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ВАРИАНТ № 3
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The Eighteenth Century
The development of specialized schools like Christ's Hospital Mathematical School led to the establishment of schools with a broader curriculum, still oriented to vocational training, but offering foreign languages and some classical studies. These private schools were in direct competition with the grammar schools, and the best of the new schools sent a certain percentage of graduates to the universities. This kind of private schools was commonly called an "Academy". Nicholas Hans suggests that these schools were fashioned after the so-called Academies that flourished in Germany, France, and England in the seventeenth century. They were designed to "prepare the noble youth for his profession as a courtier and soldier and introduced military subjects, mathematics, physical training and accomplishments".
The curriculum of these private academies had four groupings of subjects: literary, mathematics-science, vocational-technical, and accomplishments-physical training.
From textbooks on various subjects published by most of them, and from the description of some of the Academies, it is evident that their methods were not "bookish" but practical and whenever possible approximated to an actual situation of business or technical vocation. It was true not only of vocational and technical training; the same methods were applied in teaching mathematics and languages.
Such academies were founded all during the eighteenth century, and although some were short-lived, approximately 200 such schools were operating in England throughout the latter part of the century.
Most of these schools drew their students from the lower middle class and craftsmen. Thus finally the need of that group for educational opportunity was being met. In fact, the mathematical part of these schools was a vital part of the needs of the times.
The education in the grammar schools of the eighteenth century was the same as education in the grammar schools in the sixteenth century. These schools were bound by their foundation statutes and hence were unable to modify their classical structure. Some did add modern subjects such as elementary mathematics, French, and German. Some schools merely restricted their program to elementary education. Due to the competition from other private schools, their enrolments dropped and many went out of existence.
Those grammar schools that wanted to augment their curriculums created disputes that were taken to the law courts. Consider the Leeds Grammar School, which wished to include practical subjects like mathematics and foreign languages. The Governor of the school took the case to court in 1795. After ten years of indecision, in 1805 the court decided that:
The intention of the founder was to establish a grammar school and ... a grammar school was defined as an institution "for teaching grammatically the learned languages." The court could not sanction "the conversion of that Institution by filling a school intended for that mode of Education with Schoolars learning the German and French languages, Mathematics, and anything save Greek and Latin".
In fact, it was only in 1840 that the Parliament passed the Grammar Schools Act, which allowed for modernization of the curriculum.
In the so-called public schools it was not any better. Classical studies dominated the education curriculum.
Since the needs of the public centred on commercial subjects, the importance of these schools faded for all but the nobility and some of the gentry who desired to maintain the status quo.
We see therefore that the arithmetic taught in the eighteenth century was almost exclusively a vocational subject. Hence all the arithmetic the students ever learned was a set of rules that produced the answers to their problems. Texts had repeated editions with little changes in content and usually considerable additions of specialized commercial problem types.
No accomplished mathematicians wrote the arithmetics of the eighteenth century. De Morgan, writing reasonably close to this time, greatly condemned the editions of Cocker's Arithmetic. Cocker's book had an enormous popularity, although it was one of the most offensive texts from a mathematical point of view. It was first published in 1677 and was still in print in the early nineteenth century. Hence De Morgan was well acquainted with it in 1847, and after six pages of disparagement he notes: "I am of the opinion that a very great deterioration in elementary works on arithmetic is to be traced from the time at which the book called after Cocker began to prevail."
To summarize, the causes which checked the growth of demonstrative arithmetic are as follows:
(1) Arithmetic was not studied for its own sake, nor valued for the mental discipline which it affords, and was, consequently, learned only by the commercial classes, because of the material gain derived from a knowledge of arithmetical rules.
(2) The best minds failed to influence and guide the average minds in arithmetical authorship.
By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the dichotomy of teaching practices was at its worst. The grammar schools were slowly breaking from the classical narrowness on the one hand and the technical schools were teaching a rigid rule-dominated commercial arithmetic which had little mathematical content. Surely this was a low point in arithmetic teaching in England. In the nineteenth century, men like De Morgan advocated and effectively initiated reforms that began the way towards the modern arithmetic teaching of today.
As the years from 1550 to 1800 are reviewed, even in this narrow field, the dynamics of interplay can clearly be seen between the demands of the rising middle class, the clergy, and the government's national needs. The emergence of arithmetic teaching can be seen as a slow and painful development. That is to say, the development of arithmetic practices followed the same patterns that all educational practices follow. When the change involves the integration of many different social points of view, it traditionally follows that the change is slow. Such is the way of all education.
2 Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) a certain percentage of graduates; 6) modern subjects;
2) specialized schools; 7) private schools;
3) noble youth; 8) the intention of the founder;
4) business or technical vocation; 9) in fact;
5) latter part of the century; 10) the importance of these schools.
3 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) свод правил; 7) впервые опубликованы;
2) изменения в содержании; 8) математическое содержание;
3) совершенный математик; 9) произошли из знаний
4) огромная популярность; арифметики;
5) придерживаться мнения; 10) в узкой сфере.
6) ухудшение элементарных
4 Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:
develop, found,educate, academy,eight, element,govern, compete,text, effect.
5 Задайте к, выделенному в тексте, предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.
6 Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные.
1) This kind of private schools was commonly called an "Academy".
2) Some did add modern subjects such as elementary mathematics, French, and German.
3) No accomplished mathematicians wrote the arithmetics of the eighteenth century.
4) Thus finally the need of that group for educational opportunity is being met.
5) It was this schools that drew its students from the lower middle class and craftsmen.
6) The curriculum of these private academies had four groupings of subjects.
7) By the nineteenth century, men like De Morgan had advocated and effectively initiated reforms.
8) The writer said, that in fact, it was only in 1840 that the Parliament had passed the Grammar Schools Act.
7 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1) What did the development of specialized schools like Christ's Hospital Mathematical School lead to?
2) How was this kind of private schools commonly called?
3) How many subjects did the curriculum of these private academies have?
4) What is it evident from textbooks on various subjects published by most of them, and from the description of some of the Academies?
5) What did the Leeds Grammar School wish to include to their curriculums?
6) What did the court decide in 1805?
7) What was first published in 1677 and was still in print in the early nineteenth century?