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ВАРИАНТ № 16
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The Sun's energy manifests itself as thermal, photoelectric and photochemical effects. Men have tried to use solar energy since earliest times, but no means existed to generate useful power from the Sun's heat until steam and hot-air engines were invented.
Crude devicesfor heating water by solar energy date back many years, and production of salt by solar evaporation of sea water is probably the most ancient of man's sun-activated processes. Photo-electricityhas been known for almost a century, and millions of selenium photocells have been used as light meters and in similar application.
Most fundamental of all thermal solar processes is the simple fact that, when sunlight falls upon a surface of any kind, the surface becomes warmer than the surrounding air. The extentrise of the surface temperature depends upon many factors. The most important of which are the angle between the surface and the-sun's rays, the absorptivity of the surface and precautions taken to prevent the surface from losing the absorbed heat.
The angle effect is caused by the fact that the Sun's rays travel in straight lines. When a surface is perpendicular to the rays, their intensity is at its maximum; the surface being horizontal, the radiation intensity drops offand reaches its minimum.
The most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the heated surface is to cover it with one or more sheets of a glass-like material. This material is transparent to the Sun's rays but opaque to the longer wave length emitted by the warmed surface. The air space between the surface and the glass is an effective prevention of heat loss by convection.
A flat plate of blackened metal covered with one or more transparent sheets of glass or plastic is known to be the simplest collector of solar energy. Once collected, heat can be used in a variety of ways. Here are some of the potential and actual applications.
Space heating is probably the most important, since nearly one-third of our energy supply is used for this purpose. Water heating can be achieved by portable solar heaters,which are able to give as much as 400 litres of boiling water on a sunny day.
The distillation of sea's water is another process to be accomplished by variations of the simple plate collector The production of temperatures low enough for air conditioning and domestic refrigeration is a very important potential use of solar energy which is only now beginning to receive the attention it deserves.
Our Sun and Earth, our Moon and the planets, meteors and comets belong to the "family of the Sun" which we call our "solar system".
Our solar system includes nine planets and their moons. The closest planet to the sun is Mercury. No other planet receives dyes and chemical compounds. The second group is made up of inorganic crystallized substances called phosphors including very small quantities of other substances.
Luminofores are widely used in modern technique, in particular in the production of luminescence lamps a common feature of our everyday life. Luminescent lamps are made by coating the interior of glass tubes with a film of luminofore, the tubes being filled with mercury vapours and argon,and charged with electricity. The electric charge causes an invisible ultraviolet radiation from the mercury vapours while the luminofore on the inside of the tube absorbs rays and transforms them into powerful visible light. By using various luminofores one can make lamps of any colour.
Luminescence is also used in television, a luminous screen being an important part of television picture tubes.Luminofores enable as also to discover and observe such radiations as ultrared, ultraviolet, x-ray, and alpha that are insipid to the eye as well as fast-moving elementary particles, produced by radioactive disintegrationor artificial transformation of the atomic nucleus.
The radiation produced under the influence of elementary particles plays an important part in the study of atomic problems. Vanous substances giving off radiations of specific spectral composition are used for making all kinds of analyses in biology, medicine, industry and agriculture. By observing the radiation of biological compounds, one can detect various diseases and trace their development.
2 Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) earliest times;
2) glass-like material;
3) crude devices;
4) transparent sheets of glass;
5) similar application;
6) energy supply;
7) a surface of any kind;
8) a common feature;
9) absorbed heat;
10) electric charge.
3 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) полезная энергия;
2) плоская пластина;
3) испарения морской воды;
4) в солнечный день;
5) окружающий воздух;
6) потенциальное использование;
7) самый эффективный способ;
8) маленькое количество;
9) потеря энергии;
10) широко используются.
4 Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:
Vapour, luminous, ultra, radio, art, integration, develop, go, photo, emit.
5 Задайте к, выделенному в тексте, предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.
6 Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:
1) Men have tried to use solar energy since earliest times.
2) Light falling on the cathode will cause electrons to be emitted, the anode being supplied with a positive potential, electrons will be attracted toward it, producing a photoelectric current.
3) It is the atomic bomb that is known to be example of great amount of energy contained in an atomic structure.
4) They said that crude devicesfor heating water by solar energy dated back many years.
5) Photo-electricityhas been known for almost a century, and millions of selenium photocells have been used as light meters and in similar application.
7 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1) When have men tried to use solar energy?
2) What is the most fundamental of all thermal solar processes?
3) What is the angle effect caused by?
4) What is the most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the heated surface?
5) What is known to be the simplest collector of solar energy?
6) What do we call our "solar system"?
7) Where are luminofores widely used?