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К встрече директоров Всемирного Банка с Экономическим и социальным советом (ЭКОСОС), 1999 г



Господин Председатель,

Найти ресурсы для финансирования развития всегда было трудной проблемой, особенно в последние несколько лет, когда начала проявлятьсяустойчивая тенденция к снижению офици­альной помощи развитию и сокращению добровольных взносов на оперативную деятельность ООН, сопровождаемая к тому же падением цен на сырье и энергетические ресурсы. Проблема с финансами еще более обостряется в условияхразрастающегося финансового кризиса, когда не только иностранные инвесторы проявляют вполне обоснованную осторожность, но и становят­ся весьма ограниченными возможности для мобилизации внутренних ресурсов на цели развития, особенно в странах, по­страдавших от кризиса. В сложившейся ситуации,как представ­ляется, благоприятные условия для обеспечения нуждающихся стран ресурсами для развития могут быть реализованы в полном объеме, если финансовый кризис будет преодолен, а стабиль­ность международных финансов и национальных финансовых систем в пострадавших от кризиса странах будет восстановлена. В этой связи хотелось бы задать несколько вопросов Президен­ту Всемирного банка г-ну Вулфенсону:

Как Вы оцениваете эффективность мер, предпринятых меж­дународными финансовыми институтами для оказания помощи пострадавшим от кризиса странам? Нужны ли какие-то специ­альные дополнительные меры в отношении пострадавших от кризиса стран в связи с обострением там кризиса с учетом того,что его последствия могут оказаться весьма пагубными для мировой экономики в целом?

В резолюции по финансовому кризису,принятой на последней сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи, перед ООН поставлена задача


проанализировать в консультации с бреттон-вудскими учрежде­ниями возможности для улучшения систем раннего оповеще­ния, предотвращения и своевременного реагированияна возник­новение и распространение финансовых кризисов. Аналогичная мысль звучалаи в резолюции по интеграции стран с переходной экономикой в мировую экономику.

Что, по Вашему мнению, реально можно было бы улучшить в этой области, особенно в отношении раннего оповещения о кризисной ситуации и предотвращения кризиса?

В России одна из сложных проблем, которую пытается ре­шить правительство, это мобилизация денежных средств, нахо­дящихся на руках у населения, на развитие производственного сектора экономики. По различным экспертным оценкам, эти суммы составляют десятки миллиардов долларов. Основная труд­ность заключается в том, что финансовый кризис подорвал дове­рие населения к отечественным банкам.Премьер-министр России Е.М.Примаков, выступая на Всемирном экономическом форуме в Давосе, высказал идеюо привлечении для этой цели на рос­сийский рынок иностранных банков.



Как вы считаете,пойдут ли иностранные банки в Россию и на каких условиях? Достаточно ли для этого гарантий россий­ского правительства или необходимы международные гарантии, например, со стороны группы Всемирного банка?

В ряде резолюцийГенеральной Ассамблеи по вопросам раз­вития, в том числе в недавно принятой на ее 53-й сессии резо­люции о трехгодичном обзоре комплекснойполитики в области оперативной деятельности ООН в целях развития, большое зна­чение придается укреплению сотрудничества между Всемирным банком, региональными банками развития и оперативными программами и фондами ООН. Не могли бы Вы сообщить, что предпринимает Банк в этом направлении?

Благодарю, господин Председатель.

* * * Mr. Chairman,

Finding resources to finance development has always been a difficult problem/issue, especially/particularly during recent/the last few/ years, when there/were the first stirrings of/first appeared/was the beginning/emergenceof/a sustained/continuing trend towards a decline in official development assistance (ODA) and a drop/reduction in voluntary contributions to the operational activities of the UN,


accompanied by/as well as by/a fall/decline in prices of raw materials and energy resources. The problem of financing/is even/still further/is being increasingly/additionally exacerbated/aggravated/has worsened/ been compounded by/because of/due to/given/in conditions of/by the

growing financial crisis, for/when not only are foreign investors showing/displaying well-founded/understandable/reasonable/caution, but there are also very limited opportunities/possibilities for mobilizing/using/obtaining domestic/internal resources for development, particularly in countries which have been affected by/ have suffered from/the crisis. In this/that/the existing situation,we believe that/as we see it/it would seem that/favorable conditions for providing needy countries/countries in need/with resources for development can be fully realized/implemented/if the financial crisis is overcome, and the stability of international financing and national finance systems is restored in the countries affected by the crisis. Here/on this point/I would like to ask/raise a few questions of/with the President of the World Bank, Mr. Wolfenson:



How do you assess the effectiveness of the measures/steps taken by the international financial institutions to render assistance to countries affected by the crisis? Is there a need for special additional measures for the affected countries because of/in connection with/due to/ given the exacerbation/aggravation of the crisis there and because/ since/given thatits consequences may (turn out to) be highly negative/ adverse/pernicious for the global economy in its entirety/as a whole?

The resolution on the financial crisisadopted at the last session of the General Assembly faced the United Nations with/placed before the United Nations the problem/issue of analyzing, in consultation with the Bretton Woods institutions, possibilities for improving the early warning system, for/preventing and responding in a timely manner/the prevention of and rapid responseto/the emergence and spread of financial crises. A similar idea was also included/a similar note was sounded/inthe resolution on the integration of countries with a transition economy into the world economy.

What, in your view, could realistically/in fact/be improved in this area/field, in particular regarding early warnings of crisis situations and crisis prevention?

In Russia, one of the major problems which the government is trying to resolve is that of the mobilization of funds held by the population, to develop/for the development of/the production sector of the economy. According to various expert assessments/evaluations, these sums account for/run into many billions/billions and billions/of dollars. A particular difficulty is that/There is a particular problem


because the financial crisis has undermined the population's confidence in Russian/our banks.The Russian Prime Minister, Evgeny Primakov /Mr. Primakov, speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, suggested/proposed(the idea) of attracting foreign banks to the Russian market/involving foreign banks in the Russian market for this reason/purpose.

What is your view/How do you feel about this/What do you think —

will foreign banks become involved in/go to/Russia, and on what conditions? For/to that purpose/end, will guarantees of the Russian government suffice/are guarantees of the Russian government sufficient, or are international guarantees necessary, for example, from the group of the World Bank?

A number of resolutionsof the General Assembly on development issues, including the one recently adopted at its 53rd session on the three-year review of comprehensivepolicy in the operational activity of the UN for development, attaches great importance to strengthening cooperation between the World Bank, the regional banks for development and the operative programs and funds of the UN. Could you inform/tell us what the bank is doing here/in this respect/ in this area?

This speech includes some economic terminology, but it is part of a discussion rather than a statement in a formal debate and is relatively relaxed in tone; this needs to come across in the interpretation.

Комментарии:

1) когда начала проявляться— "when there first appeared" will do it,
but you could also say "when there was the beginning of."Or the
interpreter can wait and say "when a continuing/sustained trend began..."

2) проблема с финансами еще больше обостряется в условиях... —
there are a number of options here. The simplest is to say that "the
problem is being aggravated or exacerbated"
or "has worsened"because of
the growing financial crisis. В условияхcan be omitted, or replaced by
"because."

3) в сложившейся ситуации— here is another example of this word
which is best rendered as "this," "that"or "the existing situation,"not by
a form of the verb.

4) в связи с обострением там кризиса с учетом того... — "given the
aggravation of the crisis there and because its consequences..."
is a simple
solution. В связиhere is causal, and does not need to be rendered as "in
connection with;" с учетом тогоalso has a causal meaning, and does not
need to be translated as "in the light of or "taking into account that,"
which does nothing but complicate the sentence.


5) в резолюции по финансовому кризису — if резолюцияis not made
into a nominative subject, the sentence will be extremely clumsy once the
interpreter gets to "перед ООН поставлена."

6) предотвращения и своевременного реагирования —there is a
problem here because two different prepositions are needed in English:
"the prevention of and rapid/timely response to."Use of the gerunds
eliminates this problem: "for preventing and responding rapidly/in a timely
manner to..."

7) аналогичная мысль звучала— "a similar idea was included" will do
it. The verb звучатьwill not translate idiomatically here; if the idea was
"heard," that implies an oral context, and this is a written document.

8) десятки миллиардов долларов— there is no need to translate десят­
ки
here, and it will sound highly unidiomatic. "Many billions" or "billions
and billions"
will make the point.

9) основная трудность заключается в том, что финансовый кризис по­
дорвал доверие населения к отечественным банкам — основная труд­
ность
can begin the sentence: "The basic difficulty is that..." or "The basic
problem is that..."
Any attempts to render заключается в томas "consists
in" will only complicate the sentence.

10) высказал идею — "expressed the idea"is awkward. Simply
"suggested"or "proposed that"without the noun is perfectly clear.

11) как вы считаете...— this is a request for an opinion, and can be fairly
colloquial: "What do you think?" or "What is your view?"is quite
sufficient. The interpreter then needs to pause before continuing the
sentence: "Will foreign banks become involved?"Starting off with "Do you
think that foreign banks will become involved?" tightens the question,
which is a very open one, a request for a general opinion.

12) в ряде резолюций— first of all, в рядеshould be rendered as a
nominative subject, and, second, it is much better translated as "a number
of"
then as "a series of." "Series" implies that the resolutions flow
logically from each other, whereas these may be a set of resolutions on
different topics that are not following a tight sequence in which the
preceding one determines the context of the next one.

13) комплексной— this must be translated as "comprehensive,"not as
"complex,"which in English means "difficult."

14) что предпринимает Банк в этом направлении? — "what the bank is
doing here"
is quite enough, but the interpreter can add "in this regard"
or "in this respect." "In this direction"obviously does not work.


Intervention at a Meeting of the Directors of World Bank and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

(Читается в нормальном и быстром темпе с американским акцентом) Mr. Chairman,

Finding resources to finance development has always been a difficult problem, especially during the last few years, when there was the beginning of a trend towards a decline in official development assistance and a reduction in voluntary contributions to the operational activities of the UN, accompanied by a decline in prices of raw materials and energy resources. The problem of financing was further exacerbated by the growing financial crisis, for not only are foreign investors displaying understandable caution, but there are also very limited possibilities for mobilizing internal resources for development, particularly in countries which have been affected by the crisis. In this situation, we believe that favorable conditions for providing needy countries with resources for development can be fully realized if the financial crisis is overcome, and the stability of international financing and national finance systems is restored in the countries affected by the crisis. On this point 1 would like to ask a few questions of the President of the World Bank, Mr. Wolfenson:

How do you assess the effectiveness of the measures taken by the international financial institutions to render assistance to countries affected by the crisis? Is there a need for special additional measures for the affected countries because of the aggravation of the crisis there and since its consequences may turn out to be highly pernicious for the global economy as a whole?

The resolution on the financial crisis adopted at the last session of the General Assembly faced the United Nations with the problem of analyzing, in consultation with the Bretton Woods institutions, the possibilities for improving the early warning system, for preventing and for responding in a timely manner to the emergence and spread of financial crises. A similar idea was also included in the resolution on the integration of countries with a transition economy into the world economy.

What, in your view, could in fact be improved in this area, in particular regarding early warnings of crisis situations and crisis prevention?

In Russia, one of the major problems which the government is trying to resolve is that of the mobilization of funds held by the po­pulation, in order to develop the production sector of the economy. According to various expert assessments, these sums run into many


billions of dollars. There is a particular problem because the financial crisis has undermined the population's confidence in our banks. Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, the Russian Prime Minister, Evgeny Primakov, suggested involving foreign banks in the Russian market for this purpose.

What is your view — will foreign banks become involved in Russia, and on what conditions? To that end, will guarantees of the Russian government suffice, or are international guarantees necessary, for example, from the group of the World Bank?

A number of resolutions of the General Assembly on development issues, including the one recently adopted at its 53rd session on the three-year review of comprehensive policy in the operational activity of the UN for development, attaches great importance to strengthening cooperation between the World Bank, the regional banks for development and the operative programs and funds of the UN. Could you tell us what the bank is doing in this respect?

Текст 21 Реклама

(Интервью с Константином Костиным, руководителем рекламной службы банка) '

В последнее времяна главные роли выходит рекламакак ин­струмент маркетинга, который продвигаетбанковские продукты и банковский имидж. Посмотрите, как изменилась «имиджевая» реклама банков: каких-то абстрактных слоганов типа «Крупица золота в море песка» мы уже и не слышим. А помнитевсе эти символы банковского могущества начала девяностых — дубовый стол,сотовый телефон, швейцарские часы? С тех пор рынок сильно профессионализировался. Банки становятся все более придирчивыми.В ответ на это появляется новая реклама с кон­кретными и ясными бизнес-идеями. Существует и такое мощ­ное оружие, как значимое молчание. Это тоже рекламный ход.Однако здесь неуместны передержки.Долго молчать так же пло­хо, как говорить о себе слишком часто. Особенно в горячих си­туацияхна финансовом рынке. По моему мнению, некоторым банкам-молчунам стоило бы декларировать свои позиции даже не столько косвенной, сколько прямой рекламой.

Основная задача рекламной службы — обеспечить рекламную поддержку развития банка. У меня нет каких-то абстрактных

' Из книги: Л.Школьник, «Уроки рекламных королей», М.Валет', I99X.


задач. Скажем, привлечь сто миллиардов.Есть план по продвиже­нию имиджа. Есть график рекламного обеспечения двигаемых банковских продуктов, он, кстати, забирает четверть сметы.

Вообще, мне представляется,что доводить информацию до общественности через публикации и репортажи опытных жур­налистов значительно лучше, чем пользоваться прямыми рек­ламными объявлениями. Дело в том, что хороший журналист обладает в глазах аудитории качествами эксперта. Прямой рек­ламе верят меньше, однако это вовсе не означает, что нужно от нее отказываться. Общественному сознанию, помимо информа­ции из всевозможных статей, телепередач, нужно что-то еще. А кроме того, крупный банк просто не может всего сказать о себе в некоей косвенной форме.

Несколько слов о творческой стороне дела. Здесь самая большая проблема — найти идею. Хорошая рекламная идея — вещь самодостаточная и самоценная. Она имеет собственную стоимость, помимо того рекламного эффекта, который она приносит для коммерческой структуры. Как произведение искусства. В банковской сфере, естественно, любой хочет ска­зать о своей силе и мощности.Возьмем, к примеру рекламу нашей карточки «ВИЗА», слон с надписью на боку «Купи Сло­на», оборотная сторона луны с надписью «Достань Луну».Она получила награду на нескольких фестивалях, степень реализации карточкипосле проведения рекламной кампании заметно воз­росла. В самом деле, кредитных карточек такого типа на рынке уже много, все они примерно с одинаковыми свойствами, и здесь решающим фактором могла стать реклама. Хотя надо при­знать,что многие вещи в рекламном деле интуитивны и связать их заранее с конечным результатом не так-то просто.

* * *

Recently, advertising has been in the limelight/in the forefront/ taking center stageas a marketing tool/instrument which puts across/ presents/pushesthe bank's products and the bank's image. Just look at how the "image" advertising/publicity of banks has changed: abstract slogans such as "A speck of gold in a sea of sand" are things we don't hear anymore. And just think of/remember/allthose symbols of the power of banks at the beginning of the 90s — a (heavy) oak/ wooden/desk,a cellular phone, a Swiss watch. Since then the market has really gone/turned professional. The banks are/are becoming ever more demanding/raising the ante/getting very picky/choosy.In response to that there are new ads with very specific and clear business ideas/notions.


There's also that powerful weapon, meaningful silence. That's also an advertising tool/trick/thing.However, you/shouldn't overdo that/have to go easy on that/take care not to abuse that one.Being silent for too long is just as bad as talking about yourself too often. Particularly in tough/tight situations/hot spots on the financial markets. 1think that some of the silent banks should state/come out with/their positions not just indirectly/ obliquely, but through direct advertising.

The major goal of the advertising department is to provide advertising in support of the bank's development/to help develop the bank. I don't have any abstract goals. Like/Say,/to get/getting/ attracting a hundred billion.There's a plan to sell/push the image. There's a timetable/calendar/schedule to provide ads for/the products the bank is selling/pushing, and, by the way, that's/that accounts for/ a quarter of the estimate.

As I see it/I think that/all in all,getting information/to public opinion/to the public/through publications and stories by experienced journalists is a lot better than using direct advertising/than going the direct advertising route. After all/You see, a good journalist is looked on/seen as/an expert by the public. People have less belief in direct advertising, but that doesn't mean it should be rejected/dropped/ dumped. Public opinion/awareness, in addition to information from all kinds of articles and TV programs, needs something more/else. And also, a major bank just can't/talk about itself in some kind of indirect way/beat around the bush.

A few words about the creative side of all this. Here the biggest problem is just/finding/coming up with/an idea. A good ad idea works on its own/doesn't need anything else/is self-sufficient and pays for itself is well worth it. It's got its own worth, in addition to the publicity value it has for a commercial organization. Like a work of art. In the bank world, of course/naturally, /everyone wants to talk about/his own strength and power/how great he is and how much he's got/toot his own horn.For example, look at the ad for our Visa card, an elephant with a caption/text on the side "Buy an elephant," and the other side of the moon with the text "Go/reach/shoot/for/the moon."It got a prize at several festivals; the number of sales of the cardafter the ad campaign really shot up/soared. In fact, there are already a lot of credit cards like this/of this kind on the market, and they're all about the same/do the same thing/are pretty much alike; here the turning point/decisive factor/most important thing/key to it allcould be the ad. Though/you've got to admit/in fact/it'strue/that many things in advertising are intuitive, and it's not so easy to hook them up with/link them to/the final result.


This text is a good example of colloquial language used in an interview, and of business terminology. The interpretation into English should retain the flavor of the spoken language; this is an oral interview, not a written statement.

Комментарии:

1) в последнее время— this is best rendered as "recently,"not literally,
"in recent times."

2) выходит реклама— The idea here is that advertising is being
aggressively used, i.e. "in the forefront," "in center stage,"or simply "is
being promoted."

3) продвигает— advertising is "putting across" or "sending the message"
of the bank's products, not just "advancing" them.

4) а помните— this is both colloquial and emphatic, requiring an
additional word in English: "Just remember."Antonymic translation
would work, too: "Don't forget..."

5) дубовый стол— what is important here is the image, not the literal
wording. "A heavy desk/huge wooden desk"will say more to an English
speaker than "an oak desk."

 

6) более придирчивыми— this requires some rewording, as the
dictionary definitions "captious" or "nagging" are totally inappropriate to
the colloquial tone used here. "Becoming/getting very picky/fussy/choosy"
would do it.

7) это тоже рекламный ходходhere is a "tool" or "trick,"or,
colloquially, "thing.""Move" will not work here.

8) здесь неуместны передержки— this phrase requires some reworking,
as "inappropriate" or "improper" sound too stiff. "You can't overdo that"
or ''You've got to go easy on that"will do.

9) в горячих ситуациях— the best thing here is to get away from "hot"
images, though "hot spot" will do in a pinch, to "tough spots" or "tight
situations."

10) скажем, привлечь сто миллиардов— this sentence fragment can be
rendered by a similar fragment in English: "Such as getting/like (very
colloquial)
obtaining/a hundred billion."

11) вообще, мне представляется — вообщеdoes not need to be
translated by "in general" or something of the sort. "Well, I think that,"
or "As I see it"are fine.

12) любой хочет сказать о своей силе и мощи — "everyone"rather than
"anyone"is needed here, and "toot his own horn"is short and suitably
colloquial in suggesting self-praise.

13) "Достань Луну"— the English equivalent of this phrase is "Reach
for"
or "shoot for the moon"rather than "get" or other verbs with a
similar meaning.

 


14) степень реализации карточки— "degree" does not work in English.
The idea is that the number of sales has increased.

15) и здесь решающим фактором могла стать реклама — "turning point"
or "key factor"are much more in keeping with the tone of the whole text
than the more formal "decisive factor." "Could"covers both the past
tense and potential sales in the future.

16) хотя надо признать — "though it's true that" or "In fact"keep the
tone consistent and avoid the use of the pronoun "you," which is not part
of the Russian construction.

Advertising

(Interview with Konstantin Kostin, Head of the Advertising Department of a Bank)

(Читается с американским акцентом)

Recently, advertising has been in the forefront as a marketing tool which puts across the bank's products and the bank's image. Just look at how the "image" publicity of banks has changed: abstract slogans such as "A speck of gold in a sea of sand" are things we don't hear anymore. And just think of all those symbols of the power of banks at the beginning of the 90s — a heavy wooden desk, a cellular phone, a Swiss watch. Since then the market has really gone professional. The banks are getting very picky. In response to that there are new ads with very specific and clear business ideas. There's also that powerful weapon, meaningful silence. That's also an advertising trick. However, you have to go easy on that. Being silent for too long is just as bad as talking about yourself too often. Particularly in tough spots on the financial markets. I think that some of the silent banks should come out with their positions not just obliquely, but through direct advertising.

The major goal of the advertising department is to provide advertising in support of the bank's development. I don't have any abstract goals. Like getting a hundred billion. There's a plan to sell the image. There's a timetable to provide ads for the products the bank is pushing, and, by the way, that accounts for a quarter of the estimate.

As I see it, getting information to the public through publications and stories by experienced journalists is a lot better than going the direct advertising route. After all, a good journalist is seen as an expert by the public. People have less belief in direct advertising, but that doesn't mean it should be dropped. Public opinion, in addition to information from all kinds of articles and TV programs, needs something more. And also, a major bank just can't beat around the bush.


A few words about the creative side of all this. Here the biggest problem is just coming up with an idea. A good ad idea works on its own and pays for itself. It's got its own worth, in addition to the publicity value it has for a commercial organization. Like a work of art. In the bank world, of course, everyone wants to toot his own horn. For example, look at the ad for our Visa card, an elephant with a text on the side "Buy an elephant," and the other side of the moon with the text "Shoot for the moon." It got a prize at several festivals; the number of sales of the card after the ad campaign really soared. In fact, there are already a lot of credit cards like this on the market, and they're all pretty much alike; here the key to it all can be the ad. Though it's true that many things in advertising are intuitive, and it's not so easy to link them to the final result.

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