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Bystanders victimized, too but drug-related violence was not confined to buyers and sellers



Sherman Griffiths, 36, of Milton, a police detective and father of two, was shot to death in February while attempting to search a Dorchester apartment for drugs. Darlene Tiffany Moore, 11, was killed in Roxbury by a stray bullet in a drug-related shooting.

Suspects in the Griffiths and Moore killings are awaiting trial

9. America on Drugs

Once a street menace, narcotics have turned into a national security threat. Americans are now looking for new ways to fight drugs.

Americans now consume 60 percent of the worlds production of illegal drugs. An estimated 20 million are regular users of marijuana, 4 million to 8 million are cocaine abusers, and 500000 are heroin addicts. Drugs are flooding the nation. This year 150 tons of cocaine will spread across the land- from big cities to hamlets. Sales of illegal drugs total a S100 billion annually, more than the total net sales of General Motors. And this profitable business is sickening and killing people in record numbers. Though research shows that use of narcotics has fallen or held steady since 1980, there are far more kinds of drugs now and as a result prices are cheaper which in turn have boosted rates of addiction and cocaine- related deaths and also have generated a massive crime wave.

What could be the solution to the problem? Sending American troops equipped with modern sophisticated devices to assist other countries- namely Peru and Colombia- is one option. Attempts are being made to seal off the customary route of smuggling drugs into the US through Florida.But in fact comprehensive programmes to break addictive habits, to treat drug addicts and persuade people not to use drugs should be launched and more money should be available for drug education.

a hamlet- a small village

to total-,

net sales-

A generation of American children are increasingly at risk of cocaine addiction which causes due concern not only among parents but among officials as well. As thousands of teens have already learned that cocaine is the most seductive, destructive, dangerous with deadly consequences drug on the national black market.The federal governments failed attempts to intercept and ban smuggling from Central and South America has allowed a flood tide of cocaine to reach consumers of all ages in this country.



The US is hit by the drug problem. Cocaine abuse is the fastest growing menace in America for both adults and school-age children. Coke is widely available at low prices within the financial reach of the young.

Crack brings enormous profits and causes violent crime. Even hardened street cops are shocked by the violence of cocaine wars in big cities. The drug dealers are armed heavily and their teenage guards carry weapons as well. Over the past three years 57 people have been killed in drug-related shooting in Oakland, California.

Americas present problem may be the scourge of Europes future.Narcotics police, basing their predictions on the amounts of cocaine they seize in European airports each year, believe that cocaine consumption is growing by as much as 30 percent annually in Italy and by 50 percent in Germany. They will inevitably have to deal with the acute problem.

 

33-36

  1 Answer the questions: How does AIDS get transmitted? What happens to the body once someone contracts the virus? What groups are most at risk? What is the diference between HIV and AIDS? 2 Read the information given to complement your knowledge: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that severely damages the immune system by infecting and destroying certain white blood cells. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the final, life-threatening stage of infection of HIV. Simply because someone tests positively for HIV does not mean they have AIDS. History:The first case of AIDS in the United States was documented in 1981. This disease was most prevalent among homosexual men in the 1980s, but the spread of AIDS among that group has slowed in the 1990s. However, the rate of AIDS in other groups, such as heterosexual men and women and people who inject drugs, continues to rise. AIDS in the United States:An estimated 800,000 to 900,000 people in the United States are currently infected with HIV (Centers for Disease Control). Risk:Of the 40,000 new AIDS cases reported in the United States each year, 42 percent are men who have sex with men, 33 percent are men and women infected by heterosexual sex, and 25 percent were infected by injection drug use (IDU). Youth:Up to 50 percent of all new HIV infections are among those under age 25. It is estimated that 20,000 young people are infected with HIV every year. That means two young Americans between the ages of 13 and 24 are contracting HIV every hour. Women:Women account for 30 percent of new AIDS cases. (They represented only 7 percent of all AIDS cases in 1985.) Minorities:African Americans account for more than half (54 percent) of new AIDS cases, and Hispanics account for 19 percent. (African Americans and Hispanics represent only 13 percent and 12 percent of the general population, respectively.) Ask students to share what they know about contracting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Review the different ways that HIV is transmitted: Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person Transmission from an infected woman to her fetus or baby Through needle sharing among intravenous drug users Rarely, through accidents involving needle-stick injuries and other blood exposures of healthcare providers (Healthcare workers now wear gloves, masks, and other protective clothing during many examinations and procedures.)
  3 Now talk about ways that people can avoid getting and spreading AIDS. Examples: Avoid sexual contact with anyone who is or might be infected with HIV, or abstain from sexual contact. Practice protected sex with a person who is infected with HIV or whose infection status is unknown. Drug users should seek help to stop taking drugs and should never share hypodermic needles, syringes, or other injection equipment. Women may take AZT during pregnancy and avoid breastfeeding to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to the fetus or baby. If you have put yourself in a high-risk situation, get tested for HIV to avoid spreading it to others.
  4 Answer the questions: These are some of the different populations that can be at risk for AIDS if they do not behave responsibly: Homosexual men Heterosexual men Heterosexual women Adolescents Drug users Minority youth Pregnant women Homeless and poor people Prisoners Armed forces
  What are the specific dangers for this population? How has the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS changed for this population over the past several years? (Provide statistics when possible.) What behaviors put this population at risk for HIV/AIDS? How could members of this population change their behavior to avoid getting or spreading HIV/AIDS?
   
   

37



1Read and remember the given information

Talking About Young People

Many terms exist to describe children of various ages, all of them having different connotations. The messages of journalists, politicians, merchants, professional educators, and social commentators are often slanted by the terms they choose to describe children. For example, politicians who may usually refer to children as kids are careful to use the words child andchildren in their important speeches. Apparently, child evokes a more tender response in the listener than kid.

Professional educators, who once distinguished between the words pupil and student, now refer to all school children as students.

Any word that describes a child is going to carry some emotional charge, but some are more heavily weighted than others.

In the past, the word youth was a useful term often seen in news stories with the meaning of a young man between boyhood and mature age. For example: Youth Robs Liquor Store. Recently, Ive seen the word used to describe a three-year-old who drowned.

Finally, theres the word kid. As a word for the young of a goat, kid has been in the language at least since 1562; possibly since 1200. The OED documents kid, a child, especially a young child, from the 17th century, noting that it originated as low slang, but by the 19th century had become common in familiar speech.

Nowadays, kid is used in the most formal contexts, from the speech and writing of professional educators to the naming of childrens clinics. The words elevation to the status of an acceptable synonym for child may have something to do with its similarity to German Kind (child); after all, English is a Germanic language. However, despite its ubiquity as a generic term for child, the word kid can carry negative connotations that prevent it from being acceptable in every context.

38-40

1Learn all new words from the text Youth unemployment

2 Rewrite all the new words into vocabulary.

3 Make up your own sentences with all of the new words.

Semester

41-42

1 Summarize the text in 3 paragraphs, specifying the following:

1) the dual system of the US courts;

2) trial courts courts of general Jurisdiction;

3) the US Supreme Court the court judging the most explosive issues in American life.

 

2 Study the following text and extract the necessary information about law enforcement in the USA:

A criminal case begins when a person goes to court and files a complaint that another person has committed an offence. This is followed by issuing either an arrest wanmt or a summons. A criminal case is started when an indictment is returned by a grand jury before anything else happens in the case. Indictments most often are felony accusations against persons, who have been arrested and referred to the rand jury. After an accused is indicted, he is brought into court and is told the nature of the charge against him find gjfcrtl tft can plead guilty, which is the admission that he committed crime and can be sentenced without a trial. He can plead guilty and be tried.

As a general rule the parties to civil suits and defendant criminal cases are entitled to "trial by jury of 12 jurors. But a jury is not provided unless it is demanded in writing in advance of the trial; in this case a civil or a criminal case is judge alone, greater criminal cases are tried to a three-judge panel.

In trial by the jury the attorneys for each party make their opening statements. The prosecution presents its evidence based on the criminal investigation of the case.

The attorney for the defence pleads the case of the accused, examines his witnesses and cross-examines the witnesses for the prosecution. Both, the prosecution and the defence, try to convince the jury. When all the evidence is in, the attorneys make their closing arguments to the jury with the prosecutor going first. Both attorneys try to show the evidence in the most favourable light for their sides. But if one of them uses improper materiaHn his final argument the opponent may object, the objection may be ruled out by the judge who will instruct the jury to disregard what was said or may be sustained. After this the judge proceeds to instruct the jury on its duty and the jury retires to the jury room to consider the verdict. In civil cases at least three-fourths of the jurors must agree on the verdict. In a criminal case there must not be any reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the accused, the verdict must be unanimous. The next stage is for the judge to decide, in case of a verdict of guilty, what sentence to impose on the convict.

 

3Use the material of the text and the topical vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1. Who are the participants in the legal procedure? 2. In what way does a legal procedure start a) in civil cases, b) in criminal cases? 3. Describe the procedure of the trial in the American court of common pleas. 4. What kind of offences are known to you? Specify the felony and misdemeanor. 5. What penalties arid sentences are imposed in the US courts?

43-45

 

1 Watch a video about the British electoral system: description and structure on

http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-british-electoral-system-description-structure.html or read transcript and retell:

General Elections

A British citizen and an American are sitting side by side on a long flight, and soon they start talking about the governments of their respective countries. The American quickly discovers that she doesn't know much about the British electoral system even though her British fellow passenger seems to know a quite bit about the American way of doing things. Curious, she asks her seat mate to explain how elections work in Britain. Since he is something of an armchair political scientist anyway, the Englishman is glad to oblige. He remarks, however, that he will stick to elections that cover the whole United Kingdom, just to keep things more focused.

The Englishman begins by explaining that the British hold general elections to select members of Parliament's House of Commons. 'It used to be,' he notes, 'that the prime minister could call a general election at any time by simply asking the monarch to dissolve Parliament, but usually, he prudently waited until his own party was strong enough to win. In any case, there had to be a general election at least every five years.'

The American is fascinated. 'The prime minister can just call an election whenever he feels like it?' she asks. 'Well,' her companion responds, 'he used to be able to do that. Things have changed a bit since the Fixed-term Parliament Act was passed in 2011. Now general elections are scheduled automatically every five years, on the first Thursday of May to be exact.' He looks thoughtful and then continues, 'Still, though, there is always the possibility of an election in-between if Parliament passes a motion of no confidence in the government or if two-thirds of the members in the House of Commons vote to hold a new election.'

46-47


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