Fight against computer hackers
Ø 1) Read the headings of the texts 7.24; 7.30 and 7.31, and make a supposition what topic they are devoted to.
Ø 2) Name “the signal words” which help the author to back up the idea of computer security with examples.
Ø 3) Read the text and say whether the questions of losses to the business due to computer breaking are covered in it.
Most companies think hackers would never break into their computer systems and fail to take even the most basic security precautions. Firms wishing to does business on the Internet will have to ensure transactions are absolutely secure in order to win over consumer confidence.
According to one recent survey, authored by Mr. Simple, two thirds of top Irish companies do not have a contingency plan for a breach in computer security. More than half have detected or been infected by a computer virus.
The most important thing managers can do is improve their understanding of what the risks are. Often, a high-tech firewall may be less effective than a thorough review of who has, and should not have, access to the company computer system.
When hackers break into a system, they always try to find the default log-on name and password, and then invent several innocuous-looking log-ons for them to ensure permanent access to the system.
Managers should erase the default log-on once the system is up and running.
While many companies have a general fear of a break-in by hackers - and are unclear how to prevent such an attack - they are in fact more likely to suffer at the hands of unwitting or malevolent insiders.
Analysts in the United States, where the rate of computerisation is far higher than in Europe, say computer security can only become more essential to business as an increasing number of transactions take place over the Internet.
Already, the FBI estimates an annual loss of $7.5 billion as a result of electronic attack. One survey revealed that the US Department of Defense discovered 88 per cent of their computers are penetrable. In 96 per cent of the cases where hackers got in, their intrusions went undetected, according to the report.
In one celebrated case, a Russian computer hacker successfully breached a large number of a major bank’s corporate accounts, stole $400,000, and illegally transferred another $11.6 million.
In 1994, the US Secret Service uncovered a $50 billion telephone card scam in which many accounts of AT&T, MCI and Sprint cardholders were regularly abused.
Companies should undertake some measures to secure for customers sending their credit card information down the phone line. The system would use high-speed telephone lines and firewalls to protect the information in the base, while customers will use a special computer programme to send financial information. The programme encrypts credit card numbers and sends them in separate batches.
There have been cases of people breaking through the SSL 40-bit encryption. But there are easier ways to get credit card numbers.
In some companies there are hacker-turned-corporate advisors whose responsibility is computer security, telling business executives how to avoid being a victim.
Ø 4) Give your own examples to the main ideas expressed in the text.
Ø 5) Write an annotation to the text.
Types of marriage
Ø 1) Read the heading of the text and say whether it is connected with the previous and the following texts.
Ø 2) Read the text and say whether the questions below are covered in it:
a)The type of marriage depends on the country and culture.
b)Statistics on a number of marriages and divorces in the world.
c)Sexual relations outside marriage
The type and functions of marriage vary from culture to culture. In the United States, Europe, and China in the early 21st century, legally sanctioned marriages are monogamous (although some segments of society still sanction polygamy socially, if not legally) and divorce is relatively simple and socially sanctioned. In the West, the prevailing view toward marriage today is that it is based on emotional attachment between the partners and entered into voluntarily.
In the Islamic world, marriage is sanctioned between a man and up to four women. In Imperial China, formal marriage was sanctioned only between a man and a woman, although a man could take several concubines and the children from the union were considered legitimate.
Most societies permit Polygamy, in which a man could have multiple wives; even in such societies however, most men have only one. In such societies, having multiple wives is generally considered a sign of wealth and power. The status of multiple wives has varied from one society to another. In Islamic societies, the different wives were considered equal while in Imperial China, one woman was considered the primary wife while the other women were considered concubines. Among the upper classes, the primary wife was an arranged marriage with an elaborate formal ceremony while the concubines were taken on later with minimal ceremony.
There are also many monogamous societies, where a marriage consists of only two people, a very few polyandrous, where a woman can have multiple husbands. Societies which permit group marriage are extremely rare, but have existed in utopian societies such as the Oneida Community.
However, in the 21st century Western cultures, while bigamy and sexual relations outside marriage are generally socially or legally frowned-upon, divorce and remarriage have been relatively easy to undertake. This has lead to a practice which some have called serial monogamy. In particular, some have argued that the pattern of the rich divorcing their first wives and then taking on a trophy wife is similar to patterns of polygamy in other societies.
Legally sanctioned marriages are generally conducted between heterosexual couples, although there are countries that recognize same-sex marriage, including the Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, and the American state of Massachusetts. Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Germany, France, and the American state of Vermont allow couples to enter legal partnerships, but these partnerships are not considered marriages even if they bestow many of the same legal benefits upon the couple.
Ø 3) Which information from the text is redundant?
Ø 1) Say whether the text heading is connected with the previous and the following texts.
Ø 2) Look through the text and count how many times the keywords from the heading are used in the text.
In many jurisdictions, common-law marriageis a legal provision whereby two people who are eligible to marry, but who do not obtain a legal marriage, are nevertheless considered married under certain conditions. Typically, they are deemed married after living together openly as a married couple under specified conditions for a specified period of time. In other jurisdictions, the couple is required to have actually stated their mutual intent to be presently married. Depending on the jurisdiction, a common-law marriage may provide special benefits, such as filiations and adoption, inheritance, and division of property. In some cases the law will impose detriments upon the couple.
Australia.In Australia the term “de facto marriage” is used to refer to relationships between unmarried men and women who are in effect living as husband and wife for a period of time. Many laws make provision for such relationships, such as social support laws.
Canada.Canadian federal law does not have “common law marriage”, but various federal laws include “common law status,” which automatically takes effect once two people (of any gender) have lived together in a romantic relationship for one full year. Partners may be eligible for various government benefits of married spouses based upon their relationship with the individual who is eligible for some type of family based benefit. As family law varies between provinces, there are differences between the provinces regarding the recognition of common law marriage.
In Ontario, a common law province, the Ontario Family Law Act specifically recognizes common law spouses in sec. 29 dealing with spousal support issues; the requirements are living together for three years or having a child in common and having “cohabitated in a relationship of some permanence.” However, the part that deals with marital property excludes common law spouses as sec. 2 defines spouses as those who are married together or who entered into a void or voidable marriage in good faith. Thus common law partners do not always evenly divide property in a breakup, and the courts have to look to concepts such as the constructive or resulting trust to divide property in an equitable manner between partners. Another difference that distinguishes common law spouses from married partners is that a common law partner can be compelled to testify against his or her partner in a court of law.
In 1999, after the court case M. v. H., the Supreme Court of Canada decided that same-sex partners would also be included in common law relationships. Quebec, which unlike the other provinces has a Civil Code, has never recognized common-law partnership as a kind of marriage. However, many laws in Quebec explicitly apply to common-law partners (called “de facto unions”) as they do to spouses. As in the other provinces, same-sex partners may become common-law spouses in Quebec. A recent amendment to the Civil Code of Quebec recognizes a type of domestic partnership called civil union that is similar to common-law marriage and is likewise available to same-sex partners.
England and Wales.The term “common law marriage” is frequently used in England and Wales, however such a “marriage” is not recognized in law, and it does not confer any rights or obligations on the parties. Genuine (that is, legal) common-law marriage was abolished under the Marriage Act, 1753.
United States.Ten U.S. jurisdictions currently recognize common-law marriages. Where the doctrine is recognized, generally if a couple lives together and is reputedly married, a rebuttable presumption arises that they are husband and wife. This must be proven via a three prong test. The three prongs are as follows:
· They must hold each other out to society as husband and wife. This cannot be inadvertent or unintentional. This must be proved via name change, consistent public address as the spouse, tax records, etc.
· In some states a decree must be signed for an informal marriage to exist. They must agree to be presently married. Agreement to be married in the future, i.e. engagement, is proof that you are not currently married. The agreement is known to the public.
· They cohabitate for a significant period of time. Usually three years at a minimum, this varies as a requirement due to various circumstances, death, etc.
If all three of the prongs are not met a marriage never existed.
Even in those jurisdictions where there is common-law marriage, there is no such thing as a common-law divorce. This means that once a couple is married, whether ceremonially through a wedding or informally through common law, a divorce can only be dissolved through a court order. However, in some jurisdictions there is a statute of limitations on certain types of lawsuits made regarding a common law marriage. Where applicable, after the two parties have separated and lived apart for this time period (possibly 1-2 years) a rebuttable presumption is created that the two never agreed to be, and therefore never were, married.
Ø 3) Do jurisdictions distinguish common law spouses from married partners? In what countries?
Ø 4) Give illustration to the main ideas expressed in the text based on the examples of the country you live in / your neighbour country / the country you have been to.
A DREAM HOUSE
Ø 1) Read the text and say if you have ever had problems similar to the ones mentioned in the text.
(1)You have just bought your dream house - or so you thought - but suddenly everything has started to go wrong. Every time you have a shower, the water seeps through the dining room ceiling. The beautifully polished floorboards in the living room have started to splinter. Deep cracks have begun to appear on the walls and the cupboard doors on the kitchen cabinets have started coming away in your hands.
(2)Or perhaps you’ve soldyour own house, you’re ready to move into your new home and suddenly you discover that the estate agent has disappeared with your deposit, or that you’ve been galumphed.
(3)The experience of buying your dream house has turned into a nightmare. So who can you blame? Where can you turn for help? Or do you simply have to put up with matters as they stand?
(4)There are options available if something goes wrong with your house, depending on the nature of your complaint. There are some guarantee or insurance companies. They may guarantee against any loss of deposit in the event of a builder going bankrupt or into liquidation. They also provide a warranty against water and smoke penetration for a few years after completion and a warranty against major structural defects occurring within a few more years of completion. Banks and building societies require insurance registration on most new homes.
(5)Insurance agencies are to protect members of the public and investigate any allegations, as well as serving their own members. They will try to resolve complaints to the satisfaction. From 10 to 20 per cent of complaints received by an agency have to be sent to a disciplinary committee, which has the power to fine, suspend or expel members. There can also be a compensation fund available in respect of deposits paid to member firms.
(6)Or maybe you have a problem with a solicitor who was charged with the conveyance of your property and who was to ensure that you acquired good title to the property.
(7)The relevant body in this instance is The Law Society, which ensures that members comply with stringent accounts regulations and maintain professional indemnity insurance cover. It also has a compensation fund to protect clients.
(8)If a solicitor has been negligent then he or she will be insured and should compensate you for any damage. If they don’t, you should contact another solicitor on the matter. The Law Society is responsible for the conduct of solicitors in respect of any professional misconduct claims.
(9)You may also have employed an architect, engineer or building surveyor to carry out a full structural survey in advance of buying some property. These will carry out inspections and issue lists of defective or outstanding work.
(10)Mistakes can be made, however, and if you have a complaint in this area then you should check whether or not the specialist employed was a member of an umbrella body such as The Society of Architects Surveyors Engineers & Property Managers.
(11)Members of such organizations hold professional indemnity insurance so that the home buyer is covered in case of error.
Ø 2) Make a list of words which are essential for retelling the text.
Ø 3) Translate paragraphs ¹ 5 and ¹ 6 into Russian paying special attention to the modal verbs.
Ø 4) What’s the role of insurance when buying your dream house?
REASONS FOR CRIME
Ø 1) Read and translate the text into Russian.
There are a lot of crimes in any country now. The crime rate is still rising. It’s difficult to explain crime by only one reason.
First, you can buy weaponsrather easily. Using drugs is one more reason. To buy drugs, people need money, so they try to get it by robbing, committing burglary or even murdering people. Sometimes people commit crimes if they have poor living conditions. They also often break the law at the time of economic crises and mass unemployment.
Another reason is mass media and especially TV and films which show crimes and criminals very often. Young people see killings, beatings, gunfights and take them as an example. That is why the juvenile crime is growing.
Crimes are committed against a person or against property. Theft, burglary, arson, shop-lifting, mugging, vandalism, hijacking, smuggling, pick-pocketing are crimes against property. Murder, kidnapping, terrorism, assassination are crimes against a person. Spy, terrorism, betray, forgery, bribery are crimes against a state.
Ø 2) Name the statements which are true:
a)There is only one reason for crime – lack of money.
b)Drug-trafficking is one of the reasons for crime.
c)At the time of economic crises the number of crimes increases.
d)There are only soap operas and cartoons on TV in all countries.
e)Assassination is a crime against property.
Ø 3) What crime mentioned is the text is the most severe? What punishment can there be for that crime?