TRICKS FOR LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Ø 1) Paraphrase the title of the text. Before reading the text, discuss the possible ways of learning foreign languages.
Ø 2) Would you read the text further if you were interested in the topic “Language learning”?
When you start learning English you acquire a new mode of life. You start doing crazy things, like speaking to yourself aloud, spending your evening reading a dictionary, hunting for interesting phrases with the purpose of accumulating your vocabulary, trying to recollect them all at once or jotting them down in your diary not to forget. It is an exciting feeling of a new start and of future perspectives that a good command of English opens before you.
By setting out on a journey to new and exciting achievements a learner has to distinguish what ways will be better to choose for reaching his/her goal relatively quickly and efficiently.
Linguists and methodologists described many efficient strategies of English language learning. Many of them proved to be highly efficient and brought really amazing results in testing.
A starting point which will push you up in all the course of your English studying is your motivation to learn. You should be specific with the goal of your studying and reflect on benefits a good command of English can bring you. You are aimed at getting smarter, assimilating new culture and meeting new people or your primary goal of English learning is to earn more money and succeed in your career.
A sure-fire way to master English is to go to America or England and communicate with native speakers. It means to penetrate into English environment and practice both speaking and listening. Going to an English-speaking country is a great opportunity to perfect your listening skills, enrich your vocabulary with new words. And what is the most important is that you are forced to speak on a daily basis and perceive colloquial speech, the samples of it you are not likely to find in a textbook.
A good, safe and cheap way to master English is to stimulate a foreign language environment in your home. It means to bring an English-speaking country to your house, surrounding yourself with everything that is connected with English. Try everything that comes in hand.
Speak English as much as possible. Speaking is exciting and motivates you to keep learning. It helps you to uncover the gaps in your vocabulary and grammar. But if you don’t have an opportunity to go to an English-speaking country, it doesn’t mean that you won’t be able to speak English fluently and naturally. It only means that you’ll have to exert more efforts to find English language environment in your surroundings. In the supermarket, in the park, a restaurant or a convenience store - almost anywhere you happen to meet or run into a native speaker of English. Don’t just stay there mum - say something! People are generally flattered when you’re trying to meet them on their own terms or in their own language and are usually more than happy to chat. In any case, you can look for good English language courses.
Flashcards are the single best and most efficient use of your time when learning a language. Ten seconds of free time becomes a quick quiz - take card #1 out of your pocket: “What is the English for ... åäà? Food?” Flip the card over: “Correct!” Two minutes is a major review session. Look at it this way - if you spend ten seconds on one word, for two minutes – that’s twelve words in two minutes. Twelve words a day for five days a week is 3000 words in one year. All the words you need to be conversational in just two minutes a day. That doesn’t account for grammar and pronunciation, but still - one year to learn all the vocabulary you need. Don’t say you don’t have time to learn a language. Remember this the next time you are staying in line at the bank or the grocery store, doctor’s office, or waiting at a red light.
Once you have some basic understanding of the language, get some reading material - a newspaper, a general interest magazine, a brochure, even comics can help you along. Short articles are best at first. Here’s the important part - something you are interested in. If you’re into gardening then get a magazine or print out an online article on gardening in English. You’ll be learning vocabulary and phrases that really interest you, and that will help you pick it up much quicker. One of the most effective language-learning tricks is to read aloud to yourself.
Hearing the language is the most important aspect of learning if you intend to speak it. Give yourself opportunities to use it during otherwise non-productive times like while driving or just relaxing.
Following the above advice, give yourself more opportunities to hear English. Internet and radio can expose you to new vocabulary and fresh content daily. The more sources you hear from, the better.
Use the power of the Internet to hook up with other people around the world who speak the language you are learning. They can help you immeasurably. There are plenty of free Internet sites and forums to find people who will be happy to work with you.
Try lip-syncing. The procedure is simple, you repeat exactly, word-for-word, everything your model says. That model can be a newscaster, a character on a soap opera, a documentary narrator or the voice coming from your tape player or radio. Start by trying to get your tongue around the words. You’ll acquire speed and ease with practice. In Japan, English students karaoke the Beatles. In Africa, the Backstreet Boys rule the airwaves. Lip-syncing popular songs is all the rage for English language learners, so use it to your advantage. Check at music shops and bookstores for song CDs and tapes. Ask around for recommendations. Lyrics to literally thousands of songs are available online.
Watch TV. Programs to watch are the news, soap operas and documentaries. Do you have a DVD? Play a couple of programs over and over to accustom yourself to the flow of the language.
Studying and practicing with other people can give you instant feedback and interactivity that you just can’t get from a book, audio, or software. Even if you only know very little, you will absorb the language quicker and with more enjoyment than just by studying alone. Ultimately, that’s the purpose of learning a foreign language anyway - to communicate with other people.
This is probably the cardinal rule when it comes to learning languages - you must expose yourself to the language every day if possible. Studying ten minutes a day is better than cramming for an hour once or twice a week. Frequent review, even if only for a few minutes, is essential.
English learning is a great opportunity for you to unleash your inner genius. Knowing what you really want to get from your learning will zap your cherished dream to develop good English skills in a flash. The main thing is to find a set of effective learning ways and tools which will help you to boost your results and have a motivation to study. Once you are armed with a desire and winning techniques, be sure to sort out the methods that suit you and you can consider that the first step to your success in English learning has already been made. Starting on this merry and energetic note continue your way in the same spirit and yield to the temptation of giving in to difficulties.
Ø 3) Support or decline the tricks suggested by the author of the text. Are they modern or out-of-date? Share your own tricks for learning foreign languages with the classmates.
A TEACher of ENGLish
Ø 1) Read the text aloud and answer the questions:
a)What is Mr. Quigley?
b)How old is he?
c)What foreign languages does he know?
d)Is he a polyglot?
e)What is his hobby?
f)When does he usually go to bed?
g)What does he do at the weekend?
h)How do Mr. Quigley’s children learn foreign languages?
Mr. Quigley is a teacher of English in Spain. He isn’t a very young man, but he is not old. He knows three foreign languages and reads and speaks and writes them very well. He reads many books and writes some. He works very late, sometimes till one o’clock in the morning.
There is a telephone and a lot of books on his desk. There are books with poems, stories, fairy-tales, dictionaries, grammar references, and maps in different languages on the bookshelves. He is fond of reading in foreign languages to his wife and their three children. Even baby Sally understands him! Sometimes they karaoke famous songs together.
He also has a large collection of DVDs with BBC films about animals, plants, people, and countries. Mr. Quigley spends a lot of time in the Internet where he chats with the native speakers and where he finds interesting information for his classes. Lately he has installed a satellite TV and now the whole family watches TV in different languages.
The pupils come to Mr. Quigley for their lessons every day, even on Saturdays and Sundays. The students are different. Some are hard-working and clever, others are clever but don’t work much. One is not clever or handsome but he can tell funny stories. They are all friends and they often talk about their work and their holidays, their cousins, parents, and pets, what they like and what they don’t like.
Mr. Quigley is fond of teaching even at the weekends. He often says, “When a job is a hobby, it is happiness.”
Ø 2) Answer the questions from task 1 about yourself.
Ø 3) Would you like to be a teacher? Why / Why not? Talk about your favourite teacher of mathematics, Russian, history, geography, PT, literature, or other subject.
1.15 FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN STUDENTS’ LIVES
Ø 1) Find Russian equivalents to the extracurricular activities mentioned in the text.
Students’ life in the Karelian Branch of the North-West Academy of Public Administration in Petrozavodsk is quite diverse and intensive. All the necessary conditions for extracurricular activities supplementing the study process have been created in the Karelian Branch. The Students’ Council, a body of students’ self-government, has been functioning in the Karelian Branch since 1999.
The cohesive plan of extracurricular activities consists of the following events:
· maintaining the Karelian Branch’s traditions (the AIDS Prevention Day, the Anti-Smoking Day);
· leisure activities (Merry and Witty Guys Club, Beauty Contest, Best Video Contest, Best Group Monitor Contest, etc.);
· sport events (the sports club and volleyball, football and mini-football teams; activities devoted to the International Health Day).
Do the students need foreign languages for their extracurricular activities? Of course they do! They get ready for the Evening Parties in Foreign Languages during which they recite, perform, dance, joke, and sing in all the languages they have mastered.
Some students use foreign languages to find exciting information on any subject that is of interest to them. Then they share the information with fellow students by placing it at Polyglot Corner in the academy.
The speakers of different languages are regularly invited to the Karelian Branch. Such meetings of native speakers and students are naturally held in foreign languages.
The scientific-research work of students is provided, too. The interregional scientific conference of students and post-graduate students called “Management: History, Science, and Culture” has already become a tradition. Ten sections contribute to the work of this conference, including the foreign languages section “Management, Leadership, Culture.” Students make reports in English, German, French, and in Finnish. Day-department students as well as correspondence students and foreign students take part in the conference.
The annual events organized in the Karelian Branch are “Derzhavin Readings,” “The Week of Science,” public lectures of scientists from the Karelian Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Science, from Petrozavodsk State University, and from the Karelian State Pedagogical Academy. Thus, the students of the Karelian Branch of the North-West Academy of Public Administration understand the role of science in contemporary world and value the work of modern scientists. The students also understand the role of foreign languages in their future career.
Ø 2) Answer the questions:
a)You are a socially active student, aren’t you?
b)Which of the mentioned events would you like to take part in?
c)Should students be involved in extracurricular activities or should they devote their free time to studying only?
Ø 3) Agree or disagree with the statements:
a)“Students’ life in the Karelian Branch of NWAPA is quite diverse and intensive.”
b)“The students of the Karelian Branch of NWAPA understand the role of science in contemporary world and value the work of modern scientists.”
c)“The students also understand the role of foreign languages in their future career.”
UNIT 2. GENERAL ENGLISH
GIVING PERSONAL INFORMATION
Ø 1) Answer the questions:
a)When did you last fill in a form in Russian? What for?
b)Do you know how to fill in a form in English?
Jim: Your painting is fantastic, Roger!
Jim: Right. OK, here are the questions.... Your hands are dirty.
Jim: What’s your name?
Jim: Ha, ha. What’s your surname?
Jim: Very funny! OK, surname – Tailor.
Jim: Next question, please. Are you married or single?
Jim: What’s your address?
Jim:... and what are your hobbies?
Jim: ... OK, last question. What’s your telephone number?
Jim: 0343 897 6514 – I got it. Where’s an envelope?
Ø 2) Say what these answers refer to:
d)72 London Road
e)painting, going windsurfing and watching TV
f)0343 897 6514
2.2 TELL US ABOUT YOUR FAMILY!
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the questions:
a) Who is David? Who is Daniela? Who are Allan, Cecilia, Brian, Jenny, and Jason?
b) What is David? What is Daniela? What are Allan and Cecilia?
c) Where do the family members live?
d) What is special about each of the family member?
e) What are the family members fond of?
I think that a family is the most important thing for every person. Family is the people that always love you, support you and help you. For me, it is impossible to live without my family. My family is rather large. There are my parents, a brother, a twin sister and grandparents. We are from Vermont, the USA. We live in the suburbs of Bristol in a cottage. It takes us only half an hour to get to the city by car.
My Dad’s name is David. He is a plastic surgeon; he helps people to become more beautiful. He is a professional and he is fond of his job. My Daddy does his work very well and gets a very good salary. When he is free, he prefers to repair the car or to watch the news on TV. My Mum’s name is Daniela but we cal her Danny for short. She is a housewife. She looks after the house and us, the kids. Mum makes very tasty breakfasts and dinners for us. Our Mummy is very kind, but strict to us. She always checks how we do our homework. She arranges our free time, so that we cannot just fool around. In her spare time she enjoys knitting, sewing, embroidering, and baking. She is also very good at gardening.
My elder brother, Jason, is a student of the medical faculty. He wants to become a good surgeon, like our father. Besides he is also a member of the local theatre club. He plays main parts in several plays. He is a real theater-lover. Jason lives alone in a hostel but he comes to visit us twice a month.
My twin sister Jenny is finishing school this year. But she has not yet made up her mind about her future profession. On the one hand she is fond of animals and can become a vet, on the other hand she is very good at mathematics and knows some complex computer programs. Maybe she will have a year off to think over her future possibilities. My sister is such a sweet-tooth!
Our grandparents, Allan and Cecilia, are scientists. Grandfather is a historian and grandmother is a linguist. They are over sixty, and they are retired but they still give lectures in different universities and write serious books. They live apart from us, in a condominium complex in Birmingham. But we phone each other regularly to find out the news.
I have also got many relatives. I’ve got two aunts, one uncle, and three cousins. We keep in touch by e-mail or by phone since they live in Europe and we seldom meet each other.
As for me, my name is Brian. I have always loved music. I can play the guitar and piano very well. I am also good at singing. I love all kinds of music, but mostly I prefer rock. After school I am planning to enter the music college, because I want to become a professional musician. At the same time I want to have my own rock band. I dream of being famous!
Everyone in our family is rather busy, but we always look forward to a possibility to spend some time together. We all get on very well with each other. My family means a lot to me and I can say that “My family is my castle.”
Ø 2) Prove that this family is supportive and united.
Ø 3) Name the useful words and expressions from the text to talk about your own family.
2.3 WHERE DO YOU LIVE?
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the questions:
a)Where is the flat situated?
b) How many rooms are there in the flat?
c) What modern conveniences are there in the flat?
e)Which room is the coziest, the most spacious, the quietest?
d)How many people live in the flat?
We live in a nice flat in a new block of flats in a new town district. Our flat is on the fifth floor of a nine-storied building. It has all modern conveniences: central heating, running hot and cold water, electricity, gas, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down. We have a three-room flat which consists of a living-room, a bedroom, a study (which is also my room), a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet. There are also two closets and a balcony in our flat.
The living-room is the largest and the most comfortable room in the flat. In the middle of the room there is a round dinner-table with six chairs around it. To the left of the dinner-table there is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano. To the right there is a little table with a TV set on it. Opposite the TV set there are two cozy armchairs. In front of the armchairs there is a small round table for newspapers and magazines. A sofa and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner of the room. There is a bright thick carpet on the floor. Two water-colors by popular local painters hang on the wall above the sofa. The room is spacious, light, and very cozy.
The bedroom is smaller than the living-room and not so light as there is only one window in it. The window faces the yard so it is quiet in the room. In this room there is one double bed, a dressing-table and a wardrobe. On the dressing table there is an alarm-clock, plenty of bottles of perfume, and a small lamp with red lamp-shade. In the corner of the bedroom there is a green plant with big leaves.
Our study is the smallest room in the flat, but in spite of it, it is very cozy. There isn’t much furniture in it, but there are a lot of shelves full of books. There is a writing table with a notebook on it, an armchair and a bookcase, too. An exercise bicycle stands in the right-hand corner of the study. Besides, there is a small sofa near the wall opposite the bookcase. The mirror on the wall makes the room look larger. This room was my father’s study, but as I grew older, it has become my room. And in my opinion it is the best room in our flat because I decorated it myself. The room is in the oriental style with orange, red, and yellow cushions, curtains, bed covers and a carpet. There are many souvenirs from different countries, my favorite photos in frames, a number of exotic statuettes, and lots of plants in my room. I am proud to have a nice aquarium with a turtle in it. My friends often come to my place to have a chat or to play chess in the evening, and they say that my room is very comfortable. I agree with their opinion.
Ø 2) Draw the layout of the furniture in the living-room. Do you like it? What would you change in it?
Ø 3) What typical furniture can be found in a kitchen?
Ø 4) Would you like to have a study like the one described in the text? What is your idea on an ideal place of living?
Ø 5) Talk about the place you live in, and your neighbour will draw schematically the layout of the furniture in your room.
2.4 HAVE YOU GOT A HOBBY?
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the questions:
a)How are hobbies classified?
b) What examples of hobbies are given for each category?
c) How old can the author of the text be?
A hobby is what a person likes to do in his/her spare time. Hobbies are divided into four large classes: doing things, making things, collecting things, and learning things.
The most popular hobby is doing things. It includes a wide variety of activities, everything from gardening to traveling and from chess to volleyball. Gardening is one of the oldest man’s hobbies. It is a well-known fact that the English are very fond of gardening and growing flowers, especially roses. Many people play musical instruments. Both grown-ups and children are fond of playing computer games. This is a relatively new hobby but it is becoming more and more popular.
Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designing costumes, handicrafts, writing music, and others.
Almost everyone collects something at some period of life: stamps, coins, matchboxes, books, records, postcards, toys, watches, and other things. Some collections don’t have real value. Others become so large and so valuable that they are presented in museums and art galleries. Rich people often collect paintings, rare books, and other art objects.
No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he/she always has the opportunity of learning from it. Learning things can be the most exciting aspect of a hobby.
As far as I am concerned, I like to listen to music. I try to find everything about my favorite singers. I also like to watch music programs on TV. I want to keep up with the news in the world of music. Of course, I like to spend my spare time with my friends. We talk about all sorts of things (politics, cars, girls). We discuss films, books, TV programs. When the weather is fine, we like to be in the open air. We go cycling or roller-skating in summer, and skiing or skating in winter. We have a lot of fun together.
Ø 2) Add more hobbies to these four categories.
2.5 NEA’S HOBBIES AND INTERESTS
Ø 1) Answer the questions:
a)Are you often busy?
b)What do you usually do in your spare time?
Ø 2) Read the text and say if your hobbies are similar to Nea’s.
Nea has a lot of hobbies and interests. She usually gets up early so she can jog before work. She doesn’t often have time to ski, but she occasionally goes skiing on Saturdays during the winter. Nea regularly rides a horse. She sometimes goes to the stable near her home after work, but she usually goes horseback riding on Sundays. She loves music. She always goes to choir practice on Wednesday evenings and sings in church on Sundays. She doesn’t have much extra money, so she rarely goes to concerts in the city. She seldom watches TV because she likes doing things outside. She usually goes to the gym if it’s raining. She isn’t often alone because she has a lot of friends. She’s a happy and sociable woman!
Ø 3) Choose the best answer to the questions:
a)Why does she usually get up early? (to run before work; to go to work; to have breakfast)
b)How often does she ski? (often; occasionally; rarely)
c)How often does she ride a horse? (every day; often; never)
d)When doe she usually go horseback riding? (after work; on Saturdays; on Sundays)
e)What kind of music does she like doing? (playing the violin; singing; playing the piano)
f)How often does she go to concerts in the city? (every Sunday; rarely; never)
g)How often does she watch TV? (every night; seldom; never)
h)What does she usually do if it’s raining? (she goes outside; goes to the gym; calls friends)
i)How often is she alone? (often; not often; usually)
Ø 1) Answer the questions:
a)Do you exercise?
b)What is your exercise program?
c)Why did you choose this kind of exercise?
d)Do you find it necessary to exercise?
e)Can exercise be substituted by anything else?
In an urban civilization exercise is necessary as a means of keeping fit. What type of exercise is the best? How much of it is good? Why do some people exercise and others not?
Many people are engaged in various exercise programs such as jogging swimming, cycling, skiing and so on. The benefits of exercise are: fun, fitness, and health. The problem is where to begin. People who are out of shape often see it as an impossible task the more so because the results are not immediate but depend on regularity. It is regularity of activity that will get you back into shape.
The basic form of exercise is running. Running is something that just about all physically healthy people can do. Basketball players run, swimmers run, even race-car drivers run. And I suggest that you do too.
When you run start out slowly at an easy jog. If you jog regularly you will be surprised at how quickly you will notice the results. But do not compete with other runners. That is a common temptation.
Skiing is also very popular. The fact is that you can learn to ski in a week and enjoy all Sundays and vacations in winter. The new skier should buy skis, boots, and ski poles. You needn’t start buying fancy clothes. Fashionable ski wear will come later when you learn to ski.
Some people perform yoga. Yoga is not a religion. It is a simple practical method of exercise. The exercises are simple, easy to perform, and don’t involve a great deal of strain.
Ø 2) Answer the questions on the text:
a)Why is it necessary to exercise?
b)What are the simplest kinds of exercise for beginners? Why?
c)What is the most important principle in exercise?
d)What is the basic form of exercise? Why?
e)What should a new skier buy first of all?
f)What is yoga?
2.7 ARE YOU FOND OF PETS?
Ø 1) Do you keep a pet? What pet is it? Why do you keep it? What irritates you about your pet? Have you had any funny situations that happened to your pets?
I think that it is very important to have a pet at home. It absolutely does not matter, what kind of animal it is. It can be a cat, a dog, a hamster, a turtle, a parrot, or even a gold fish. Cats and dogs are the most popular pets in many countries. For me, cats are the most incredible and mystic animals. I love cats because they are warm, fluffy, and independent. Cats let us stroke them and purr with pleasure. It is convenient to keep these domestic animals.
Dogs are a man’s best friends. Dogs are extremely clever and understand everything you tell them. Keeping a dog in a flat can be problematic because you need to walk it two or three times a day. Another problem is that our flats are relatively small even for small dogs.
In eastern countries cats and dogs are exotic pets. People there mostly keep birds that are usually smaller than parrots. The reason for keeping birds is that cities in eastern countries are overpopulated, so there are not enough parks and squares. If I had an opportunity, I would definitely keep a bright bird at home, but unfortunately I am allergic to bird feathers.
Personally I do not understand when people keep fish. Fish, big or small, do not speak. You cannot touch it. Keeping fish is a very difficult and money demanding process.
People usually keep hamsters, rabbits, rats, and mice to teach children to take care of animals and to be human. Besides, these animals are funny and noiseless.
It is very interesting when somebody has exotic and even dangerous pets, such as spiders, cockroaches, snakes, and frogs. But one must be a real professional. Otherwise the animals will die or harm somebody. I would choose to keep frogs in an aquarium. I think they are really nice and energetic. And some frogs have beautiful voices. So, you can choose any pet but you must love it. I cannot understand how people live without pets. Can you?
Ø 2) Find adjectives that describe pets in the text.
Ø 3) Find expressions that show your personal opinion in the text.
CHOOSING A PEN PAL
Ø 1) Read about Helga and choose a pen pal for her.
Helga, 31 years old, comes from Germany and speaks French, English and Russian. She would like a pen pal who is interested in exchanging ideas about language learning. She does not like using computers for learning and believes that language learning can only happen in a classroom.
a) Alessandro, 25 years old, comes from Rome. He is interested in finding a pen pal who speaks different languages and can exchange ideas on using the computer for learning purposes. He likes playing tennis and football in his free time.
b) Jack, 27, is from London. His favorite pastime is learning languages. He goes to evening German and French classes and uses his computer to improve his German and French by visiting Internet sites.
c) Kim Lee, 19 years old, comes from Seoul, South Korea. Kim loves traveling and hopes to visit Great Britain in the future. He would like a pen pal who is interested in discussing the differences between life in Europe and life in Asia. He loves listening to pop music and playing football in his free time.
d) Elisabeth, 35 years old, comes from Sydney, Australia. She likes learning languages, but does not like using modern technology. She is interested in finding a pen pal who also enjoys learning languages in a traditional manner.
e) Olga, 32 years old, comes from Moscow, Russia. She is a historian and would like to find a pen pal who is interested in discussing the history of Russia. She is not interested in comparing different political systems.
f) Pietro, 42 years old, comes from Argentina. He is a businessman and would like to find a pen pal who is also a businessperson and lives in North America. He is married with three children and likes using the Internet in his free time.
Ø 2) Which of these people would you choose as a pen pal?
Ø 3) Write a paragraph about yourself in a similar way and find “a pen pal” among your classmates.
2.9 WHAT IS YOUR ZODIAC SIGN?
Ø 1) What is your zodiac sign? What is your opinion on the zodiac signs system?
Ø 2) Below are descriptions of zodiac signs. Read about your sign, and then agree or disagree with the given information.
Capricorn – The Go-Getter (Dec. 22 – Jan. 19). Patient and wise. Practical and rigid. Ambitious. Tends to be good-looking. Humorous and funny. Can be a bit shy and reserved. Often pessimistic. Capricorn tends to act before he thinks and can be unfriendly at times. Holds grudges. Likes competition. Gets what he wants.
Aquarius – The Sweetheart (Jan. 20 – Feb. 18). Optimistic and honest. Has a sweet personality. Very independent. Inventive and intelligent. Friendly and loyal. Can seem unemotional. Can be a bit rebellious. Very stubborn, but original and unique. Attractive on the inside and out. Has an eccentric personality.
Pisces – The Dreamer (Feb. 19 – Mar. 20). Generous, kind, and thoughtful. Very creative and imaginative. May become secretive and vague. Sensitive. Doesn’t like details. Dreamy and unrealistic. Sympathetic and loving. Kind. Unselfish. A good kisser. Beautiful.
Aries – The Daredevil (Mar. 21 - April 19). Energetic. Adventurous and spontaneous. Confident and enthusiastic. Fun. Loves a challenge. Extremely impatient. Sometimes selfish. Is easily angered. Lively, passionate. Has a sharp wit. Outgoing. Loses interest quickly – gets easily bored. Egotistical. Courageous and assertive. Tends to be physical and athletic.
Taurus – The Enduring One (April 20 - May 20). Charming but aggressive. Can come off as boring, but he is not. Hard workers. Warm-hearted. Strong, has endurance. A solid being that is stable and secure in his way. Doesn’t look for shortcuts. Takes pride in his beauty. Patient and reliable. Makes great friends and gives good advice. Loving and kind. Loves hard. Passionate. Expresses himself emotionally. Is prone to ferocious temper-tantrums. Determined. Indulges himself often. Very generous.
Gemini – The Chatterbox (May 21 - June 20). Smart and witty. Outgoing, very chatty. Lively, energetic. Adaptable but needs to express himself. Argumentative and outspoken. Likes change. Versatile. Busy, sometimes nervous and tense. Likes to gossip. May seem superficial or inconsistent. Beautiful physically and mentally.
Cancer – The Protector (June 21 - July 22). Moody, emotional. May be shy. Very loving and caring. Pretty / handsome. An excellent partner for life. Protective. Inventive and imaginative. Cautious. Touchy-feely kind of person. Needs love from others. Is easily hurt. Sympathetic.
Leo – The Boss (July 23 – Aug. 22). Very organized. Needs order in his life – likes being in control. Likes boundaries. Tends to take over everything. Bossy. Likes to help others. Social and outgoing. Extroverted. Generous, warm-hearted. Sensitive. Creative energy. Full of himself. Loving. Doing the right thing is important to Leo. Attractive.
Virgo – The Perfectionist (Aug. 23 – Sept. 22). Dominant in relationships. Conservative. Always wants the last word. Argumentative. Worries a lot. Very smart. Dislikes noise and chaos. Eager. Hardworking. Loyal. Beautiful. Easy to talk to. Hard to please. Harsh. Practical and very fussy. Often shy. Pessimistic.
Libra – The Harmonizer (Sept. 23 – Oct. 22). Nice to everyone he meets. Can’t make up his mind. Has his own unique appeal. Creative, energetic, and very sociable. Hates to be alone. Peaceful, generous. Very loving and beautiful. Flirtatious. Gives in too easily. Procrastinator. Very gullible.
Scorpio – The Intense One (Oct. 23 – Nov. 21). Very energetic. Intelligent. Can be jealous and/or possessive. Hardworking. A great kisser. Can become obsessive or secretive. Holds grudges. Attractive. Determined. Loves being in long relationships. Talkative. Romantic. Can be self-centered at times. Passionate and emotional.
Sagittarius – The Happy-Go-Lucky One (Nov. 22 – Dec. 21). A good-natured optimist. Doesn’t want to grow up (Peter Pan Syndrome). Indulges himself. Boastful. Likes luxuries and gambling. Social and outgoing. Doesn’t like responsibility. Often fantasizes. Impatient. Fun to be around. Has lots of friends. Flirtatious. Doesn’t like rules. Sometimes hypocritical. Dislikes to be confined by tight spaces or even tight clothes. Doesn’t like being doubted. Beautiful inside and out.
Ø 3) Provide real-life examples to prove that you have (or don’t have) the qualities mentioned in the description of your zodiac sign.
Ø 4) Read the descriptions of other zodiac signs and find more adjectives to characterize yourself.
2.10 WHAT IS YOUR TYPICAL DAY LIKE?
Ø 1) Read the text and answer the questions:
a) How old is the author of the text?
b) Is the author of the text a male or a female?
c)How can you characterize this person?
As many people I have different schedules for weekdays and weekends. I think that it is very important to go to bed before midnight and to get up quite early in the morning, especially on weekdays. Thus you manage to do everything you plan to do. My major duty is to study at the university. My classes usually begin at 8.30 a.m.
Every day I get up at half past six. I go jogging to the park near my place. So I do jogging for about thirty minutes and then do some exercises. After this I do not feel sleepy at all. I feel refreshed and full of energy.
I return home at about 7 o’clock, take a shower and then have breakfast. I know the first thing many people do when they get up in the morning is to turn on TV. They do it automatically because they are used to this artificial noise. And when they have breakfast, they watch the news or morning programs. Well, I think all this is the key to our morning depression or bad mood. It is better to read or hear news later at work. I even hate reading newspapers and entertaining magazines in the morning. I like to talk to my parents while having breakfast.
After breakfast I put all the necessary textbooks into my bag and get dressed. I leave home at about 8 o’clock. I get to my university by bicycle. My classes usually finish at 4 p.m. When classes are over I go to the sports center where I have karate lessons. I have karate lessons three times a week. When I do not have them, I take guitar lessons.
I come home at 7 p.m. I have dinner and start doing my homework at about 8 o’clock. If I have some spare time after doing homework, I play the guitar or read. I go to bed at about half past eleven. On weekends I usually get up at 8 o’clock and do the same things I do on weekdays except going to university. At 12 o’clock I rehearse with the rock band where I play the guitar. Our rehearsal ends late in the evening. On weekends I can stay at home and read books, or go somewhere with my friends.
I think that it is very useful to have a schedule. It prevents us from wasting precious time.
Ø 2) Agree or disagree with the statements from the text:
a)It is very important to go to bed before midnight and to get up quite early in the morning.
b)The first thing many people do when they get up in the morning is to turn on TV.
c)It is very useful to have a schedule.
Ø 3) Find useful words and expressions in the text that describe the usual routine. Compare your typical day with the day of this person.
A BUSY DAY
Ø 1) What other adjectives can you use to describe a day?
Ø 2) Choose the correct answer to the questions:
a) Who is busy? (Barbara, Catherine, none of them)
b) Who doesn’t have a busy day? (Barbara, Catherine, both of them)
c) What are they doing? (shopping, jogging, watching tennis)
d) Why is Barbara driving to school? (to meet some friends, her daughter has a rehearsal, to meet some friends for lunch)
e) What is Katherine doing later today? (going to the park, nothing special, going shopping)
Two friends speaking in a park when they meet each other jogging.
Barbara: Hi, Katherine, how are you today?
Katherine: I’m great and you?
Barbara: Very busy! I’m jogging now, but later I have to do a lot!
Katherine: What do you have to do?
Barbara: Well, first of all, I have to do the shopping. We don’t have anything to eat at home. And then I need to buy a reliable English-German dictionary.
Katherine: What for?
Barbara: Haven’t I told you that I have joined an English class? The lessons are on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. That keeps me pretty busy.
Katherine: But why would you want that language course? Are you planning to move to your relatives in Los Angeles?
Barbara: Not really. I do speak English a little, and I just want to polish my language skills a bit to get a promotion at my company.
Katherine: You don’t mean to say that the position of a top manager at HR department is now vacant?
Barbara: In fact, it is. And I am working hard to get it! For that I need to be fluent, not just conversant in English. That’s why I know that my investment in the language courses will pay off eventually.
Katherine: It sure will. What are you doing after that?
Barbara: Little Justina has a rehearsal this afternoon. I’m driving her to school, to her drama club.
Barbara: She’s doing very well. Next week, they’re staging “Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare. And again, the performance will be in English! So we are helping each other with the language!
Katherine: That’s impressive.
Barbara: Well, Justina likes acting. I’m happy she’s enjoying it. What are you doing today?
Barbara: You’re so lucky!
Katherine: No, you’re the lucky one. I’d like to have so many things to do.
Ø 3) Later that evening Barbara and Catherine tell their husbands about the news they have learned. What do they say to their husbands?