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· In most cases, English initials are completely replaced by the Russian ones, e.g. FDD (Floppy Disc Drive) – НГМД (Накопитель на Гибких Магнитных Дисках); AROM (Alterable Read Only Memory) – ППЗУ (Программируемое Постоянное Запоминающее Устройство).

· In other cases, they are reformulated into full words, e.g.: API – интерфейс программирования приложений.

· Transliterate or transcribe acronyms that are identical in the two languages: English and Russian. This is the case with most of the modern IT acronyms, e.g. FORTRAN – Фортран; radar – радар, laser – лазер.

· In the case when an abbreviation or acronym has no equivalent in Russian, a translator may give its description: e.g. WIDE (wide-angle infinity display equipment) – широкоугольная система предоставления визуальной информации о воздушной обстановке, которая передается с ЭВМ и предназначается для наземных тренажеров.

· Do not translate some international abbreviations or acronyms. This is a common rule for internet-related acronyms and other terms such as CD ROM, HTML, DVD, IPhone, etc.

· Consult the necessary translation tools which range from hard-copy dictionaries, glossaries etc. to online ones, such as the Acronym Finder (http://www.acronymfinder.com/), which has over 470,000 definitions and, for specifically technical terms, Wiley InterScience Acronym Finder (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/stasa/search.html).

· It is also important to be culturally aware and have background knowledge for understanding and decoding abbreviations and acronyms.Therefore, the translator needs broad and deep background knowledge.



Activity 1. Abbreviate the following units of measurement:

centremetre(s), kilogram, kilometre(s), metre(s), number, ton (weight); gram; watt; kilowatt-hour; byte; kilobyte; megabyte; gigabyte.


Activity 2. Complete the sentences with appropriate abbreviations or acronyms:

1. The _____ is a community of 28 member states established in 1992 by the Maastricht Treaty.

a) EU b) UNICEF c) UK d) NATO

2. It works for children's rights, their survival, development and protection: _______.

a) EU b) UNICEF c) UK d) NATO

3. _______ is a means of sending messages of up to 160 characters (including spaces), so abbreviations are often used.

a) WWW b) SMS c) LAN d) ISP

4. ______ is a constitutional monarchy composed of four countries.

a) EU b) UNICEF c) UK d) NATO

5. My friend Susie has had _______ surgery on her eye.

a) laser b) radar c) sonar d) radio

6. _______ is a set of symptoms and infections caused by the HIV virus.

a) AIDS b) ads c) aid d) AM

7. _________ is an open source information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.

a) WWW b) SMS c) LAN d) ISP

8. ________ is an organization facilitating international police cooperation.

a) CIA b) FBI c) Interpol d) SIS

9. Let's meet there at ________ half past ten - or maybe a quarter to eleven.

a) approx. b) etc. c) enc. d) pm

10. Bob, look at the sky! Is that a cloud or _______ ?

a) EU b) UFO c) UK d) NATO

Activity 3. This scripted online conversation is full of acronyms. Decode the underlined acronyms:

Butterfly3: Hello everybody? How (1) R U?

Kelly114: Hello Butterfly, glad to (2) C U. I sent you a pm, did you recieir it?

Butterfly3: (3) SRY, what does 'recieir' mean? Is it English?

Kelly114: No, it's not (4) LOL, just a typing mistake, I meant: 'receive'

Butterfly3: Ok, (5) THX U

Kelly114: Have you heard from Kidd09 recently?

Sylvain: Hi there! I am fine, and you? I'm a newbie here.

Butterfly3: Welcome then! (6) ASL? Kelly. Nope, he went to the USA, that's the last I heard from him.

Sylvain: I am a 19 year-old boy, I live in London, but I'm French. What about you?

Kelly114: 21, F, Nottingham. To Butterfly: (7) W@?! He's in the USA?! How lucky!

Butterfly3: Yes. Oh, my phone's ringing! (8) BRB

Kelly114: No problem, I'm waiting. To Sylvain: How is it going in London? How do you like England?

Butterfly3: I'm back. Sorry I have to leave you guys. My friend's coming. (9) TTYL.

Kelly114: Ok, I've got to go too. (10) XXs & Oos.

Butterfly3: Bye Kelly and (11) CYA Sylvain

Activity 4. Find as many as possible meanings of the abbreviation “CAT” and translate them.

Activity 5. Decode and translate the following IT terms:

Abbreviation Decoding Translation
1. AROM    
2. CD-ROM    
3. CD-E    
4. CD-R    
5. CD-RW    
6. DVD    
7. FDD    
8. HTML    
9. ROM    
10. LAN    
11. MIS    
12. QBE    
13. QBF    
14. TM    
15. TPM    
16. e-mail    
17. PC    
18. ASCII    



Mark the following statements as True or False [6]:

1. Abbreviations are the same as acronyms.

2. One should never spell out abbreviations in full.

3. Units named after people are abbreviated under special rules.

5. The same abbreviation is used for the singular and plural form of a unit.

6. There should always be a 1,5 blank space between a number and a unit.

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