HOLLYWOOD AND THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY
Ø 1) What first comes to your mind when you hear the word “Hollywood”? Where is it located? What internationally famous award does Hollywood present? Who is awarded with it?
Ø 2) Skim the text and say what the article is about.
(1)In the early 1900s, motion picture production companies from New York and New Jersey started moving to sunny California because of the good weather and longer days. Although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight. Besides the moderate, dry climate, they were also drawn to the state because of its open spaces and wide variety of natural scenery.
(2)Another reason was the distance of Southern California from New Jersey, which made it more difficult for Thomas Edison to enforce his motion picture patents. At the time, Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and, in the East, movie producers acting independently of Edison’s Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents. Thus, movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison’s control. If he sent agents to California, word would usually reach Los Angeles before the agents did and the movie makers could escape to nearby Mexico.
(3)The first movie studio in the Hollywood area, Nestor Studios, was founded in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley in an old building on the southeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street. In the same year, another fifteen Independents settled in Hollywood. Creators of dreams began arriving by the thousands; cameras cranked away, capturing images of custard pies, bathing beauties, comedy and tragedy, villains leering, heroines with long curls and heroes to save the day; and they built a new world to replace the lemon groves.
(4)Thus, the fame of Hollywood came from its identity with the movies and movie stars; and the word “Hollywood,” a word that, when spoken in any country on Earth, evokes worlds, even galaxies of memories, came to be colloquially used to refer to the motion picture industry.
(5)The Charlie Chaplin Studio was built in 1917. It has had many owners after 1953, including Kling Studios, who produced the Superman TV series with George Reeves; Red Skelton, who used the sound stages for his CBS TV variety show; and CBS, who filmed the TV series Perry Mason with Raymond Burr there. It is currently The Jim Henson Company, home of the Muppets.
(6)The famous Hollywood sign originally read “Hollywood land.” It was erected in 1923 to advertise a new housing development in the hills above Hollywood. For several years the sign was left to deteriorate. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce stepped in and offered to remove the last four letters and repair the rest. The sign, located at the top of Mount Lee, is now a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, which also manages the venerable Walk of Fame.
(7)In the 1920s, Hollywood’s image had been badly damaged by a series of scandals involving famous film stars, and the leaders of the industry wanted to make film-making respectable again. The Academy’s aims were “to raise the cultural, educational and scientific standards” of the movies.
(8)The biggest show in Hollywood is the Academy “Oscars” awards. The Awards bring in part of the funds the Academy needs for the tasks of research and preservation. The first Academy Awards presentation ceremony took place on May 16, 1929 during a banquet held in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on Hollywood Boulevard. Tickets cost USD $10.00 and there were 250 people in attendance.
(9)There are 5,000 Academy members who vote each year on the awards. They are all people involved in the film industry and the Academy has different branches for actors, directors, producers, and writers. It also includes studio executives. Each branch puts forward five names as possible award winners (for best actors, best directors, and so on) but the whole Academy decides the best picture candidates. All the Academy members are then asked to vote in each category. Some special award winners are chosen by the Academy’s Board of Governors alone.
(10)It is said that only forty per cent of Academy members actually vote, and there are rumors that many give their voting cards away - to their secretaries, gardeners, friends, lovers and psychiatrists.
(11)Traditionally winners say a few words of thanks when they accept an Award. In 1942, the Irish actress Greer Garson made the longest acceptance speech in the Academy’s history. It lasted over one and a half hours. Actress Joan Fontaine, who had presented her with the award, gradually backed away to find a seat. Since then the speeches have been limited to three minutes, after which a light begins to flash.
(12)Made of gold-plated britannium on a black metal base, the statuette is 34 cm tall, weighs 3.85 kg and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader’s sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes each represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians. Since 1983, approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago, Illinois by manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company. In support of the American effort in World War II, the statuettes were made of plaster and were traded in for gold ones after the war had ended.
(13)The root of the name Oscar is contested. One biography claims origin is that of the Academy’s Executive Secretary, Margaret Herrick, who first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette reminding her of her “Uncle Oscar” (a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce).
Ø 3) Point out the ideas expressed in each paragraph.
Ø 4) Make up a brief outline of the text.
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the following questions:
a)What do the types of food served at home depend on?
b)What examples of cuisine in America can you give?
c)What country is best known for its numerous and successful fast food franchises?
d)Why is McDonald’s chain so popular?
e)What food can you order in McDonald?
The types of food served at American homes vary greatly and depend upon the region of the country and the family’s own cultural heritage. Recent immigrants tend to eat food similar to that of their country of origin, and Americanized versions of these cultural foods, such as American Chinese cuisine or Italian-American cuisine often eventually appear. German cuisine also had a profound impact on American cuisine, especially the mid-western cuisine, with potatoes and meat being the most iconic ingredients in both cuisines.
Families that have lived for a few generations in the U.S. tend to eat some combination of that and the food common to the region they live in or grew up in, such as New England cuisine, Midwestern cuisine, Southern cuisine, Tex-Mex cuisine, and Californian cuisine.
Around the world the United States is perhaps best known for its numerous and successful fast food franchises. Such chains, including McDonald’s, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken are known for selling simple, pre-prepared meals of foods such as hamburgers, French fries, soft drinks, fried chicken, and ice cream. Though undeniably popular, such food, with its emphasis on deep-frying, has been criticized by dietitians in recent decades for being unhealthy and a cause of obesity. It has thus become somewhat of a stereotype to associate American cuisine with obesity and junk food, but in reality fast food represents only a tiny fraction of available American cuisine.
Ø 2) Make up an outline of the text in writing.
Ø 3) Compare the food in America, Italy, Russia and Japan. What do you think the differences in cuisine, portions, and the prices are?
FASHION IN THE USA
Ø 1) What items of clothing do you expect to see in the streets of New York? In restaurants of America? On a rugby field?
Dress was moderately formal until the 1960s, when a revolution took place that stressed casual and informal. Exceptions are major cities such as New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, where many residents wear expensive stylish clothes. Social and business situations may call for tailored suits or other more elegant outfits. Tuxedos and evening dress occasions have become much less common since 1960. The top hat vanished in 1960, along with most other millinery.
Men of Scottish or Irish descent wear kilts as part of celebrations such as parades, or as part of a family reunion tradition. Jeans, a T-shirt and athletic shoes come close to being a “national uniform.” Skirts and dresses are often worn by women.
Types of clothing worn often have something to do with the region of the country people live in. Some Texans and residents of the Southwest dress in boots and hats in a style typically associated with traditional cowboys. In the region from New England to New Jersey, preppy style clothing is popular. In the South, people sometimes dress more casually, and their clothes are often more modest, although formality in certain contexts is valued.
The greatest variations in dress are related to climate. Easterners generally tend to dress more formally than Westerners, though this is also closely connected with cultural history as well. Residents of northern states wear heavy sweaters, warm, water-resistant boots, stocking caps and heavy coats or down parkas in the cold season. In Hawaii, the Aloha shirt as an acceptable item of wear by men has received formal approval by the state legislature. In beach areas and places with relatively warm and consistent climates, especially California, Hawaii, and Florida, skimpy or revealing clothing is considered acceptable in all but the most formal settings. Cowboy hats, Western boots and large silver belt buckles are found in southwestern and western regions of the United States, particularly Texas and Arizona. However, many from the Southern United States dress in the aforementioned jeans and T-shirts.
The trend toward informality has increased among many segments of society. For instance, students at colleges and universities are often noted for wearing flip flops or thong sandals as well as pajamas to class.
Ø 2) Say whether the following statements are true or false and justify your answer:
a)What is an American “national uniform”?
b)What does the type of clothing depend on?
c)Climate much influences the variations in dress, doesn’t it?
d)What is the trend in fashion in the USA now?
SPORTS IN THE US
Ø 1) Do you know the most popular sports in the USA? Compare them with our country’s.
American sports are quite distinct from those played elsewhere in the world. The top three spectator team sports are baseball, American football and basketball, which are all popular on both the college and professional levels.
Baseball is the oldest of these. The professional game dates from 1869 and had no close rivals in popularity until the 1960s; though baseball is no longer the most popular sport it is still referred to as the “national pastime.” Also unlike the professional levels of the other popular spectator sports in the U.S., Major League Baseball teams play almost every day from April to October.
American football (known simply as “football” in the U.S.) attracts more viewers within the country than baseball nowadays; however, National Football League teams play only 16 regular-season games each year, so baseball is the runaway leader in ticket sales.
Basketball, invented in Massachusetts by the Canadian-born James Naismith, is another popular sport, represented professionally by the National Basketball Association.
Most residents along the northern tier of states recognize a fourth major sport - ice hockey. Always a mainstay of Great Lakes and New England-area culture, the sport gained tenuous footholds in regions like the Carolinas and Tampa Bay, Florida in recent years, as the National Hockey League pursued a policy of expansion.
The extent in America to which sports are associated with secondary and tertiary education is unique among nations. In basketball and football, high school and particularly college sports are followed with a fervor equaling or exceeding that felt for professional sports; college football games can draw six-digit crowds, many prominent high school football teams have stadiums that seat tens of thousands of spectators, and the college basketball championship tournament played in March draws enormous attention. For upper-tier schools, sports are a significant source of revenue. Though student athletes may be held to significantly lower academic requirements than non-athletes at many large universities, minimum standards do exist.
Ø 2) Among the following headings circle the most suitable one for this text:
b)THE TOP THREE SPORTS IN AMERICA.
c)THREE TOP SPORTS PLUS ONE IN AMERICA.
d)THE SPORTS – LEADERS IN TICKET SALES.
Ø 3) Write a summary of the text.
Ø 1) What do you know about Canada (location, type of political organization, economy, official language, symbols)?
Ø 2) Scan the text and find the information about:
a)the geographic situation,
b)how Canada gained independence from the UK,
c)the Constitution of Canada,
d)the representative of Queen Elizabeth II in Canada,
e)the head of the government and his powers,
g)the economic position,
h)the most important industries in Canada, including traditional ones,
i)official languages and their status,
j)symbols of Canada,
Canada is the world’s second-largest country by total area after Russia occupying most of northern North America. Extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, Canada shares land borders with the United States to the South and to the Northwest. The population density of 3.5 people per square kilometer is among the lowest in the world.
Inhabited first by Aboriginal peoples, Canada was founded as a union of British and former French colonies. Canada gained independence from the United Kingdom in an incremental process that began in 1867 and ended in 1982.
Canada is a federal constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada as Head of state, and a parliamentary democracy with a federal system of parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions.
Canada’s constitution governs the legal framework of the country and consists of written text and unwritten traditions and conventions. The Constitution includes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and freedoms for Canadians that, generally, cannot be overridden by legislation of any level of government in Canada. It contains, however, a “notwithstanding clause,” which allows the federal parliament and the provincial legislatures the power to override some other sections of the Charter temporarily, for a period of five years.
The position of Prime Minister, Canada’s Head of government belongs to the leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister and their Cabinet are formally appointed by the Governor General (who is the Monarch’s representative in Canada). The Prime Minister exercises vast political power, especially in the appointment of other officials within the government and civil service.
The federal parliament is made up of the Queen and two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. Each member in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in a “riding” or electoral district; general elections are called by the Governor General when the Prime Minister so advises. A new election must be called within five years of the last general election. Members of the Senate serve until age 75.
Canada’s four major political parties are the Conservative Party of Canada, Liberal Party of Canada, New Democratic Party, and the Bloc Québécois.
Canada is composed of ten provinces and three territories. The provinces have a large degree of autonomy from the federal government, the territories somewhat less. Each has its own provincial or territorial symbols.
Canada is one of the world’s wealthiest nations. Today Canada closely resembles the U.S. in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Canada is highly dependent on international trade, especially trade with the United States.
In the past century, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. As with other first world nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry. However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada’s most important.
Canada is one of the world’s most important suppliers of energy and agricultural products and the world’s largest producer of zinc and uranium and a world leader in many other natural resources such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead.
Canada has two official languages, English and French. They have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French. While multiculturalism is official policy, to become a citizen one must be able to speak either English or French.
Prominently, the use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th century, and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms.
The Crown symbolizes the Canadian monarchy, and appears on the coat of arms (used by parliamentarians and government ministries), the flag of the Governor General, the coats of arms of many provinces and territories; the badges of the Canadian Forces, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, many regiments, and other police forces; on buildings, as well as some highway signs and license plates.
The Queen’s image appears in Canadian government buildings, military installations, schools, on Canadian stamps, $20 banknotes, and all coins.
The beaver’s emblematic status originated from the fact that much of Canada’s early economic history was tied to the beaver fur trade. It was used to make hats fashionable in Europe.
Other products made from the country’s natural resources, such as maple syrup, are also associated with Canadian identity.
Additional national symbols include the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and anything pertaining to ice hockey, Canada’s official winter sport, which is often used as a national symbol of unity and pride. One more national sport is lacrosse. Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, and basketball are also widely played at youth and amateur levels.
Ø 3) Canada and the USA are closely connected by the common border and economic relations. Both are among the wealthiest nations in the world. The starting points in history were about the same. Could you compare their histories? Which way, American or Canadian, was without any great shocks for the common people? Was it due to the wisdom of the government that ensured a smooth development of the country, or just a stroke of good luck?
3.27 AUSTRALIA and new zealand
Ø 1) Scan the text and give answer to the questions:
a)What was the population of Australia by 1900?
b)What is the best approach for a person coming to Australia to establish good relations with people?
c)What is the central principle in Australian culture?
d)What is the official name of Australia?
e)What is the peculiarity of the white settlement in Australia?
f)Who were the first explorers of New Zealand?
g)What is the origin of the Maori people of New Zealand?
h)What are the relations between Australia and New Zealand?
i)What are the capitals of Australia and New Zealand?
Australia was discovered by James Cook in 1770, and within twenty years Britain had established its first penal colony at Sydney, thus relieving the pressure on the overcrowded gaols of England. From 1788, for over fifty years, about 130,000 prisoners were transported. “Free” settlers, as they were called, began to enter the country from the very beginning, but they did not achieve substantial numbers until the mid-nineteenth century. From then on, the immigrants came in increasing numbers. By 1850, the population of Australia was about 400,000, and by 1900 nearly four million.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a Federation, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. In 1942, the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act was passed, which officially gave Australia complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. British authority was finally removed in 1986.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a democratic federal state system that recognizes the British monarch as the chief of state (represented nationally by a governor general and in each state by a governor). However, Australia is an independent nation and does not consider itself a constitutional monarchy.
The capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory.
The Australian culture has historically been a masculine one, forged on the hardship of early settlers and later on the heroism of the Australian soldiers. “Mateship,” or loyal fraternity, has been a central tenet. This also explains why the more aggressive forms of sport (rugby and Australian Rules football, for example) are particularly popular in Australia.
The Australian Dream of home ownership underpins suburban Australia. It is the primary reason why the country is so highly urbanized. Australia has one of the world’s highest urbanization rates, with 85 percent of its population living in cities.
Australians are friendly and easy to get to know. Your best approach is to be friendly, relaxed, modest, and unpretentious. Australians find it amusing how hard foreigners (especially North Americans) try to make a good impression. Australians are very difficult to impress … and if you did impress them, they wouldn’t admit it. The usual advice is “just be yourself” in dealing with Australians. However, if your demeanor is wired, nervous, officious, or self-important, you should downplay those aspects of your personality.
In New Zealand, the story started later and moved more slowly. The earliest known inhabitants of New Zealand were the Maori tribe people, who came across the sea from Polynesia around 900 A.D. The first European explorers were the Dutch, who arrived and continued to visit while on whaling and trading expeditions.
British exploration began in 1769 with Captain James Cook, who visited New Zealand on all three of his Pacific voyages. A few Europeans settled in the country, but the official colony was not established until 1840. New Zealand was initially administered by the British as part of the Australian colony. There was then a considerable increase - from around 2,000 Europeans in 1840 to 25,000 in 1850, and to three quarters of a million by 1900. Even after New Zealand became a separate nation, most of its contact with Europe was secondhand, through Australia. Today, although New Zealand and Australia are military allies and trade partners, a considerable rivalry exists between the two countries.
New Zealanders refer to themselves as “Kiwis.” If someone says you are their “mate” or a “hard case,” consider it a compliment, for they mean “friend” or a “funny person.”
New Zealand is known for its advanced social legislation. It was the first member of the British Commonwealth to create, in 1898, old-age pensions. Other early innovations include voting rights for women in 1893, labour arbitration in 1894, and widow’s pensions in 1911.
The traditional greeting among the indigenous Maori was to rub noses. While you may encounter Maori or part-Maori business people, their customs will be similar to those of other New Zealanders.
The capital of New Zealand is Wellington.
Ø 2) Make a list of all proper names and dates from the text and explain what they refer to.
Ø 1) What do you know about your native country (situation, climate, natural resources, population, political organization, history, culture)?
Ø 2) Read the text and make up its outline in writing.
Russia is a country about 1.8 times the size of the US occupying the vast area between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. It has the area of 17,075,200 sq. km and the population of almost 150 million people.
Occupying a large territory in Europe and Asia Russia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. It takes over 8 hours by plane to reach from Moscow to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. Russia’s geographical location presents a significant obstacle to development - dry or cold climate, terrain, distance and remote location from major sea lines, all these factors contribute to the situation when large parts of the country have almost no population and development. Russia has only 8% of arable land.
The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow. Moscow is the largest city in the country. It is a principal economic and political center of the country, the seat of the President, the government and the State Duma (Parliament).
Russia abounds in mineral resources whose total potential value (in world prices) is estimated at an impressive $30 trillion. Russia produces 17 % of the world’s crude oil, as well as 25-30 % of its natural gas, 6 % of all bituminous coal, 17 % of commercial iron ore and 10-20 % of all non-ferrous, rare and noble metals mined across the globe. The largest oil-and-gas deposits are to be found in Western and Eastern Siberia and on Sakhalin Island.
Russia has the world’s fifth largest population (148.8 million people) after China, India, the United States and Indonesia. It is populated by approximately 130 nations and ethnic groups, including some 130 million Russians, over 5 million Tartars, nearly 4 million Ukrainians, 1.7 million Chuvashs, 1.7 million Jews, approximately 1.3 million Bashkirs, over 1 million Byelorussians and more than 1 million Mordovians.
Ø 3) Copy out all the figures from the text and explain what they refer to.
Ø 1) What comes to your mind first when you hear the words “Russian culture”? What aspects of world culture did Russian culture make the greatest contribution to?
Ø 2) Look at the phrases and words from the text: a long tradition of excellence, be ranked seventh, old Russian folklore, fairy tales, bylins, influential, literary works, the Golden Age of Russian poetry, the Silver Age of Russian poetry, the influence of symbolism, architecture, woodcraft buildings, Orthodox churches, icons, painting on wood, realism, music, sculpture, ballet, opera. What do they mean?
Russian culture is associated with the country of Russia and, sometimes, specifically with ethnic Russians. It has a rich history and can boast a long tradition of excellence in every aspect of the arts, especially when it comes to literature and philosophy, classical music and ballet, architecture and painting, cinema and animation, which all had considerable influence on the world culture. Nowadays, Russian cultural heritage is ranked seventh in the Nation Brands Index, based on interviews of some 20,000 people mainly from the Western countries and the Far East.
Old Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs and now is represented in the Russian fairy tales and bylinas. The oldest bylinas were actually recorded mostly in the Russian North, especially in Karelia, where most of the Finnish national epic Kalevala was recorded as well.
Russian literature is considered to be among the most influential and developed in the world, contributing many of the world’s most famous literary works. Russia’s literary history dates back to the 10th century; in the 18th century its development was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin, and by the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period and the Golden Age of Russian Poetry began with Alexander Pushkin, considered to be the founder of modern Russian literature and often described as the “Russian Shakespeare”. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures to the point that many literary critics have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever.
By the 1880s Russian literature had begun to change. Short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres of Russian literature for the next several decades which became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. Russian literature came under strong influence of symbolism in the years between 1893 and 1914. Leading writers of this age include Valery Bryusov, Alexander Blok, Nikolay Gumilev, Anna Akhmatova, Osip Mandelstam, Marina Tsvetaeva, Ivan Bunin, and Maxim Gorky.
Russian architecture began with the woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs. Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture, until the Fall of Constantinople. The main stone buildings of “ancient Rus” were Orthodox churches, with their many domes, often gilded or brightly painted. Some Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia. The 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil’s Cathedral. After Peter the Great reforms had made Russia much closer to Western culture, the change of the architectural styles in Russia generally followed that of Western Europe. Many churches demolished in the Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II.
Russian icons are typically paintings on wood, often small, though some in churches and monasteries may be as large as a table top. There is a rich history and elaborate religious symbolism associated with icons. In the mid-seventeenth century, changes in liturgy and practice instituted by Patriarch Nikon resulted in a split in the Russian Orthodox Church. From that time icons began to be painted not only in the traditional stylized and nonrealistic mode, but also in a mixture of Russian stylization and Western European realism, and in a Western European manner very much like that of Catholic religious art of the time.
Realism came into dominance in the 19th century. The realists captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Other artists focused on social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II, with some artists making the circle of human suffering their main theme. Others focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history. The “Peredvizhniki” (wanderers) group of artists (Shishkin, Kuindzhi, Kramskoi, Polenov, Levitan, Surikov, Vasnetsov and Repin) broke with Russian Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from Academic restrictions. In the late Soviet era many artists combined innovation with socialist realism including E.Neizvestny, and M.Shemyakin. Soviet artists produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist in the 1940s. After the Great Patriotic War Soviet sculptors made multiple monuments to the war dead, marked by a great restrained solemnity.
Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer M.Glinka along with his followers, who added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society, which was musically conservative. The later Romantic tradition is that of Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, whose music has come to be known and loved for its distinctly Russian character as well as its rich harmonies and stirring melodies. Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are Oistrakh, Rostropovich; Richter, Shalyapin, Vishnevskaya, Netrebko and Hvorostovsky.
The original purpose of the ballet in Russia was to entertain the royal court. The first ballet company was the Imperial School of Ballet in St. Petersburg in the 1740s. The Ballet Russe was a ballet company founded in the 1909 by S.Diaghilev, an enormously important figure in the Russian ballet scene. Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes’ travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky rose to fame. The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the Mariinsky in Saint Petersburg remain famous throughout the world.
The first known opera made in Russia was “A Life for the Tsar” by Mikhail Glinka in 1836. This was followed by several operas such as “Ruslan and Lyudmila” in 1842. Russian opera was originally a combination of Russian folk music and Italian opera. Russia’s most popular operas include: “Boris Godunov”, “Eugene Onegin”, “The Golden Cockerel”, “Prince Igor”, and “The Queen of Spades.”
Ø 3) Which of the summaries renders the content of the text most adequately?
a)This text gives a short overview of Russian culture. According to the Nation Brands Index it is ranked seventh in the world. All aspects of Russian culture such as folklore, literature, architecture, painting and music are paid attention to.
b)This text deals with the description of various aspects of Russian culture from the beginning and up to the middle of the 20th century, namely, folklore, literature, architecture, painting and music. The writer pays a more detailed attention to literature, painting and music, naming the trends, methods and the outstanding people who made Russian culture famous all over the world.
The Republic of Karelia
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the questions:
a)Where is Karelia situated? What countries and districts does it border on?
b)When was it founded?
c)What was the first name of the republic?
d)What nationalities make the population of Karelia?
e)What is the social structure of the population of Karelia?
The Republic of Karelia is situated in the northwest of Russia. It is a part of the Northwest federal district of the Russian Federation. It was founded on June 8, 1920 as the Karelian Labour Commune on the territory of the former Olonets province. Since November 13, 1991 the Republic has its modern name.
The area of Karelia makes 1.06% of the total territory of Russia. Karelia borders on Finland in the West, on Leningrad district in the South, on Murmansk and Archangelsk district, in the East. In the North-West the Republic is washed by the White Sea.
As of January 1, 2009 the population of the Republic of Karelia makes 687.5 thousand people. Urban population makes 76.4 %. The share of the population younger than working-age makes 15.4%, working-age population makes 64.5%, people older than working-age make 20.1%. Population size involved in economy is 351,400 people, the unemployed make 32,300 people. The official unemployment rate makes 2.6% of the economically active population.
The official language in Karelia is Russian. The Republic is a multinational constituency of the Russian Federation. Representatives of 213 nationalities live there. According to the data of the All-Russia population census of 2002, the national pattern of the population is the following: Russians are 76.6%, Karelians are 9.2%, Byelorussians are 5.3%, Ukrainians are 2.7%, Finns are 2.0%, Vepps are 0.7%.
The overall objective of the long-term social and economic development of Karelia is improvement of the quality of life in the Republic on the basis of steady balanced development of economy, formation of the future development potential and the Republic’s active participation in the system of international and inter-regional exchanges.
According to the Constitution of Russia the Republic of Karelia is the constituency of the Russian Federation. The Republic of Karelia is establishing its system of bodies of the government independently according to the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and general principles of organization of representative and executive public authorities, and established federal laws.
Governing in the Republic of Karelia is carried out by the Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia, Government headed by the Head of the Republic of Karelia, and other enforcement authorities, area bodies of federal authorities, and judicial bodies.
Karelia is the country of rocks, boulders and tens of thousands of lakes. Various, and frequently unique relief of Karelia reflects geological history of the region of the last 3.5 billion years. Karelia is often figuratively called “a severe land of lakes and woods”, emphasizing the leading elements of its landscape, unique combinations created by spaces of fantastic contours of a number of lakes and divided by rocky-subdued interfluves covered with taiga greens.
The economy of the Republic of Karelia is based on processing local kinds of natural resources (timber and minerals), use of tourist and recreational potential and favourable economic and geographical frontier location. These factors define specialization and regional features of the economy of the Republic.
Ø 2) Say whether the statements below are true or false and justify your answer:
a)The overall objective of the long-term development of Karelia is to invest in education because it produces the intellectual capital that drives economic development.
b)The system of government in Karelia is based on the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.
c)Karelia is the country of lakes and forests.
d)The surface of Karelia reflects geological history of the last 1.5 million years.
e)The economy is based on mining of minerals and logging of timber.
Ø 1) Is Petrozavodsk your native city? What do you like most of all in Petrozavodsk? What places of interest would you show to a newcomer?
Petrozavodsk is located on the shore of Lake Onego. The unique beauty of the landscape and Lake Onego make the panorama of the city beautiful. There is a nice view of the city from the bay side.
The population of Petrozavodsk today is more than 275,000 persons.
As European cities go, Petrozavodsk is a young city. It was founded a bit more than 300 years ago in 1703 and for most of its history was known as Petrozavodsk. In 1703, Peter the Great had deliberately turned his back on the old traditions of Russia and built his own capital on the Baltic Coast - St. Petersburg, as “a window into Europe.” But the new capital was in isolation, which was emphasised by its location in an inhospitable, thinly populated wilderness. Peter the Great was the first to realise that he would need not only a new capital and a naval base on the Gulf of Finland, but also some “satellite towns”. And, like many Peter’s ideas, this one was soon transformed into reality. Petrozavodsk came into being.
The first two decades of the I8th century were terrible times for Russia - it was the time of the Great Northern War with Sweden. That’s why in 1703 Peter the First ordered a cannon foundry to be built here, which gave the city its life and name. The cannon foundry produced cannons, bombs, cannon balls, and weapon. In addition to armoury, the foundry manufactured surgical instruments. Soon a settlement called “Petrovskaya Sloboda” appeared near the foundry, and now it has turned into town.
Ø 2) Point out the sentences corresponding to the text’s content:
a)the cannon foundry was built in 1703,
b)it was built on the shore of Lake Onego,
c)St. Petersburg was built as “a window to Europe”,
d)the first “satellite town” not far from St. Petersburg was Petrozavodsk,
e)the population in Petrozavodsk today is over 300,000.
f)Petrozavodsk is the oldest city in the European part of Russia.
WE ARE DIFFERENT
Ø 1) Have you ever been to a foreign country? Did you experience a culture gap? Share your experience.
Ø 2) Answer the given questions and check yourself:
(1) Question:You are going along a street in Seoul, South Korea. Suddenly a passer-by pushes you. You turn around and see that he is laughing quietly. How would you behave?
Answer:It’s better not to take offence on a passer-by. The fact is that in Korea a quiet laugh means embarrassment.
(2) Question:You are sitting at the cafe in Sofia (Bulgaria). A waiter comes up to you and asks: “Would you like some ice-cream?” You are nodding happily and waiting for your ice-cream. Unfortunately no ice-cream… Being sad you are going to get to know what the matter is. An astonishing waiter explains to you: “Dear Sir! You have given ice-cream up.” What has happened?
Answer:The waiter is right. In Bulgaria up-and-down nodding means negation.
(3) Question:In Europe when meeting each other people shake right hands. What is your idea about the way of shaking hands in Ancient China?
Answer:When ancient Chinese people met each other they shook their own hands (their right hand shook their left hand).
(4) Question:You visit your father’s friend in China. At lunch time you are served salads, meat with vegetables at first, at the end of lunch – soup. What will you think? How will you feel?
Answer:Don’t consider Chinese people to be ignorant. They know about dinner etiquette a lot. In China such dish order is traditional and correct.
(5) Question:One European traveller was invited to an Indian family. There was a very cute baby in that family and the traveller kissed him on the forehead. What was parents’ attitude to that?
Answer:Parents took serious offence on a traveller and were frightened of his behavior. It was a traveller’s mistake to kiss their baby on the head. In Asia people are sure that there is a soul of the man in the head and a kiss may insult it. After that the soul will fly away from the baby at once.
(6) Question:During a business meeting in Japan one European was lost in thought and scratched his head. After that a Japanese man switched the topic of the conversation imperceptibly and stopped the conversation gradually. Why did a Japanese man behave in such a way?
Answer:Scratching the head with the middle finger in Japan means deception and cheating.
(7) Question:The people in Iran are never interested in private life of each other. Why?
Answer:In Islamic countries personal life is a strictly guarded territory. Questions concerning family life are inadmissible.
(8) Question:If a man killed another man in Japan in the Middle Ages the Duke who was a judge ordered to banish a killer out of his lands and set his house on fire. However he ordered to set the house of the victim on fire too. Why so?
Answer:In Japan a man who was a killer was banished away and his house and the victim’s house were set on fire because these houses profaned all around.
Ø 3) Look through the text again and find the facts on the meaning of: laughing quietly, shaking hands, nodding one’s head, the order of dishes to be eaten, punishment for a killer, scratching one’s head, kissing a baby.
Ø 4) What tips would you give to a person who is going to a foreign country as a tourist?
UNIT 4. BUSINESS
A New Product IS Introduced
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the questions:
a)What drink is this text about?
b)What qualities of the drink have been improved?
c)Is the new drink a lemonade or a totally new product?
d)Why will the new product compete with the existing brands?
e)Do you think the customers will like the new product? Why?
A new product has been introduced for production at the KOOL-OUT Company. It’s a drink. Such qualities as flavor, packing, design have been improved for the previously produced lemonade, thus resulting in a completely new product. The new machinery is supposed to increase the productivity and save labor forces.
The price will be slightly higher than the price of the lemonade in the past. In spite of the higher selling price it will compete well with existing brands due to a better design and more natural flavor.
The company is sure that the consumers will be pleased with the new drink. They are planning to get a profit rise by 12% on a new product.
Ø 2) Put the statements below into the proper order:
a)the customers will like the new drink,
b)a soft-drink company introduced a new drink,
c)the new machinery will save labor forces,
d)the flavor of the drink will be more natural.
A Plant in Chicago
Ø 1) Translate the text into Russian in writing.