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Whatever the practicalities of armed conflict, the rules that govern war are not chaotic. There are laws that govern under what circumstances war may be declared, and how a war may be fought. In 1945, it was decided that war was an unacceptable way to settle political differences. It was made illegal, except in the case of self-defense. States retain the right to defend themselves, individually or collectively, against attacks on their independence or their territory, in response to a (legal or illegal) use of force. The United Nations Charter allows member states the use of force in collective action to maintain or restore international peace and security, as a form of self-defense. Wars do, however, occur for reasons other than self-defense, and may be the result of retaliation to numerous localized situations. Whatever the provocation or justification for war, there is a need for objective international rules to limit the effects of war on people and property. The International Humanitarian Law (IHL) has been set up and developed to protect certain particularly vulnerable groups of persons.

International Humanitarian Law (IHL) consists of a series of about 30 treaties, which aim both to control the effect of a war on civilians, and to control military acts during war: The treaties have been accepted, or “ratified,” by the international community, and have become truly universal law. For example, one of the most famous treaties is the Geneva Convention, which has been ratified by over 150 states.


Module 1: Political life and Mass Media. Практическое занятие 35 лабораторное занятие 20. Human Rights.

1 Read and translate the following:

There are many different kinds of international organisations, two are inter-governmental organisations, and independent charities or non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Many of the international organisations that exist today were formed in the last one hundred years. Informal networks and relationships between countries had existed previously, but structured organisations with formal goals and clearly defined organisational structures are relatively new. There are now hundreds of different organisations that work on an international level, and many have become quite complex as they have developed and changed over time. Each was originally created for a different reason, and each has different goals. Some are campaigning organisations that try to change laws or attitudes. Some give money, advice or other forms of support to those in need. Some exist to try to protect national interests.

As travel and communication technology has developed and countries and individuals across the world have become more closely connected, international organisations have been formed to deal with international issues. These can be formed by governments, businesses, NGOs or individuals, and they work towards their own agendas and mission statements. There are many international organisations in the world and they have often become increasingly complex as they have developed. There are many ways individuals, including young people,

can become involved in international organisations, not just by working for them but through letter-writing, campaigning, donations, and attending protest marches, conferences, or events they arrange.

2 Look at each of the categories of international organizations in the list below, and match examples of organisations to each of the categories(some could be in more than one category) e.g. Save the Children = aid and welfare; human rights



• Aid and welfare

• Conservation and environment

• Education

• Religion

• Human rights


• Economics

• Politics

• Military

• Conservation

• Climate


•International Committee of the Red Cross


•Book Aid International

•Christian Aid

•Amnesty International

•The World Bank

•The European Union

•North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

3 Answer the following questions:

Where have you heard about each of the organizations above?

What do you think each one does (you can use their titles as clues)?

Are there any you haven’t heard of?

Can you think of any other international organisations?

How have you been involved in international organisations?

For example, have you signed petitions about their campaigns, donated money to them, raised awareness of their campaigns, attended a demonstration or a march they have organized?

Which of these ways were the most effective in your opinion? Why?

What other ways to get involved can you think of (e.g. writing letters to newspapers or MPs, putting together a local campaign on an issue)?


Module 1: Political life and Mass Media. Практическое занятие 36 лабораторное занятие 21. Mass Media and its impact on our lives.

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