The mass media, since being invented, have experienced many improvements, undergone numerous in variety from television, radio, newspaper to the internet. People watch televisions every day, read newspapers every hour, therefore, it goes without saying that mass media has the capability to affect their mind. The mass media, including TV, radio, newspaper play a very important role in our modern life. They have changed our life very much. It is not disgusting to say that they have a great influence in shaping peoples ideas, both for the better and the worse. The mass media affects peoples fashion. Simply take a glance at the way you dress right now, it was probably something you have picked up over the internet or magazines. What we are wearing may look similar to what famous actors or singers have worn recently. And all of the things we often to is to imitate the models appear every day in fashion shows.

The media builds up our knowledge about social issues and have significant influence on our attitude towards the problems. Every day there are several events broadcasted and analyzed on television and radio. We cannot deny that the mass media have a great contribution to shaping our ways of thinking. It is obvious that the mass media also play an important role in our attitude to life. In this assignment, I have considered a number of very compelling aspects of this topic: what impact do media have on children? And how can parents and others influence these media effects on children?

What is media?

Media is a tool used to convey mass communication to a larger audience or market. Up until the 20th century the main source of information were TV, Radio, Magazine, Newspaper and lately the internet. These mass media plays a big role in our life.

How it affects us:

There are still so many people that will insist that the images on TV and works and picture in Newspaper are not responsible for the problems of the society. The media is a good source of information and entertainment. In this first section I will talk about how the media affect our awareness, knowledge, attitude and behaviour. You will see the people turn to media learn about Moral Values and interpersonal relationship from the media.

A medium give us an opinion of various cultures, religious and believes. These help us to identify ourselves and others. It shows that how people live, what they believe in and describe the society. Most television viewer considers Arabs as terrorist because of the way they are portrait in the news. Heavy usage of this image may result in the cultivation of opinion. News that we get from certain media contradict the real society. You have to actually understand their religion and believe in order to make a statement about the person or the society.

How the media affect our attitude and behaviour:

The media have a great effect on the society and in our life experience. We sometimes try to apply these concepts to our everyday life. Teenagers like to watch TV shows about Love, Fashion, Relationship, violence, many other things. On the other hand older people watch things about Food, Health, Exercises and news from the world. This affect everyone behaviours at that particular time. Media can be a great source of wisdom and knowledge but we should realize its impact on our society, our family, our attitudes, our kids and our self. The media have a great effect on our society and in our attitudes, our kids and our self. The media have a great effect on the society and in our life experience. We sometimes try to apply these concepts to our daily life. Mass media as we know can give an effect to our education, environment or may be family life. Sometimes media can give a positive effect and sometimes it will give a negative effect to our life.

Influence of mass media:

In the last 50 years the media influence has developed exponentially with the advance of technology, first there was telegraph, then the radio, the newspaper, magazine, television and now the internet. We live in society that depends on information and communication to keep moving in the right direction and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, attitudes, healthcare, education, personal relationships, travelling and anything else that we have to perform. Media is the means of support to the people in the world which shapes their attitude, opinion, and makes them to think before they start doing a particular work. The most beautiful is it helps the people to know about different religious, places, important things to do about the past and the future. Media is well and good enough as long as its valuable and influential information on society. The usage of media would depend upon each individual to carry out the maximum of what is good and moral to be performed out in the society.

Influence on children:

Initially, I want to speak about how media can give a big role to the childrens life. Many children watch between two and four hours of television per day. The presence of role models, how men and women, boys and girls are presented in the media, powerfully affects boys and girls their role in the world. In this case, media such as television has a bad effect to the children. Some people complain that children nowadays tend to be lazier and more violent. This is simply the result of bad programmes shown on T.V all time, incontrollable websites and even the carelessness of parents. To be free from their children, some people allow the children to surf the webs, without noticing that are plenty of disasters on Internet which the children have experienced to deal with. We cannot blame the children about what they do because actually they dont know anything about it. In this regard the parents have a big responsibility to guide their children, and let them know about what program that they watch. The parents must have a big role to guide their children; their attitudes towards the media.

Influence on parents:

Next I would like to consider the impact of the media on parents about parenting. Parents are an important audience for childrens media. The media plays a role in providing information and support to parents about child-rearing. We already know that there is an explosion of information and advice about child-rearing in the mass media. In every category of mass media, from books and magazines, television and the internet, message about child-rearing are being directed to parents to an extraordinary level. Yet, little attention is given to the quantity or quality of those messages.

Influence on youth:

How do the media influence young people in todays society? Our society still seems confused about what to about young people. it seems to be gripped with a fear of youth. We blame them for much of societys harms like crime, damage, drugs, drinks, sex, and teenage pregnancy the list goes on. But if these theories are true, where do these rebellious attitudes come from? The obvious answer would be from the upbringing of children, but in my opinion the media also plays a substantial role in the attitudes, behaviour and physical aspects of youth today, in particularly that of young women. Media strongly affects youth culture. The media executives are quick to defend their role in youth violence and harassment while selling millions of dollars in advertisements focused on youth. TV producers, network executives, motion picture companies and others in media deny any impact of their programs on the attitudes and actions of youth. People, especially teenagers, always have an idol and they tend to follow what their idols do and say no matter these things are good or bad.

Positive and negative influences in young people:

Young people are in a stage of life where they want to be accepted by their peers, they want to be loved and be successful. The media creates the ideal image of a beautiful men and women and tells them the characteristics of a successful person. If there is a sport that is getting a lot of attention by the media and gains popularity among your friends and society, you will more likely want to practice the sport and be cool with all your friends. The result is that you will have fun with your friends and be healthier because of the exercise you are doing.

Media is one of the successful instruments to enrich our children, youth and parents to become successful one. It shapes our attitudes towards our better life. However a negative influence in teenagers is the use of cigars by celebrity movie stars, the constant exposure of sex images, the excessive images of violence and exposure to thousands of junk food ads.

Another negative influence in teenagers that has grown over the last years is anoxia and obesity. There are millions of adolescents fighting obesity. And they are exposed thousands of advertisements of junk food, and they are told that they become thin and wealthy. I believe that mass media is one of the main source considered of immorality such as drugs, drinking, pre-marital sex and adultery are of acceptance today. Media shows us these things. Exposes us to them. And we are all thinking if they are doing it, why cant we? It is implanted in our mind that these things are normal.

Also more women are obsessive with losing weight even when they are not overweight; there are many women that they want to look the super models and thin celebrities, so they engage in eating disorder food which leads to severe health issues and even death.


We should not take media as negative sources of impact. Not only media but everything has good and bad influence. It is up to persons catching ability. It is also depend on persons mind and thinking. If a person is a positive receiver the person will receive it positively. And other way is government must take initiative to publish and broadcast a pure and good channel. Every day people are surrounded by opinion and I enjoy that because they can formulate a more informed opinion based on what come across their way.

In conclusion, we have absolutely no control over the media. Firstly, the mass media is expanding our understanding about environment. There are a number of environmental programs on television every week provides numerous viewers with explanation of what environment is and how important it is. Earth talk today program is an example which enables us to expand our knowledge about hot environmental issues by interviewing experts. Hardly have we watched these informative news and we comprehend the reasons why we need to protect the air, water and land on the earth.


Module 1: Political life and Mass Media. 37 22. Current news.

1 Read and translate the current news:

A new report says North Korea could have as many as 100 nuclear weapons by 2020. That includes the 16 to 20 such weapons the reports writer says the closed country already has. Not everyone agrees North Korea will be able to build that many more nuclear weapons in the next five years, but most experts believe it will have more nuclear weapons in 2020 than it has today.

The Institute for Science and International Security released the report this week. It said the number of nuclear weapons North Korea will have five years from now depends upon how fast the weapons are made. It also says North Korea is likely to be able to develop small nuclear weapons that can be placed on long-range missiles.

Not everyone agrees with the estimates, including South Koreas defense ministry. Kim Min-seok is a spokesman for the ministry. He says ministry officials do not think the North has as many nuclear weapons as the report suggests.

He says the analysis that North Korea has 10 to 16 nuclear weapons is just an assumption by some private groups and experts. He says there is no evidence to support this.

Bruce Bennett is a defense expert at the RAND Corporation, a research group. He does not believe North Korea can build enough nuclear weapons in the next five years to have 100 of them. He says making that many would require building and operating a new nuclear reactor and starting a strong program of uranium enrichment. He says the number is likely to be 50.

If they have 50 nuclear weapons they can probably kill about, oh, 10 to 20 million people with those weapons. So thats a huge difference and it gives them significantly more coercivepower against South Korea, against Japan and against the United States.

Experts say countries are not more dangerous just because they have more nuclear weapons. They say nations that have nuclear weapons do not use them because they know if they do, they will be attacked by other countries with such weapons. Experts call this mutually assured destruction.

Daniel Pinkston is an expert on Korea at the International Crisis Group, which describes itself as an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization. Mr. Pinkston says because of the behavior North Korea's leaders have shown in the past, he is worried they might launch a nuclear attack.

North Korea, because of how domestic politics work inside the country and how they use force and coercion to achieve their political aims, that they may attempt to use their nuclear arsenal to achieve their goals and objectives.

Bruce Bennett says it is possible North Korea might use nuclear weapons in an attack on other Asian nations because of political problems in the North. He also says the North might sell nuclear weapons to other countries or terrorists to use in an attack against the United States.

It could try to sell them to third parties -- they could be nation-states that it tries to ally with. They could be terrorist groups. And if theyre terrorist groups (it is) very hard to deter a terrorist group, and a terrorist group by and large would want to target the United States.

Shin In-kyun is an expert at the Korea Defense Network. He says the United States and its allies should attack North Korean missile centers before the North can develop nuclear weapons that can be placed on missiles.

He says now is the time to attack the missile sites with air strikes because North Korea does not now have the ability to attack the United States with nuclear weapons.

Other experts say such an attack could start a larger conflict.

Mr. Bennett says South Korea is building a system that would use ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, aircraft and armed unmanned planes called drones to attack North Korea if it launches a missile attack. The United States decided not to deploy a missile defense system in South Korea after China and the South voiced concerns.

Leaders of the United States and its allies do not believe they should recognize or negotiate with North Korea as a nuclear state. Experts say these leaders would lose political support if they did so. Even China and Russia, which support North Korea, believe the Korean peninsula should be free of nuclear weapons.

Negotiators involved in meetings include the United States, North and South Korea, China, Russia and Japan. So far those talks have failed to persuade North Korea to end its nuclear weapons program. The negotiators have told the North they would give more aid to the economically-poor country if it stopped building nuclear weapons.

The United Nations approved economic restrictions on North Korea after the North carried out a nuclear weapons test in 2013. Those sanctions have not caused the North to change its behavior. However, Mr. Pinkston says nations should continue to pressure the North to end its nuclear weapons program.

North Korean leaders are, are rational. They wish to survive. I think they can be deterred. They are deterred up until today. They were deterred yesterday. And so deterrence continues to work.

He says the Norths economy is suffering because of the countrys decision to continue its nuclear program. He says the country cannot live with such suffering forever.

Im Christopher Jones-Cruise.

VOA Correspondent Brian Padden and VOA News Producer Youmi Kim reported this story from Seoul. Christopher Jones-Cruise wrote it in VOA Learning English. Mario Ritter was the editor.

2 Learn the defenitions:

analysis n. a careful study of something to learn about its parts, what they do and how they are related to each other

assumption n. something that is believed to be true or probably true but that is not known to be true; something that is assumed

coercive adj. using force or threats to make someone do something; using coercion

domestic adj. of, relating to or made inside a country

arsenal n. a collection of weapons

sanctions n. an action that is taken or an order that is given to force a country to obey international laws by limiting or stopping trade with that country or by not allowing economic aid for that country (usually plural)

deter v. to prevent (something) from happening

Module 2: The profession of translator/ interpreter. 38, 23. Qualities of translator/ interpreter

Read and translate

Knowledge Required by a Conference Interpreter:
  • complete mastery of the active (target) language(s), i.e. the language(s) into which the interpreter works;
  • in-depth knowledge of the passive (source) languages, i.e. languages from which the interpreter works;
  • university degree or equivalent;
  • sound general knowledge and understanding of current affairs.
Aptitudes Required by a Conference Interpreter:
  • ability to analyze and construe facts; intuition;
  • speed of reaction and ability to adapt without delay to speakers, situations and subjects;
  • powers of concentration;
  • above average physical and nervous staying-power;
  • pleasant voice and public-speaking skills;
  • high degree of intellectual curiosity;
  • intellectual integrity;
  • tact and diplomacy.
Let us look at each requirement in more detail:
  • complete mastery of the active language(s) is essential if the original speech is to be reproduced in the target language with all its nuances, whatever the subject, level of technical complexity and style. This implies a broad vocabulary base as well as the ability to express oneself accurately and with ease in a variety of registers.
  • in-depth knowledge of the passive languages will, for example, enable an interpreter to understand the English of an American, a Japanese or an African. In both the active and passive languages, an interpreter must be able to draw on a large number of synonyms, idiomatic expressions, proverbs and quotations.
  • university degree or equivalent: the intellectual training and maturity acquired by a university education is the best way of preparing for interpreting as a profession. A language degree is not necessarily the best training for interpretation. Degrees in law, economics, etc. are useful provided that the candidate knows her/his working languages well enough. Interpreting techniques per se can be acquired later. But only those candidates with the required aptitudes are likely to benefit from formal training in interpreting.
  • the ability to analyze information and construe meaning; intuition are essential. When interpreters work, they have to analyze everything that they are hearing, and to internalize it so that they can re-express what they have understood for the listeners in another language and another culture. This means that the ability to analyze information and construe meaning, as well as using their intuition to anticipate what the speaker is going to say, is invaluable.
  • speed of reaction and ability to adapt without delay to speakers, situations and subjects. When recruited for a conference, the interpreter often has only limited time in which to prepare for the meeting, with or without documents. This means that the essentials of the subject, very often a previously unfamiliar one, have to be grasped rapidly, including the technical terms, so that they can be used appropriately. Each new speaker may be an unknown quantity to the interpreter who consequently has each time to adapt instantaneously to a different accent, to the pace and style of each individual.
  • powers of concentration. The very high level of concentration required to perform the operations involved in simultaneous interpretation has to be kept constant. A lapse in concentration and both the interpreter as well as those listening to the interpreter may lose the thread of the argument. The interpreter must be able to sustain this high level of concentration for about half an hour before a colleague takes over. In simultaneous interpretation there are always at least two interpreters per booth. Staying power is certainly something that can be increased with practice, but it should be an initial quality to be looked for in the prospective interpreter.
  • pleasant voice and public-speaking skills. An interpreter must be a clear and lively speaker and despite working under pressure, an interpreter's delivery must remain smooth and the voice pleasant so as to prevent the listeners' attention from slackening.
  • the interpreter's high degree of intellectual curiosity means that s/he will be able to follow the participants without difficulty, particularly references to current economic, political or social affairs. Thanks to extensive general knowledge, the interpreter will be able to place a speaker's utterance in its general context.
  • under no circumstances does the interpreter depart from the strictest intellectual integrity.
  • lastly, an interpreter needs tact and diplomacy to deal with difficult situations (misunderstandings, tension) and to know how to behave in relation to the delegates, regardless of their attitude towards the interpreter.
These qualities are not exercised independently of one another as and when needed, but come together to constitute a whole, i.e. a professional interpretation. A genuine interpreter identifies closely with the speaker and while interpreting will adopt the speaker's point of view. This is particularly apparent in consecutive interpretation but whatever the mode of interpretation, an interpreter's finest reward is to see the audience laughing at the witticisms of the original, albeit in another language, responding to the rhetorical effects of the speaker, nodding in agreement or shaking their heads in disagreement, in other words acting as though the speaker and the interpreter were one and the same person. All this brings us to the heart of the matter. If one believes that one has all the qualities mentioned in the foregoing pages, how does one become a conference interpreter?
How does one become a conference interpreter?
There are a large number of courses and schools around the world which offer young people who have completed their secondary school studies a course of language studies to become "translator-interpreters". Much of the syllabus is in fact taken up with language learning, taught in a more accessible way than in a conventional academic setting. Additionally, the syllabus usually includes a number of more general courses (economics, history, politics, sociology, etc.) which extend the students' general knowledge and prepare them for careers in a number of areas, e.g. executive secretaries, public relations, travel industry, teaching, journalism, translation, and sometimes conference interpreting. However, as early as 1970, at a symposium organized by UNESCO, organizations in the UN system arrived at the conclusion that "the training programs that best meet the needs of the major employers of interpreters are those which seek, in a relatively short period of time, to teach postgraduate students already possessing the requisite language skills, the techniques of translation and interpretation". This reflects two postulates which have always been fundamental to the stance taken by the International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC):
  • candidates to interpreter training courses must have achieved the requisite level of language competence in all their working languages before being admitted to training;
  • interpreter training shall be at least at undergraduate but preferably at postgraduate level.
Additionally, in order that trainees actually hear their various languages being used, it is recommended that training courses admit students having a variety of mother tongues.

Module 2: The profession of translator/ interpreter. 39-40, 24-25. Qualities of translator/ interpreter

Read and translate

What is Conference Interpreting?
There are two types of conference interpreting: consecutive and simultaneous. 1. In consecutive interpreting, the interpreter listens to the speaker, takes notes and renders the speech in the target language once the speaker has finished. 2. In simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter sits in a booth overlooking the meeting room. The speeches given are interpreted simultaneously and relayed to delegates by means of the sound equipment
A Brief History of Simultaneous Interpretation
Although most people think of the Nuremburg Trials after World War II as the birth of simultaneous interpretation (English, French, Russian, and German), in fact, the concept of simultaneous interpretation was born in the US and existed for some time before there was any large-scale demand for it. As early as 1924, Edward Filene, the Boston capitalist and social reformer, sponsored the use of simultaneous interpretation during entire official meetings of the International Labor Organization, and for more languages than the four used in Nuremberg. His goal was to find an alternative to consecutive conference interpretation. The Nuremberg Trials, although not the first example of simultaneous interpretation, did have radical consequences for the profession. At that time, consecutive interpretation, which had been in use since the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, was the standard at international gatherings, such as at meetings of the League of Nations in Geneva, where English and French were used. The Nuremberg trials changed all that. Principles of Interpretation Any interpretation that does not somehow relate what is being displayed or being described to something within the personality or experience of the visitor will be sterile. Information, as such, is not interpretation. Interpretation is revelation based upon information. But they are entirely different things. However, all interpretation includes information. Interpretation is an art which combines many arts whether the materials presented are scientific, historical or architectural. Any art is in some degree teachable. The chief aim of interpretation is not instruction, but provocation. Interpretation should aim to present a whole rather than a part and must address itself to the whole man rather than any phase. Interpretation addressed to children should not be a dilution of the presentation to adults, but should follow a fundamentally different approach. To be at its best it will require a separate program.

Module 2: The profession of translator/ interpreter. 41, 26. Note-taking.

Read and translate

Most beginners tend to write down too much but with experience you will see that your memory is better than you think and a few clear notes are infinitely preferable to a whole page of notes written so fast you can't read them back.

As to what you should note, W. Keiser suggests the following:

l. Always ideas, arguments, never just words. But write down all proper names, figures, titles, quotes.

2. Who speaks and about whom or what.

3. Tense of the action, i.e. present, past or future.

4. Whether the statement is negative, positive, interrogative or exclamatory.

5. Connections between ideas and arguments.

6. Emphasis and stress.

Notes should arrange vertically on the page, with indentations such as for new paragraphs to indicate new thoughts and a system of arrows and connecting signs.

What to note

The first thing to be noted should be the main ideas, first because they are the most significant elements of a speech, and secondly because they are the pillars of its structure.

It is also important to systematically note the links between the different ideas as well to divide them very clearly. Another element which has to be clear is the point of view being expressed: the audience must immediately realize who is speaking.

As far as verbs are concerned, there are two basic things which must appear in the notes : verb tenses, with special attention to conditional forms, and modal verbs, whose semantic role in the sentence is always of paramount importance.

Other fundamental data are numbers, dates and proper names, which must be noted accurately, being preferable in a good interpretation to miss some elements of another sentence than to get names or statistics wrong.

These are some of the basic needs in consecutive interpreting as regards note-taking.Of course, interpreters have their own styles, and they could note down almost everything, or just the main elements, if they trust their short-term memory. Anyway, noting down everything, without paying the proper attention to active listening, must be avoided at all costs.

Module 2: The profession of translator/ interpreter. 42, 27. Writing an autobiography.

Read the information below:


allrefrs.ru - 2020 . !