The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Ø 1) Look through the text and make a supposition which category of readers this text will be interesting for. Prove your supposition.
Ø 2) Name the paragraphs which give answers to these questions:
a)Where is the headquarters of the FBI located?
b)What is the main goal of the FBI?
c)What are the requirements to the applicants for an FBI agent?
d)How are the FBI agents trained?
e)Who is director of FBI?
f)Since what time did he start reporting to the Director of National Intelligence?
g)How many categories of crime does the FBI deal with?
h)How many branches / departments are there in the FBI?
Ø 3) What do the following verb combinations and verb forms refer to: are appointed; must be confirmed; serve; resign; are fired; is up; is responsible; makes sure; is in charge of; would brief; reports to; had to make sure?
(1)The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency. The FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime. Its motto is “Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity,” corresponding to the FBI initials.
(2)The FBI’s headquarters, the J. Edgar Hoover Building, is located in Washington, D.C. Fifty-six field offices are located in major cities throughout the United States as well as over 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and towns across the country. The FBI is organized into five functional branches and the Office of the Director, which contains most administrative offices. Each branch is managed by an Executive Assistant Director. Each office and division within the branch is managed by an Assistant Director. More than 50 international offices called “legal attachés” are in U.S. embassies worldwide.
(3)The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), complete with its own staff of special agents. The Secret Service provided the Department of Justice 12 Special Agents and these agents became the first agents in the new BOI. Its first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the “White Slave Traffic Act.” The Director of the BOI, J. Edgar Hoover, became the first FBI Director and served for 48 years. After Hoover’s death, legislation was passed limiting the tenure of future FBI Directors to a maximum of ten years.
(4)The FBI’s main goal is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners. The following offences are classified by the FBI as violent crimes, defined as offences involving force or the threat of force: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. The following offences are considered property crimes: burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
(5)FBI Directors are appointed by the President of the United States. They must be confirmed by the United States Senate and serve ten-year terms unless they resign or are fired by the President before their term is up. The FBI director is responsible for the day-to-day operations at the FBI. Along with his deputies, the director makes sure cases and operations are handled correctly. The director also is in charge of making sure the leadership in any one of the FBI field offices are manned with qualified agents. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was passed in the wake of the September 11 attacks, the FBI director would brief the President of the United States on any issues that arise from within the FBI. Since then, the director now reports to the Director of National Intelligence who in turn reports to the President. The FBI Directors had to make sure the FBI got as much training as needed.
(6)In order to apply to become an FBI agent, an applicant must be between the ages of 23 and 37. The applicant must also hold American citizenship, have a clean record, and hold a four-year bachelor’s degree. All FBI employees require a Top Secret security clearance, and in many instances, employees need a higher level, a Top Secret security clearance. In order to get a security clearance, all potential FBI personnel must pass a series of Single Scope Background Investigations, which are conducted by the Office of Personnel Management. Special Agents candidates also have to pass a Physical Fitness Test that includes a 300-meter run, one-minute sit-ups, maximum push-ups, and a 2.4 km run. There is also a polygraph test personnel have to pass, with questions including possible drug use.
(7)After potential special agent candidates are cleared with a Top Secret security clearance and the Form SF-312 non-disclosure agreement is signed, they attend the FBI training facility located on Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia. Candidates spend approximately 21 weeks at the FBI Academy, where they receive over 500 classroom hours and over 1,000 simulated law enforcement hours to train. Upon graduation, new FBI Special Agents are placed all around the country and the world, depending on their areas of expertise. Professional support staff works out of one of the many support buildings the FBI maintains. However, any Agent or Support staff member can be transferred to any location for any length of time if their skills are deemed necessary at one of the FBI field offices or one of the 400 resident agencies the FBI maintains.
Ø 4) Look through the texts you’ve already read and choose the facts on the topic “The FBI Agents.”
7.12 FBI’S INVESTIGATIONS
Ø 1) Before reading the text, exchange the information on the FBI that you have with your group mates.
Ø 2) Read the text and answer the questions:
a)Who began using wiretapping in the FBI?
b)Did the wiretaps used by the FBI violate the Fourth Amendment?
c)What does “the RICO Act” mean?
d)Is the FBI empowered to search a house while the residents are away?
e)What notorious criminals were apprehended by FBI agents during the “War on Crime”?
f)What other Federal agencies does the FBI work in conjunction with?
g)How many law enforcement agencies are there across the country?
J. Edgar Hoover began using wiretapping in the 1920s during Prohibition to arrest bootleggers. A 1927 case in which a bootlegger was caught through telephone tapping went to the United States Supreme Court, which ruled that the FBI could use wiretaps in its investigations and did not violate the Fourth Amendment as unlawful search and seizure as long as the FBI did not break in to a person’s home to complete the tapping.
In response to organized crime, on August 25, 1953, the Top Hoodlum Program was created. It asked all field offices to gather information on mobsters in their territories and to report it regularly to Washington for a centralized collection of intelligence on racketeers. After the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO Act), the FBI’s chief tool against organized crime, took effect, the FBI began investigating the former Prohibition-organized groups, which had become fronts for crime in major cities and even small towns. All of the FBI work was done undercover and from within these organizations using the provisions provided in the RICO Act and these groups were dismantled. The Bureau conducted operations against known organized crime syndicates and families, including those headed by Sam Giancana and John Gotti. The RICO Act is still used today for all organized crime and any individuals that might fall under the Act.
The USA PATRIOT Act increased the powers allotted to the FBI, especially in wiretapping and monitoring of Internet activity. One of the most controversial provisions of the act is the so-called sneak and peek provision, granting the FBI powers to search a house while the residents are away, and not requiring them to notify the residents for several weeks afterwards. Under the PATRIOT Act’s provisions the FBI also resumed inquiring into the library records of those who are suspected of terrorism (something it had supposedly not done since the 1970s).
Information obtained through an FBI investigation is presented to the appropriate U.S. Attorney or Department of Justice official, who decides if prosecution or other action is warranted.
During the “War on Crime” of the 1930s, FBI agents apprehended or killed a number of notorious criminals who carried out kidnappings, robberies, and murders throughout the nation, including John Dillinger, “Baby Face” Nelson, Kate “Ma” Barker, Alvin “Creepy” Karpis, and George “Machine Gun” Kelly.
The FBI often works in conjunction with other Federal agencies, including the U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Customs and Border Protection in seaport and airport security, and the National Transportation Safety Board in investigating airplane crashes and other critical incidents. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is the only other agency with the closest amount of investigative power. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, the FBI maintains a role in most federal criminal investigations.
The Uniform Crime Reports compile data from over 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. They provide detailed data regarding the volume of crimes to include arrest, clearance (or closing a case), and law enforcement officer information. The UCR focuses its data collection on violent crimes, hate crimes, and property crimes. According to the Annual Uniform Crime Report for 2006, violent crime offenses rose by 1.3%, but the number of property crime offenses decreased by 2.9% compared to 2005.
Ø 3) What events do the dates in the text refer to:1920s, 1927, 1930s, 1953, 1970s, 2005, 2006?
Ø 4) Find the terms related to the types of crime in the text.
The September 11 Attacks
Ø 1) What does the title of the text imply?
The September 11 attacks were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanks Ville in rural Pennsylvania after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane. There were no survivors from any of the flights.
2,973 victims and the 19 hijackers died as a result of the attacks. The overwhelming majority of casualties were civilians. In addition, the death of at least one person from lung disease was ruled by a medical examiner to be a result of exposure to dust from the World Trade Center’s collapse.
Al-Qaeda initially planned to fly hijacked jets into nuclear installations rather than the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but it was decided not to attack nuclear power plants “for the moment” because of fears it could “get out of control.”
The New York Police Department (NYPD) sent Emergency Service Units and other police personnel, along with deploying its aviation unit. Once on the scene, the rescue teams did not coordinate efforts, and ended up performing redundant searches for civilians. A total of 411 emergency workers who responded to the scene died as they attempted to rescue people and fight fires.
As conditions deteriorated, the NYPD aviation unit relayed information to police commanders, who issued orders for its personnel to evacuate the towers. With separate command posts set up and incompatible radio communications between the agencies, warnings were not passed along to FDNY commanders.
After the first tower collapsed, FDNY commanders did issue evacuation warnings, however, due to technical difficulties with malfunctioning radio repeater systems, many firefighters never heard the evacuation orders. 9-1-1 dispatchers also received information from callers that was not passed along to commanders on the scene. After months of around-the-clock operations, the World Trade Center site was cleared by the end of May 2002.
Within hours of the attacks, the FBI was able to determine the names and in many cases the personal details of the suspected pilots and hijackers. Mohamed Attar, the ringleader of the 19 hijackers and one of the pilots, died in the attack along with the other hijackers, but his luggage, which did not make the connection from his Portland flight onto Flight 11, contained papers that revealed the identity of all 19 hijackers (all men), and other important clues about their plans, motives, and backgrounds. On the day of the attacks, the National Security Agency intercepted communications that pointed to Osama bin Laden, as did German intelligence agencies. The hijackers were well-educated, mature adults, whose belief systems were fully formed.
The FBI investigation into the attacks, code named operation PENTTBOM, was the largest and most complex investigation in the history of the FBI, involving over 7,000 special agents. The United States government determined that al-Qaeda, headed by Osama bin Laden, bore responsibility for the attacks, with the FBI stating “evidence linking al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable.”
The 9/11 attacks had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the American people. Many police officers and rescue workers elsewhere in the country took leaves of absence to travel to New York City to assist in the process of recovering bodies from the twisted remnants of the Twin Towers.
For the first time in history, all non-emergency civilian aircraft in the United States and several other countries including Canada had to be immediately grounded, stranding tens of thousands of passengers across the world. Any international flights were closed to American airspace by the Federal Aviation Administration.
The NATO council declared that the attacks on the United States were considered an attack on all NATO nations. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the Bush administration announced a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. These goals would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing.
Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks, with the task of providing financial assistance to the survivors of the attacks and to the families of victims. By the deadline for victim’s compensation, September 11, 2003, 2,833 applications had been received from the families of those who were killed.
Numerous countries, including Canada, China, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany, India and Pakistan introduced anti-terrorism legislation and froze the bank accounts of businesses and individuals they suspected of having al-Qaeda ties. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries, including Italy, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines arrested people they labeled terrorist suspects for the stated purpose of breaking up militant cells around the world.
Repairing and replacing damaged infrastructure took billions of dollars. North American air space was closed for several days creating financial problems in the struggling U.S. airline industry. The thousands of tons of toxic debris led to debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers, and some residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown.
In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held around the world. In addition, pictures were placed all over Ground Zero.
The Pentagon Memorial was completed and opened to the public on the seventh anniversary of the attacks, September 11, 2008. It consists of a landscaped park with 184 benches facing the Pentagon. When the Pentagon was repaired in 2001–2002, a private chapel and indoor memorial were included, located at the spot where Flight 77 crashed into the building.
Ø 2) Which of the following sentences may be included into this text?
a)The hijackers redirected the plane toward Washington, D.C.
b)Nuclear installations are thoroughly secured in the USA.
c)Among victims there were nationals of over 90 countries.
d)Most NYPD officers were able to safely evacuate before the buildings collapsed.
e)Within hours of the attack, a substantial search and rescue operation was launched.
f)The abbreviation “the FBI” stands for the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
g)Blood donations across the U.S. saw a surge in the weeks after 9/11.
h)The attacks had a significant economic impact on the United States and world markets.
i)Assassination can also e regarded as an act of terrorism.
Ø 3) Make up an outline of the text in writing.
(EXTRACT FROM “THE FIRM” BY J. GRISHAM)
Ø 1) Make a list of issues covered by this extract.
Ø 2) Find the characteristics of the suspects in the investigation of the case.
Ø 3) What do the following nouns refer to:the slugs; the rope; the steel rod; fibers; prints?
Listeningcarefully and reading intently was Special Agent EricEast, only a ten-year man buta brilliant investigator. Six hours earlierVoyles hadpicked him to lead the investigation.The rest of the team hadbeen selected throughout the morning,and this was the organizational meeting.
East was listening and hearing what he already knew. The investigation could take weeks, probably months. Other than the slugs, nine of them, the rope, and the steel rod used in the tourniquet, there was no evidence. The neighbors in Georgetown had seen nothing; no exceptionally suspicious characters at the Montrose. No prints. No fibers. Nothing. It takes remarkable talent to kill so cleanly, and it takes a lot of money to hire such talent. Voyles was pessimistic about finding the gunmen. They must concentrate on whoever hired them.
Voyles was talking and puffing. “There’s a memo on the table regarding one Nelson Muncie, a millionaire from Jacksonville, Florida, who’s allegedly made threats against Rosenberg. The Florida authorities are convinced Muncie paid a bunch of money to have the rapist and his lawyer killed. The memo covers it. Two of our men talked with Muncie’s lawyer this morning, and were met with great hostility. Muncie is out of the country, according to his lawyer, and of course he has no idea when he will return. I’ve assigned twenty men to investigate him.”
Voyles relit his cigar and looked at a sheet of paper on the table. “Number four is a group called White Resistance, a small group of middle-aged commandos we’ve been watching for about three years. You’ve got a memo. Pretty weak suspect, really. They’d rather throw firebombs and burn crosses. Not a lot of finesse. And, most importantly, not much money. I doubt seriously if they could hire guns as slick as these. But I’ve assigned twenty men anyway.”
Ø 4) Find information on:
a)the leader of the investigation;
b)number of people in the investigation team;
c)place of the crime;
d)the suspects of the crime.
Detectives and their work
Ø 1) Read and translate the sentences in italics into Russian.
In most American police departments, a candidate for detective must have served as a uniformed officer for a period of one to five years before becoming qualified for the position. Prospective British police detectives must have completed two years as a uniformed officer before applying to join the Criminal Investigation Department. In European police systems, most detectives are university graduates who join directly from civilian life without first serving as uniformed officers. In fact, many European police experts cannot understand why British, American and Commonwealth police forces insist on recruiting their detectives from the ranks of uniformed officers, arguing that they do a completely different job and therefore require completely different training, qualifications, qualities and abilities. The opposing argument is that without previous service as a uniformed patrol officer a detective cannot have a great enough command of standard police procedures and problems and will find it difficult to work with uniformed colleagues.
Detectives obtain their position by competitive examination, covering such subjects as:
· principles, practices, and procedures of investigations and interrogation;
· local criminal law and procedures;
· applicable law governing arrests, search and seizures, warrants, and evidence;
· police department records and reports;
· principles, practices and objectives of courtroom testimony;
· police department methods and procedures.
Private detectives are licensed by the state in which they live after passing a competitive examination and a criminal background check. Some states in the USA, such as Maryland, require a period of classroom training as well.
Detectives have a wide variety of techniquesavailable in conducting investigations. However, the majority of cases are solved by interrogation of suspects and witnesses, which takes time. In a policeman’s career as a uniformed officer and as a detective, a detective develops an intuitive sense of the plausibility of suspect and witness accounts. This intuition may fail at times, but usually is reliable.
Besides interrogations, detectives may rely on a network of informants he/she has cultivated over the years. Informants often have connections with persons a detective would not be able to approach formally.
In criminal investigations, once a detective has a suspect or suspects in mind, the next step is to produce evidence that will stand up in a court of law. The best way is to obtain a confessionfrom the suspect, usually in exchange for a plea bargain for a lesser sentence. A detective may lie or otherwise mislead and may psychologically pressure a suspect into confessing, though in the United States a suspect may invoke his/her Miranda rights.
Physical forensic evidencein an investigation may provide leads to closing a case. Examples of physical evidence can be, but are not limited to:
· fingerprinting of objects persons have touched;
· DNA analysis;
· luminal to detect blood stains that have been washed;
· footprints or tire tracks;
· chemical testing for the presence of narcotics or expended gun propellant;
· the exact position of objects at the scene of an investigation.
Many major police departments in a city, county, or state, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, maintain their own forensic laboratories. Detectives may use public and private records to provide background information on a subject. These include:
· fingerprint records. In the United States, the FBI maintains records of people who have committed felonies and some misdemeanors, all persons who have applied for a Federal security clearance, and all persons who have served in the U.S. armed forces;
· records of criminal arrests and convictions;
· photographs (mug shots) of persons arrested;
· motor vehicle records;
· credit card records and bank statements;
· hotel registration cards;
· credit reports;
· answer machine messages.
The finding, collecting, and preservation of physical evidence are the most important phases in a criminal investigation. There is no such thing as a perfect crime, a crime that leaves no traces – there is only the inability to find the evidence. The most valuable evidence may be worthless if inefficiently handled. Physical evidence is of value only if it helps prove a case or clear a suspect.
Ø 2) In the text the writer uses the following phrase: “The most valuable evidence may be worthless if inefficiently handled.” What does it mean?
Ø 3) Indicate the differences between the American, British and European practice of applying for a detective.
Ø 4) What subjects are included in competitive examinations for detectives to get their position?
Ø 1) Read the text and translate it into Russian.
Cross-examination of witnesses is both art and a science. The science may be acquired by study of its basic principles, but the art is acquired by the combination of natural talent and long practice. Many outstanding legal scholars never acquire it, whereas many mediocre students of the law become masters of the art.
Complete success requires a better-than-average understanding of psychology. The examiner must be able to look into the mind and heart of the witness to understand his or her motives, prejudices, interests and character. Good cross-examination never proceeds without a definite purpose and objective on the part of the examiner. Yet, this rule is more observed in the breach than in the judicial practice. A certain amount of showmanship is usually employed by the best examiners.
A jury trial is really drama being written and produced simultaneously. The opinions of jury members and the testimony of witnesses are affected by the moving sweep of emotional forces set in motion by the living drama of which they are a part. The perceptions are sharpened by the clash and conflict, and understanding is often more acute when the intellect is aided by emotion and feeling.
Ø 2) In the text the writer uses the following phrase: “A jury trial is really drama being written and produced simultaneously.” What does the writer mean?
Ø 3) Give synonyms to the following words and word combinations:to acquire; to affect; basic; complete; to look into; an opinion; outstanding; to proceed; purpose; simultaneously.