INTERNATIONAL INTEREST IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Ø 1) Why does the study at the State and Municipal Administration Department attract you? How long have you been studying at this Department? Are you satisfied with the study process? What skills have you gained / lost during your studies?
Ø 2) Read out the facts from the text that relate to the title of the text.
Until World War II there was relatively little exchange among nations of ideas about public administration. In 1910, however, a professional organization, which eventually became the International Institute of Administrative Sciences (HAS), was established. At first its membership consisted principally of scholars and practitioners of administrative law in the countries of continental Europe. By the late 1980s the HAS had a membership from some 70 countries. Its congresses covered all aspects of the field of public administration.
Since World War II international interest in administrative systems has grown, precipitated by the necessity of cooperation during the war, by the formation of international organizations, by the occupation of conquered nations and the administration of economic recovery programs for Europe and the Far East, and by aid programs for developing countries. One by-product of aid programs was a renewed appreciation of how important effective administration is to national development. It also became apparent how parochial and culture-bound styles of public administration often remained within individual countries.
Another effect of this international communication and sharing of experiences was the realization that government was no longer merely the keeper of the peace and the provider of basic services. In the postindustrial era government became a principal innovator, a determinant of social and economic priorities, and an entrepreneur on a major scale. On virtually every significant problem - from unemployment to clean air - people asked the government for solutions or assistance. The tasks of planning, organizing, coordinating, managing, and evaluating modern government likewise became impressively important.
European universities traditionally produced administrative lawyers for their governments, but legal skills alone were hardly adequate for handling contemporary problems. U.S. universities began graduate programs in the early years of the 20th century, and by the late 1980s there were more than 300 university programs in public administration.
Training programs have particularly increased since World War II,many of them with government help. Some are attached to universities. In establishing the Ecole Nationale d’Administration as one of its civil service reforms of 1946-1947, France provided an extensive course for recruits to the higher civil service.
In 1969 Britain established a Civil Service College under the new Civil Service Department. In the United States the government established a variety of educational and training programs during the 1960s, including the Federal Executive Institute and the Executive Seminar Centers. Many less-advanced countries have since established centres for the training of public administrators.
Ø 3) Say what these numbers refer to:1910, late 1980s, the early years of the 20th century, 1946—1947, during the 1960s.
Ø 4) Make a list of proper names and events relating to the topic “Education in the sphere of public administration.”
CONDITIONS OF SERVICE
Ø 1) Would you read the text further if you were interested in the topic “Civil service”?
Ø 2) Name “the signal words” which help the author of the text to introduce a new idea, to develop the idea, to provide the idea with examples, to explain the idea, and to make a conclusion.
The forerunners of civil servants had duties but no rights. Later they gathered into professional groups similar to trade unions. They raised the question whether they could strike to improve their conditions of service. Obviously it was necessary to have a recognized system for regulating servants’ conduct and discipline.
As for a civil servant’s conduct, he/she should be a loyal, competent, and obedient employee. Ideally, a civil servant should be above any suspicion of partiality and should not let personal sympathies, loyalties, or interests affect the performance of duties.
As a general rule, a civil servant is not allowed to engage directly or indirectly in any trade or business. He/she may participate in social or charitable organizations only if they are not connected with official duties. There are always strict limits on a civil servant’s right to lend or borrow money, and they are prohibited from accepting gifts.
There are different attitudes about participation of civil servants in political activities. One view is that a civil servant has the same constitutional rights as other citizens and that it is therefore unconstitutional to limit those rights. In France and Germany civil servants can engage in political activities. The opposing view is that, since civil servants are engaged in the unique function of national government, their integrity and loyalty to their political masters might be affected by active participation in political affairs, and public confidence in their impartiality could be shaken. The United Kingdom totally bans its senior civil servants to engage in any form of political activity.
Traditionally, governments disliked civil service unions, and in the past servants’ strikes were unlawful. Nevertheless strikes occurred, and governments eventually approved of trade unions. The United Kingdom was the first country to establish negotiating machinery for civil servants in 1917. Many governments also established permanent channels for negotiating such matters as salaries and discipline.
Ø 3) Where and how can you use the text information? Which information from the text is redundant?
Ø 4) Write an annotation to the text.