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ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF SCOTLAND 1 часть



Scotland has a western style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north east of Scotland.

De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland and the sixth largest financial centre in Europe in terms of funds under management, behind London, Paris, Frankfurt, Zurich and Amsterdam, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group (owners of the Halifax Bank of Scotland); the Government owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life.

In 2005, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were provisionally estimated to be £17.5 billion, of which 70 % (£12.2 billion) were attributable to manufacturing. Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France and Spain constitute the country's major export markets. Scotland's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £137.5 billion for the calendar year 2009. Despite only making up 8.4 % of the UK population, Scotland generates 9.6 % of UK revenues and only receives 9.3% back from Westminster.

Tourism is widely recognised as a key contributor to the Scottish economy. A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre stated that tourism accounted for up to 5 % of GDP and 7.5 % of employment.

As of December 2012, the unemployment rate in Scotland stood at 7.6 %, below the UK average of 7.8 %.

Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks still issue their own Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The current value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation is £3.5 billion.



 

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы по-русски или по-английски:

 

1). What is the Scottish economy based on?

2). What does the term de-industrialisation mean?

3). How many banks in the UK have the right to issue money and what are they?

 

5. Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 2

 

ВАРИАНТ 8

 

1. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильную форму глагола-сказуемого, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). I haven’t read/didn’t read a newspaper yesterday.

2). We had been playing/played tennis for half an hour when it started/had started to rain.

3). I’m having/I’ll have a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.

4). It was very cold, so I put/had put on my coat.

 

2. Перепишите предложения, поставив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). I …my old car. (to sell)

2). I …my old car two months ago. (to sell)

3). Ann isn’t free on Saturday. She ….(to work)

4). She is too tired to walk home. I think she … a taxi. (to take)

 

3. Перепишите предложения, употребив глагол в соответ-ствующей форме действительного или страдательного залогов, и переведите предложения на русский язык.



 

1). …you ever ….by a dog? (to bite)

2). They … me the money. (to give)

3). I … the money. (to give)

4). I … the job but I refused it. (to offer)

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык следующий текст, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

ECONOMY OF ENGLAND

England's economy is one of the largest in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £22,907. Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The official currency in England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. Taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe—as of 2009 the basic rate of personal tax is 20 % on taxable income up to £37,400, and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.

The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy, which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the United Kingdom's main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England's financial centre—100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations are based in London. London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2009[update] is also the largest in the world.

The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson, is the United Kingdom's central bank. Originally established as private banker to the Government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. The Bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved responsibility to the Bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy. Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, cars—although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Rolls-Royce, Lotus, Jaguar and Bentley—crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages. Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60 % of food needs with only 2 % of the labour force. Two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops.

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы по-русски или по-английски:

 

1). What is the English economy based on?

2). What happened to English manufacture in the 1970s?

3). How many banks in England have the right to issue money and what are they?

 

5. Письменно переведите на русский язык 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста.

 

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №2

 

ВАРИАНТ 9

 

1. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильную форму глагола-сказуемого, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). Shakespeare has written/wrote many plays.

2). It hasn’t rained/didn’t rain this week.

3). My train will leave/leaves at 6 tomorrow morning.

4). It was very warm, so I took/had taken off my coat.

 

2. Перепишите предложения, поставив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). She …at work yesterday. (to be)

2). I …a new car in two months time. (to buy)

3). Ann… a new job for six months. (to look for)

4). I …Sue in town yesterday but she …me. (to see)

 

3. Перепишите предложения, употребив глагол в соответ-ствующей форме действительного или страдательного залогов, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). …you ever ….by an aircraft? (to travel)

2). They … a new block-of-flats near my house at the moment. (to build)

3). The new block-of-flats near my house…by the end of the year. (to build)

4). He … redundant last December. (to make)

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык следующий текст, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

TRANSPORT IN MANCHESTER

Manchester and North West England are served by Manchester Airport. The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom and the largest outside the London region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than from London Heathrow). A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. Despite being a regional airport, the airport has the highest rating available, "Category 10" encompassing an elite group of airports which are able to handle "Code F" aircraft including the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8. From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the only airport other than Heathrow Airport to operate the Airbus A380 in the United Kingdom.

Manchester is well served by the rail network. In terms of passengers, Manchester Piccadilly was the busiest English railway station outside London in 2007/08 and the third busiest in 2008/09. The city's other main central railway station, Manchester Victoria, had many more platforms before the arrival of the Manchester Arena than it now has. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first passenger railway in the world. Manchester is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network with two mainline stations: Piccadilly and Victoria. In October 2007, the government announced that a feasibility study had been ordered into increasing the capacity at Piccadilly Station and turning Manchester into the rail hub of the north. Future improvements include a £560 million Northern Hub scheme to alleviate bottlenecks on Manchester's rail routes and, if constructed, the High Speed 2 link to London.

Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines. The 23 mi (37 km)-network consists of three lines with 37 stations (including five on-street tram stops in the centre). An expansion programme is underway which will create four new lines to add to the current three and will be at least 99 stops, 62 more than in 2010. Upon completion Manchester will have the largest tram system in the UK.

The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city. Stagecoach Manchester is the Stagecoach Group's largest subsidiary and operates around 690 buses and serves 87 million passengers a year. One of its services is the 192 bus service, the busiest bus route in the UK.

 

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы по-русски или по-английски:

 

1). Why has Manchester Airport got “Category 10”?

2). What was the first passenger railway in the world?

3). What is Metrolink?

 

5. Письменно переведите на русский язык 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 2

 

ВАРИАНТ 10

 

1. Перепишите предложения, выбрав правильную форму глагола-сказуемого, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). This time last year I lived/was living in Holland.

2). Ann watched/was watching television when the phone rang/was ringing.

3). His plane will arrive/arrives at 6 tomorrow morning.

4). This time tomorrow he will be flying/will fly to Amsterdam.

 

2. Перепишите предложения, поставив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). Mozart…more than 600 pieces of music. (to write)

2). They …a new house in two months time. (to buy)

3). Andrew… a MBA course for six months already. (to do)

4). I …the letter but I …it yet. (to write/to poster)

3. Перепишите предложения, употребив глагол в соответ-ствующей форме действительного или страдательного залогов, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). Two hundred people … by the company (to employ)

2). The company…two hundred people. (to employ)

3). My grandfather… this house. (to build)

4). This house… by my grandfather. (to build)

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык следующий текст, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

ECONOMY OF MANCHESTER

Manchester was at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, and was a leading centre for manufacturing and textiles industries. The city's economy is now largely service-based and, as of 2007, is the fastest growing in the UK, with inward investment second only to the capital. Manchester's State of the City Report identifies financial and professional services, life science industries, creative, cultural and media, manufacturing and communications as major activities. The city was ranked in 2010 as the second-best place to do business in the UK and the twelfth best in Europe.

A 2008 report by PriceWaterhouseCoopers showed that Manchester had the third largest city economy in the United Kingdom and the 74th largest in the world, with a GDP of $85bn. Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London with a quarterly average office uptake of approximately 230,000 square ft - more than the quarterly office uptake of Leeds, Liverpool and Newcastle combined and nearly 80,000 square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham. The wider Greater Manchester region which Manchester is at the heart of represents over £42 billion of the UK GVA, the third largest of any English county and more than Wales or North East England.

Manchester is a focus for businesses which serve local, regional and international markets. It is the fifth-largest financial centre in the United Kingdom outside London with more than 96,300 people employed in banking, finance and insurance. The Co-operative Group, the world's largest consumer-owned business, is based in Manchester and is one of the city's biggest employers. Legal, accounting, management consultancy and other professional and technical services exist in Manchester.

Manchester is the commercial, educational and cultural focus for North West England, and in 2010 was ranked as the fourth biggest central retail area in the UK by sales. The city centre retail area contains shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques such as Vivienne Westwood, Emporio Armani, DKNY, Harvey Nichols, Boodles, Chanel and Hermès.

 

Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы по-русски или по-английски:

 

1). Why is Ivanovo sometimes called Russian Manchester?

2). What are the key sectors of Manchester economy today?

3). What is the amount of people employed banking, finance and insurance?

 

5. Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). Many accidents … (cause) by dangerous driving.

2). Cheese … (make) from milk.

3). The roof of the building … (damage) in a storm in a few days ago.

3). There’s no need to leave a tip. Service … (include) in the bill.

4). You … (invite) to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). Have you found the keys you lost?

2). The people we met at the party were very friendly.

3). The people I talked to were his parents.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). To know the map well means to be able to show any country or town on it.

2). This is just the man to be reckoned with.

3). He had to work hard in order to pass his exam well.

4). I hate to bother you, but the man is still waiting to be given a definite answer.

5). We intended to have returned by the end of the month.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

DEEP-SEA DIVING HAZARDS

One of the major hazards for deep-sea divers is the "bends." This condition is caused by gas bubbles forming in the bloodstream if the diver ascends too rapidly. The reason for this condition has to do with the saturation and desaturation of body tissues with various gases. At increasingly greater depths, the diver breathes air at higher pressures. This results in an increased quantity of air being dissolved in the bloodstream. Different body tissues are saturated with different gases from the air at different rates. When the diver ascends, oxygen is used by the body tissues, carbon dioxide is released quickly, and nitrogen remains. The nitrogen needs to be released gradually from the bloodstream and body tissues. If nitrogen is subjected to a too rapid pressure reduction, it forms gas bubbles in the blood vessels. The bubbles become trapped in the capillaries. This prevents blood and oxygen from supplying necessary nutrients to body tissues, which consequently begin to die.

Saturation and desaturation are affected by various factors such as the depth, length of time, and amount of exertion underwater. There are other factors that a diver must take into account when determining a safe ascent rale. These include the diver's sex and body build, the number of dives undertaken within the previous 12 hours, the time spent at the dive location before the dive, and the composition of the respiration gas.

 

1. The passage is mainly about

(A) how to calculate a safe depth when diving

(B) how to determine saturation and desaturation rates

(C) instructions for diving safely

(D) the factors causing the bends in divers

2. According to the passage, gas bubbles

(A) trap the capillaries

(B) are gradually released from the tissues and bloodstream

(C) block the supply of nutrients to body tissues

(D) are formed from compressed air

 

3. According to the passage, the bends

(A) is the major diving hazard

(B) reduces pressure in the bloodstream

(C) is a condition caused by diving too quickly

(D) is a direct result of dying body tissues

 

4. Which of the following does NOT affect the desaturation of body tissues?

(A) The location of the dive

(B) The number of previous dives

(C) The composition of the gas being used

(D) The amount of activity underwater

 

5. Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). A cinema is a place where films … (show).

2). In the United States, elections for President …(hold) every four years.

3). Originally the book … (write) in Spanish and a few years ago it … (translate) into English.

4). We were driving along quite fast but we … (overtake) by lots of other cars.

5). All flights … (cancel) because of fog.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). What have you done with the money I gave you?

2). It was the worst film I’ve ever seen.

3). They give their children everything they want.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). The idea was too complicated to be express in just one paragraph.

2). The man appears to know practically all European languages.

3). It will take you ten minutes to get to the station by bus.

4). Here are some instructions to be followed.

5). We must hurry so as not to be late.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

WATER SCARCITY

Water scarcity is fast becoming one of the major limiting factors in world crop production. In many areas, poor agricultural practices have led to increasing desertification and the loss of formerly arable lands. Consequently, those plant species that are well adapted to survival in dry climates are being looked at for an answer in developing more efficient crops to grow on marginally arable lands.

Plants use several mechanisms to ensure their survival in desert environments. Some involve purely mechanical and physical adaptations, such as the shape of the plant's surface, smaller leaf size, and extensive root systems. Some of the adaptations are related to chemical mechanisms. Many plants, such as cacti, have internal gums and mucilages which give them water-retaining properties. Another chemical mechanism is that of the epicuticular wax layer. This wax layer acts as an impervious cover to protect the plant. It prevents excessive loss of internal moisture. It also protects the plant from external aggression, which can come from inorganic agents such as gases, or organic agents which include bacteria and plant pests.

Researchers have proposed that synthetic waxes with similar protective abilities could be prepared based on knowledge of desert plants. If successfully developed, such a compound could be used to greatly increase a plant's ability to maintain health in such adverse situations as inadequate water supply, limited fertilizer availability, attack by pests, and poor storage after harvesting.

 

1. This passage deals mainly with

(A) desertification

(B) decreasing water supplies

(C) factors limiting crop production

(D) developing efficient plants

 

2. Which of the following is a mechanical or physical mechanism that desert plants use?

(A) The plant's shape

(B) The small root system

(C) The vast leaf size

(D) The high water consumption

 

3. Which is one of the ways in which the epicuticular wax protects the plant?

(A) It helps the plant to avoid excessive moisture intake.

(B) It helps the plant to attack aggressors.

(C) It releases gases against plant pests.

(D) It guards against bacteria.

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 3

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1). It’s a big factory. Five hundred people … (employ) there.

2). Water … (cover) most of the Earth’s surface.

3). Most of the Earth’s surface … (cover) by water.

4). The park gates … (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.

5). The letter … (post) a week ago and it … (arrive) yesterday.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). I gave her all the money I had.

2). I like the dress Ann is wearing.

3). The museum we wanted to visit was closed when we got there.

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). This piano is too heavy to move.

2). I have some letters to write.

3). My father allowed me to use his car.

4). There was no necessity to redo it.

5). She will always find something to worry about.

 

4. Прочитайте и устно переведите следующий текст на русский язык, а затем выполните задания к нему.

 

MOUNT RUSHMORE MONUMENT

 

Every year about two million people visit Mount Rushmore, where the faces of four U.S. presidents were carved in granite by sculptor Gutzon Borglum and his son, the late Lincoln Borglum. The creation of the Mount Rushmore monument took 14 years - from 1927 to 1941 - and nearly a million dollars. These were times when money was difficult to come by and many people were jobless. To move the more than 400,000 tons of rock, Borgium hired laid-off workers from the closed-down mines in the Black Hills area. He taught these men to dynamite, drill, carve, and finish the granite as they were hanging in midair in his specially devised chairs, which had many safety features. Borglum was proud of the fact that no workers were killed or severely injured during the years of blasting and carving.

During the carving, many changes in the original design had to be made to keep the carved heads free of large fissures that were uncovered, However, not all the cracks could be avoided, so Borglum concocted a mixture of granite dust, white lead, and linseed oil to fill them.

Every winter, water from melting snows gets into the fissures and expands as it freezes, making the fissures bigger. Consequently, every autumn maintenance work is done to refill the cracks. The repairers swing out in space over a 500-foot drop and fix the monument with the same mixture that Borglum used to preserve this national monument for future generations.

 

1. This passage is mainly about

(A) the visitors to the Mount Rushmore monument

(B) the faces at the Mount Rushmore monument

(C) the sculptor of the Mount Rushmore monument

(D) the creation of the Mount Rushmore monument

 

2. According to the passage, Borglum's son

(A) is dead

(B) was a president

(C) did maintenance work

(D) spent a million dollars

 

3. The men who Borglum hired were

(A) trained sculptors

(B) laid-off stone masons

(C) Black Hills volunteers

(D) unemployed miners

 

4. Borglum's mixture for filling cracks was

(A) very expensive

(B) bought at the Black Hills mines

(C) invented by the sculptor himself

(D) uncovered during carving

 

Письменно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

 

1. Перепишите следующие предложения, раскрыв скобки и употребив глагол в скобках в правильной видовременной форме действительного или страдательного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1) The boat … (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody … (rescue).

2). Ron’s parent … (die) when he was young. He and his sister … (bring) up by their grandparents.

3). I was born in London but I … (grow) up in the north of England.

4). While I was on holiday, my camera … (steal) from my hotel room.

5). While I was on holiday, my camera … (disappear) from my hotel room.

 

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений.

 

1). What’s the name of the film you are going to see?

2). Some of the people I invited couldn’t come.

3). Have you finished the work you had to do?

 

3. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обратив внимание на различные функции инфинитива.

 

1). To say such a thing to a child would be ridiculous.

2). It was typical of him to have completely forgotten about his promise.


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