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ВАРИАНТ № 12
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A DIESEL ENGINE
A Diesel engine is a machine which produces power by burning oil in air which has been quickly compressed to a high pressure by a piston moving in a closed cylinder. The piston is shown at its lowest position, about to start upwards on its compression stroke. As it moves upwards it compresses the air above it into a smaller and smaller volume. If the final volume of the air is one twenty-fifth of its original volume, the engine is said to have a compression ratio of 25.
The piston is shown at its highest position. Here the air in the cylinder is highly compressed and is also very hot. (Have you not noticed how your bicycle-pump gets hot when you pump up your tyres?) At this stage of the cycle of operation oil is injected into the hot air. The oil ignites instantaneously. The heat of its combustion raises the temperature of the air still higher and so the pressure of the enclosed air is very much increased also.
The piston is therefore forced down again violently. This second stroke of the piston is called the working-stroke.
After reaching the bottom of its working-stroke the piston begins to rise again. Its purpose now is to sweep the products of combustion from the cylinder. So a valve is opened to let the spent gases escape to the exhaust pipe as the piston rises to the top of its third stroke.
The fourth stroke of the piston is downwards again. The exhaust valve is closed and an inlet valve is opened to allow fresh air to refill the cylinder. After four strokes, two up and two down, the cylinder is again in the condition we began with. We say that it has completed its four-stroke cycle.
A Diesel engine usually has four cylinders which fire in turn. The four pistons are connected to a rotating crankshaft so that the working-stroke of one piston is always available to drive the three simultaneously non-working-strokes of the other pistons. The remaining energy of the working-stroke is available for the external work the Diesel engine has to do.
Great Towns, Cities
You may wish to begin exploring England with the sights and shops of London, but there are many other fascinating cities that you should visit during your stay. Only an hour or so from the capital is Cambridge, the famous university town. There are many museums; colleges open to the public, good shops, walks along the river, and boats for hire.
To the west lies Stratford-on-Avon, an attractive town, famous as the birthplace of William Shakespeare in the 16th century. A day here must include a trip to a performance by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Royal Shakespeare or Swan Theatre.
In eastern England is Norwich, a proud city with narrow, winding alleyways, antique shops, a large outdoor market, cosy pubs and coffee shops. The city's cathedral is a magnificent piece of architecture, and there is even a castle completed with dungeons.
At the geographical heart of England there is the vibrant city of Birmingham with its excellent shopping and entertainment to cater for every taste. The visitor will also find a legacy of attractive Victorian architecture and the intricate network of canals as evidence of a rich industrial heritage.
Manchester is another warm-hearted city. Innovative attractions include the Museum of Science and Industry, the Air and Space Museum and the Studios Tour, where visitors can explore the sets of famous television shows like Coronation Street, or sit on the Back Benches of a life-size House of Commons.
Further north is the city of Durham, which boasts a massive l1th-century castle standing opposite a beautiful cathedral. Both
are situated on cliffs, high above the river Wear, which snakes around them. There are also narrow, cobbled streets, ancient buildings, and a market square which comes to life each Saturday.
2 Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) burning oil;
2) narrow, cobbled streets;
3) it compresses the air;
4) stroke of the piston;
5) to ignite instantaneously;
6) exhaust pipe;
7) the heat of combustion;
8) to refill the cylinder;
9) to force down violently;
10) a rotating crankshaft.
3 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) высокое давление;
2) пленительные города;
3) первоначальный объем;
4) накачивать шины;
5) клапан открыт;
6) богатое наследие;
7) привлекательный город;
8) воздух в цилиндре;
9) угодить любому вкусу;
10) в натуральную величину.
4 Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:
Quick, perform, east, birth, able, down, combust, up, small, high.
5 Задайте к, выделенному в тексте, предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.
6 Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:
1) Have you not noticed how your bicycle-pump gets hot when you pump up your tyres?
2) A Diesel engine usually has four cylinders which fire in turn.
3) The oil is igniting instantaneously.
4) It is the second stroke of the piston that is called the working-stroke.
5) They said that the city's cathedral was a magnificent piece of architecture, and there was even a castle completed with dungeons.
7 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1) How does a Diesel engine produce power?
2) When is the engine said to have a compression ratio of 25?
3) What happens to the air in the cylinder when the piston is at its highest position?
4) How does the oil ignite?
5) What kind of city is Norwich?
6) What is there at the geographical heart of England?
7) What do you know about the city of Durham?