Make sure the letter is well presented
First impressions are important, so use good quality paper, centre the letter on the page, don’t leave coffee stains on it, make sure you’ve spelt the person’s name correctly and don’t forget to sign it!
Sample letter 1: Covering letter
1st December 2001
Mr G. Sands
Dear Mr Sands
Re: Fitness Instructor FF/32
I am writing to apply for the job of Fitness Instructor, as advertised in Thursday's Courant. This is an ideal job for me given my enthusiasm for sport, my related experience and qualifications.
Sample letter 2: Business letter
11 October 2007
The General Manager
I understand from my colleague, Professor William Jones, who visited your Loughton plant last month, that you sometimes allow groups of students to tour the factory and see for themselves how Japanese production techniques operate in a European environment. Professor Jones himself was most impressed by his own visit, and recommended that I write to you.
Would it be possible for a group of 20 Business Studies students - male and female, aged between 18 and 22 - from Whitcomb Polytechnic to visit you before the end of this term, which is on the 21 December? I realise that you must receive many requests for such visits, and that the time available may already be booked up. If it is not, and you are able to see us, I should be most grateful if you could suggest a date and let me know of any normal conditions you lay down for visits of this kind.
I look forward to hearing from you.
B Farrant (Dr)
Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ äèñöèïëèíû
ÌÀÒÅÐÈÀËÛ ÄËß ÑÀÌÎÑÒÎßÒÅËÜÍÎÉ ÐÀÁÎÒÛ ÎÁÓ×ÀÅÌÎÃÎ
Çàíÿòèå ÑÐÑ 1-2
Study the following grammatical themes and make up your own examples (20 sentences on each):
a. Reference:this, that, these and those can be used as determiners before nouns to refer back to previously mentioned people, things, or ideas.
... but he would have the opportunity to travel. It was for this reason that he accepted the job.
... fish, reptiles and amphibians. These creatures are all cold-blooded, unlike birds and mammals, which ...
They can also be used on their own as pronouns, this is more common than that in writing.
... so they decided to hold another meeting. This took place the following February and ...
‘No, you can’t have any sweets.’ ‘Oh, that’s not fair!’
The pronouns that and those often occur in sentences which include a comparison.
Its sense of hearing is far more acute than that of most other birds.
The most successful students tend to be those who keep good vocabulary records.
Notice in these two examples how that and those avoid repetition of the nouns to which they refer (sense of hearing and students). The same is true of other pronouns.
The woman was clearly angry with her son. She told him to apologize immediately for his rudeness.
b. Substitution:Like pronouns, a number of other words can be used to substitute and avoid repetition of previously used words and clauses.
• Auxiliary verbs do, does, did in place of a verb.
Susie didn’t come to the show but her husband did.
• so/neither/nor + auxiliary verb + subject.
She doesn’t like it and neither/nor do I.
His firm’s had a good year and so has ours.
• so/not in place of a that clause.
‘Is John going tonight?’ I don’t think so. I hope not.’
(= I don’t think that John is going tonight. I hope that John isn’t going tonight.)
• if so/not in place of a conditional clause.
Are you unemployed? If so, we’ve got work for you. If not, would you like to earn some extra cash?
• one/ones for countable nouns.
‘How many sweets have you got?’
‘Four - two blue ones, a green one and the one that’s in my mouth.’
• then/there for a time or place.
'How do you know he was at the disco last night?’ ‘Because I saw him there then.’
Çàíÿòèå ÑÐÑ 3-5
1Study the rules:
Use like with nouns, pronouns or gerunds; use as with verb phrases.
You have to sit in a little car like a rollercoaster. Going to one of these museums is a bit like seeing the film of a book. ... if you like to use your own imagination, as I do.
Use the + comparative, the + comparative when one thing is the result of another.
The more I hear the song, the better it sounds.
Use as + adjective/adverb + as to show similarities and not as/not so to show differences. Use not such with nouns/noun phrases. It’s not as cold as yesterday. It’s not such a bad idea as it sounds.
Use these words to modify comparisons:
• before comparatives. a little/slightly/much/(quite) a lot/far/three times, four times, etc /a great deal/even Getting in a buggy is slightly better than having to walk round a museum.
• before superlatives. by far, easily, far and away The Science Museum is by far the best museum I’ve ever been to.
• before as + adjective/adverb + as. not quite/(not) nearly/almost/just/half/twice, three times, etc/nothing like/nowhere near/every bit The traditional ways are nowhere near as good for getting things to come alive ...as the modern displays.
• before the same (as). not quite/(not) nearly/almost/just/exactly/(very) much
His latest book is much the same as all his others.
To compare two things or people use the comparative form of adjectives and adverbs, or more/less with uncountable nouns and more/fewer with countable nouns.
Look more closely and you’ll see that this coin is older than the other one. There are fewer cars, which means less pollution. These words can be used to modify comparatives: (quite) a bit/a little/slightly/much; (quite) a lot/far/significantly/ considerably/three times, etc/a great deal/miles/even Nadal is considerably younger than his opponent.
the + comparative, the + comparative shows that one thing is the result of another.
The more often you practise, the easier it becomes. The more I think about it, the less I like the idea.
To compare more than two things or people use the superlative form of adjectives and adverbs, or the most/the least with uncountable nouns and the most/the fewest with countable nouns. Modifying words: by far, easily, far and away
She’s the youngest student in the class - and by far the most intelligent. The winner is the person with the fewest points,
as + adjective/adverb + as
Modifying words: not quite/(not) nearly/almost/just/half/ twice, three times, etc/nothing like/nowhere near/every bit so can replace the first as in negative sentences. I’m every bit as good as him.
the same as and the same + noun + as
Modifying words: not quite not) nearly/almost/just/exactly/(very) much They look almost the same as each other. We think in much the same way.
Use not such before adjective + uncountable and plural countable nouns; use not such a before adjective + singular countable nouns. This isn’t such a good hotelas last year. But then, last year we didn’thave such good weather.
like is used with nouns, pronouns or gerunds to make comparisons; as is used with verb phrases. He’s arrogant, just like his father. He worked down the mine, just as his father had done.
There are a number of common expressions which can be used to make comparisons:
There is nothing worse/better/more annoying, etc than ... The worst/best/hardest, etc thing about... is ... There is little to choose between ... and ... ... bears a striking/a close/a slight/no resemblance to ... ... is unlike ... ... compares (un)favourably with ...
2 There is one word missing in each sentence. Write the missing word in the correct place.
1 With his red cheeks and even redder nose he looked just a clown.
2 The older he got, less tolerant he became.
3 It’s not quite such well-written book as her last, but the storyline is every bit as intriguing.
4 My new broadband connection enables me to download films much quickly than before.
5 In science this year we have to do quite lot more homework than last year.
6 With these roadworks it takes me twice long as usual to get to the office.
7 The land is farmed in very much same way as it was in the Middle Ages.
8 The beaches were nowhere near as good as last year and the hotel was far and the worst we’ve ever stayed in.
Çàíÿòèå ÑÐÑ 6-8:
1 Read the article and decide whether the following are true or false.
1 The writer suggests that Sonya’s achievements are surprising.
2 In Baltimore she is attempting to regain a record she recently lost.
3 Early success encouraged her to participate in more eating contests.
4 The writer says that the thinner a person is, the better they will be at competitive eating.
5 The first eating contest was held some six years ago.
6 In Baltimore, contestants are not allowed to drink during the contest.
7 Doctors are always present at competitive eating contests.
8 Sonya is unhappy with her performance in Baltimore.
Competitive eating: Me and my big mouth
When you first see Sonya Thomas you wonder whether she might be blown away by the breeze that is bouncing off Baltimore's inner harbour this bright and sunny morning. She is a very slim woman indeed, just seven stones zero by her own reckoning, and around 5ft 5 in. Yet as unlikely as it seems, Sonya, or The Black Widow' as she calls herself, is America's number one eater.
hat is even more remarkable is that Sonya is the overall eating champion - not just in the skinny women category. She routinely destroys men more than twice her size, wolfing down her food as they stand nauseated and unable to push any more into their mouths. To give some idea of this woman's ability, consider just some of the records she currently holds: 552 oysters in ten minutes, 5.95lbs of meatballs in twelve minutes, 162 chicken wings in twelve minutes, and 52 hard-boiled eggs in five minutes. Last August in Harrington, Delaware, Sonya ate an astonishing 40 crabcakes in twelve minutes. It is that record she is here this morning to defend, or rather, to break. She has a plan to make it happen. 'It's actually easier if you can dunk them in water,' she confides.
Her first try at competitive eating came in 2003 during a qualifier for the World Cup of competitive eating - the 4 July hot dog challenge at Coney Island. In that qualifier Sonya managed eighteen dogs, giving her a slot in the final where she ate 25, which was a new record for women eaters. 'I didn't know I was good at this,' she says. The first time I did it, it was just for fun. It just came out good so I thought, "OK, let's do it".'
Many have pondered Sonya's talent. One idea is the 'band of fat theory', which suggests larger eaters struggle to expand their stomachs because they are constrained by the fat. They point out that the world champion eater, the near-legendary Takeru Kobayashi of Japan, is also as skinny as Sonya. Dedication is also a factor. Sonya regularly practises for contests.
The so-called sport of eating contests - while dating back decades to events held at county fairs around the country has only really had a national profile for the last half-dozen years since being sponsored by the International Federation of Competitive Eating, a New York marketing company which 'governs' a 100 or so events and annually pays out $250,000 in prize money.
On a stage alongside the harbour, the lightly grilled crabcakes, made from blue crab meat and a number of other ingredients, are set on metal trays and placed on tables. Each crabcake has 160 calories. The judge - 'Hungry' Charles Hardy, a former competitive eater himself - has some disturbing news for Sonya. There will be no dunking of the crabcakes in water, he declares. 'It's too hard to measure.'
Hardy reveals that, as at every eating contest, there are medics on hand. While there are no studies showing actual proven dangers, doctors have warned of the potential risks of speed eating and in Japan - another stronghold of competitive eating several people choked to death during contests in the 1990s.
It's time to get started. As the biggest name at the contest Sonya comes on last and stands centre- 55 stage. She licks her fingers. The countdown begins. They're off. Sonya grabs a handful of crabcake and pushes it into her mouth. It is gone in an instant and she pushes in more, masticating like a machine. She eats with one hand, using the other to take sips from 60 a bottle. After one minute it is announced she has eaten eight.
All around her are scenes of farce and horror. Food and water and a combination of the two drip down faces as the contestants seek to push in more. Nine 65 minutes in and Sonya has eaten 43 crabcakes. The last seconds are excruciating and messy as the competitors try to force in a few last mouthfuls. It looks terribly painful. Then, at last, it is over.
There is a pause as the judges add up the numbers. And then it is announced that Sonya has eaten 46 crabcakes. It is a new record. She is thrilled. 'I went very fast at the start. Then after about five or six minutes, I slowed down,' she says. 'I feel OK - I could eat more.'
She stands for photographs, a huge smile across her face and her skinny arms holding the oversized prize-winner's cheque above her head.
Çàíÿòèå ÑÐÑ 9-11
1 Give the definitions to all the following words and then write a story on the theme “Environment”:
windmill, trash can, oil,ivory, crops,tanker, tusks, bin, factory, trees, paper, pollution, toxic waste, oil spills, pesticides, bag, global warming, herbicide, environment, bin, windfarms,
2 Prepare a report on the theme: “Environment in Kazakhstan”. Before it use Y-tube to find more information on report preparation.
Çàíÿòèå ÑÐÑ 12-14
1 Grammar. Rewrite the following dialogues using Reported Speech:
A n n : Hullo, Steve. Have you got a minute?
S t e v e : Sure, yes. What can I do for you?
A.: I've read a number of books on the British system of higher education but I can't make head or tail of it.
S.: Mm... no wonder. What's the problem?
A.: Quite a lot of problems. What I want to discuss is the difference between a university and a college.
S.: It's like this, you see... The programme is different. At a university it is much wider. Great attention is paid to scientific subjects.
A: It sounds as though most people prefer a university.
S.: Well... that rather depends.
A.: Speaking about universities I'm not quite clear about tutorials there. What is a tutorial exactly?
S.: Oh, it's when students discuss topics with a tutor in very small groups — usually there are not more than three or four students and sometimes only one.
A.: I see... And coming back to colleges... I'm still not terribly sure what a residential college is.
S.: Erm... It's a college with a hall of residence on the same grounds as the principal building. In fact all the students live in hall.
A: Really? and what about the teaching staff?
S.: Actually the majority of the teaching staff live there too. But there are also quite a lot of non-residential colleges.
A: And you studied at university?
A.: I'd like to find myself in that university. What was it like?
S.: Well... a big grey building surrounded by trees.
S.: Nothing very remarkable. Of course there were lecture halls, classrooms and a number of laboratories.
A: Any facilities for sport and P.E.
S.: Let me see... Yes... A gymnasium with changing rooms and showers, a tennis court... What else... A playing field for netball and football...
A.: I believe students spend a lot of time together, don't they?
S.: Definitely. We had students' societies and clubs.
A.: Am I right to believe that they are for those interested in drama and music?
S.: Quite... and also politics, modern languages, literature, science and athletics.
A: Ah... that's worth knowing.
S.: And what I'd like to add is that students themselves organize all those clubs and societies. There is usually a Students' Council or Union.
A.: Well Steve. Thanks very much. You've been most helpful.
J.: Well, Arnold, I remember you said once you were a B. A. Perhaps you could tell me how quickly you got those letters after your name?
A.: At university I studied history. It was a 3-year course. And after that I got a B. A degree.
J.: B.A. stands for Bachelor of Arts degree, doesn't it?
A.: Yes, which reminds me of my neighbour whose son had just got his B. A. A friend asked very seriously: "I suppose your son will try to get an M. A. or Ph. D." next to which my neighbour answered: "Not at all, now he is trying to get a J-O-B."
A: Ah... he meant a job! That's a good joke!
Çàäàíèå ÑÐÑ 15-17
Read the text and bring your own examples of positive and negative influence of technologies on education.