerodynamic style of rounded corners and horizontal bands known as “speed stripes.” In architecture, these elements were frequently accompanied by round windows, extensive use of glass block, and flat rooftops.


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