Take the quiz and check your background knowledge about AIDS

1/ Does AIDS mean the same as HIV?

2/ Can one catch AIDS from a mosquito bite?

3/ Can one catch AIDS by swimming in the pool?

4/ Can one catch AIDS from a cough or sneeze?

5/ Is it safe to hug a person with HIV or AIDS?

6/ Can one catch AIDS through blood transfusion?

7/ Can a child catch AIDS from the mother's beast milk?

8/ Does it take over 2 years for HIV to develop into AIDS?

9/ Is it safe to use a shared needle for injections?

10/ Is there a reliable cure for AIDS?

11/ Do vaccines cure for AIDS?

12/ Is it possible to catch AIDS by going to the same school with an AIDS case?

13/ Can one catch AIDS in a public rest-room?

14/ Can one catch AIDS through a hand-shake?


1 Transfer the given information from the text onto a table. The beginning has been done for you:

The UN has estimated the need of $7 billion - $10 billion a year to fight not just HIV/AIDS but malaria and tuberculosis, two other diseases that kill an estimated 6m people, mostly in poor countries, each year. Annual cost of battling HIV/AIDS alone will reach $9.2 billion by 2005 (compared with about $1.8 billion spent at present). Of this, $4.8 billion would be needed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, through education and the use of the inexpensive drugs that can stop infection passing from mothers to the new-born. The other $4.4 billion would be spent on treatment, including the expensive drugs that keep HIV-carriers alive and well for many years in rich countries, and on supporting orphans. The sums of money sound big, but they are not huge relative to the size of government budgets in the rich world. And yet the fund has so far attracted donations of only $528m, which includes $200m from the American government, and a promise last week of another $100m In South Africa alone AIDS will cost the country $22 billion.

Estimated annual need to treat AIDS  


Comment: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2 Comment on the table with data on AIDS spread in the world:

3 How can you continue the given phrases?


The UN session on AIDS has been the first forum of this international body on health issues ________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ The UN calls for a global action on AIDS ________________________ __________________________________________________________ The UN calls on leadership on the part of the government most affected by HIV ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Prevention of AIDS comes first _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ The UN is ringing with appeals for assistance from developing countries ___________________________________________________________  


Module 2: Social problems. 27-28, 14.

Youth problems.


Read the text and prepare your own questions to it (15 questions)

Teenage pregnancy

Teen pregnancy rates have recently been on the rise across the UK despite measures by the government medical professionals and community interest groups to lower these levels. No one is entirely certain why this happening, but whether a teen becomes pregnant by choice or buy chance it is obvious that (s)he needs information to help him/her decide about the future. This basic overview of frequently asked questions about teenage pregnancy should give any interested teen a background on the topic, but it should not be considered a comprehensive list of answers or resources. Parents, GPs, guidance counsellors, teachers, clergy and other adults and organisations should also be consulted by any teen facing a pregnancy and uncertain of the future.

A teen pregnancy is technically a pregnancy experienced by a young woman or couple in the teenaged years, between 13 and 19 years of age. For statistical purposes there may be a division made between the pregnancies of under-16 year olds and under-19 years old, and sometimes pregnancies experienced by those as young as 11 year olds are considered teenage pregnancies.

Teenage pregnancies occur the same way that any other pregnancies occur as the result of sexual intercourse. Some teens may intend to get pregnant, but research suggests that the vast majority of teen pregnancies are accidental and unplanned. Broken condoms, contraceptive pills taken incorrectly, withdrawing too late and completely unprotected sex are often the culprits of unplanned pregnancies.

Pregnant teens in the UK face most of the same options as any other expectant mothers or couples. The most common options include giving birth and raising a child, giving birth and putting the child up for adoption or having an abortion to terminate the pregnancy. Abortions are not available in Northern Ireland, and a young woman under the age of 16 may only have an abortion without parental consent if her doctors determine that she meets the Fraser Guidelines:

  • She understands the medical professionals advice.
  • She can not be persuaded to inform her parents.
  • She is competent to give consent to the treatment.
  • It is in her best interest not to inform her parents of the procedure.

Teen pregnancies can be traumatic for everyone involved, not the least because few teens, their parents, relatives or friends know what kind of support is available for teen pregnancies and teen parents. If you or someone you know is facing a teen pregnancy, research the support available in your area as well as nationally with items such as housing, food, clothing and education, but most of all be there to provide emotional support regardless of the chosen outcome. Of course, the first step to seeking and finding support is telling others of a teen pregnancy, so be bold and share your secret or urge others to share theirs. Good luck!



1 Read the text and compare with the situation in yur own family:

Coping with strict parents

Sometimes parents set rules because they fear for their childrens safety, because they dont think that their children can do it for themselves or even to stay in control or to bring about a desired outcome or simply because they can. Regardless of why parents set rules teens must learn to live within these guidelines. But what happens if parents are overly strict?

Often teenagers dont recognise that they have strict parents until they brush up against a rule that they dont like. If this is the case for you, dont bother yelling and screaming about the unfairness of it all because chances are your parents will ignore you until you yell yourself hoarse. Instead, meet your parents in the middle. Ask them to sit down with you to discuss:

Every rule under which you operate.

The rules that you understand and respect.

The rules that you feel are unfair.

The reasons why you feel that these rules are unfair.

The reasons why your parents feel that the disputed rules are necessary.

Possible compromises regarding rules that cold be relaxed.

If your past behaviour leaves your parents rolling their eyes at your level of responsibility, offer to show that you are serious about the compromises that you have suggested. Dont just give them empty promises, but rather let your parents see your intentions in your actions. Consider:

Drawing up a contract that you are willing to sign regarding the compromise rules.

Suggesting appropriate punishments in the event that a compromise rule is broken.

Offering to take on extra responsibilities at home in order to compromise on some of the household rules or better yet, just start taking them on.

Detailing, in writing, exactly why you should be rewarded with compromise rules and what you will learn from the changes.

In order to succeed in coping with strict parents youll need to not only show that you are serious about changes in their rules, but that you can be a serious teen as well. Stay calm and collected at all times when discussing your parents rules, and avoid:

Raising your voice.

Interrupting others.


Running away.

Throwing/kicking/hitting things.

Slamming doors.

If, despite your best efforts, your parents refuse to budge regarding the rules of their regime then you may need to ask for help from other adults. Remember, youll need to be totally committed and truly believe that your parents rules are outrageous or youll run the risk of looking immature and/or insincere. If you remain committed to change, then enlist the aid of:

A relative or family friend.

A teacher or guidance counsellor.

A member of the clergy close to your family.

A private or family therapist.

A trained mediator.

Most parents make rules in the best interest of their children, but sometimes they go a little overboard. If you are coping with strict parents, do your best to speak with them seriously about their rules and the effect that they are having on your life. Show your parents that you are committed to compromising and you might be pleased with the results. But if things dont go your way and you truly believe that your strict parents are affecting your life, then consider asking for help from another trusted adult. Whatever you do, be ready to commit fully to any compromises that your parents offer and dont ever make them regret their decision. Remember, regaining lost trust will be harder than it was to bring about a compromise in the first place.

Module 2: Social problems. 29-30, 15.



1 Read and translate the text:

Youth unemployment

Youth unemployment is one of the most critical challenges the world is facing today: young people make up almost half of the world is unemployed, despite accounting for only one quarter of the working population. Youth unemployment is the unemployment of young people, defined by the United Nations as 1428 years old. An unemployed person is defined as someone who does not have a job but is actively seeking work. In order to qualify as unemployed for official and statistical measurement, the individual must be without employment, willing and able to work, of the officially designated 'working age' and actively searching for a position. Youth unemployment rates are historically four to five times more than the adult rates in every country in the world. In 2012, youth made up to 40% of the world unemployed, with a global youth unemployment rate of 12.6%. Close to 75 million youth were unemployed worldwide. In November 2011, the number of unemployed youth in the United Kingdom exceeded one million for the first time in the past 19 years. In Spain, youth unemployment has doubled since 2008 and now stands at 46%. In the OECD as a whole, 15 million young people are unemployed representing around $300 billion in lost wages alone, over a full year.

There are 1.2 billion youth in the world aged between 15 and 24, accounting for 17% of the world's population. 87% of them live in developing countries. The age range defined by the United Nations addresses the period when mandatory schooling ends until the age of 24. This definition remains controversial as it not only impacts unemployment statistics but also plays an important role in the targeted solutions designed by policy makers in the world.

Two main debates are ongoing today. First, defining the age range of youth is not as obvious as it seems. Two theoretical perspectives have dominated this debate. Youth can be seen as a stage in life between adolescence and adulthood or as a socially constructed group with its own sub-culture, making it difficult to establish a comparable age range between countries. Second, the definition of unemployment itself leads to the possibility of not accounting for a number of young people left out of work. Those who do not have a job and are not actively seeking work oftentimes women - are considered inactive and are therefore excluded in unemployment statistics. Their inclusion would substantially increase the unemployment rate.

There are multiple and complex causes behind youth unemployment. Among them, the quality and relevance of education, inflexible labor market and regulations, which in turn create a situation of assistance and dependency, are the main causes discussed today.

The quality and relevance of education is often considered as the first root cause of youth unemployment. In 2010, in 25 out of 27 developed countries, the highest unemployment rate was among people with primary education or less. Yet, high education does not guarantee a decent job. For example, in Tunisia, 40% of university graduates are unemployed against 24% of non-graduates. This affects highly educated young females in particular. In Turkey, the unemployment rate among university educated women is more than 3 times higher than that of university educated men; in Iran and the United Arab Emirates, it is nearly 3 times; and in Saudi Arabia, it is 8 times.

Beyond the necessity to ensure its access to all, education is not adequately tailored to the needs of the labor market, which in turns leads to two consequences: the inability for young people to find jobs and the inability for employers to hire the skills they need. Combined with the economic crisis and the lack of sufficient job creation in many countries, it has resulted in high unemployment rates around the world and the development of a skills crisis. Surveys suggest that up to half of all businesses have open positions for which they are struggling to find suitably qualified people. One global survey found that more than 55% of employers worldwide believe there is a skill crisis as businesses witness a growing mismatch between the skills, students learn in the education system and those required in the workplace. For many governments, a key question is how they can bridge this gap and ensure that young people are equipped with the skills employers are looking for.

Labor market policies and Institutions play a critical role in promoting labor demand and supporting transition from education to work. First, a high level of employment protection regulations has had a negative effect on youth workers as these regulations make it harder for employers to fire them during a downturn. Second, the development of temporary forms of work, such as internships, seasonal jobs and short term contracts have left young workers in precarious situations. Because their jobs are temporary contracts, youth are often the first to be laid off when a company downsizes. If they are laid off, youth are typically not eligible for redundancy payments because they only worked with the company for a short period of time. Once this work ends, many find themselves unemployed and disadvantaged in the job search. However, some youth are entering work on a part-time basis during tertiary education. This rate is low in countries like Italy, Spain and France but in the United States almost one-third of students combine education and work.

Facing unemployment, young people also turn to unpaid work. The legitimacy of internships has begun to be questioned. The intent of an internship is to provide valuable work experience, typically to youth in or recently out of college. However, many interns have complained that they are simply performing basic grunt-work, rather than learning important knowledge and skills. Whether or not these internship positions are now violating the federal rules, that are in place to govern programs such as internships remains to be seen. The internship however, seems to be the only viable alternative to job placement for the young individual. With little to no job growth occurring, the unemployment rate among those fresh out of college and at the later end of the 15-24 aged youth spectrum is approximately 13.2% as of April 2012.

Many countries around the world provide income assistance to support unemployed youth until labor market and economic conditions improve. Although this support is strictly related to obligations in terms of active job search and training, it has led to an emerging debate on whether or not it creates dependency among the youth and has a detrimental effect on them. In September 2014, David Cameron announced that he would cut housing and employment benefits for 18 to 21-year-olds by £3,000 to £23,000 to reduce dependency on government assistance and redirect funding to targeted programs for increased learning and training opportunities.

The individual experiences of youth unemployment vary from country to country. Definitions of youth can also vary from country to country so examination of particular countries gives a greater insight into the causes and consequences of youth unemployment.

The unemployment rate among young people between 15-28 years is 5.9%, while total unemployment rate is 5.2% in Kazakhstan, the main expert of the Department of Employment of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection Alim Baysakalov said."It was achieved thanks to the Head of State and the Government attention to the problems of youth employment. Over 100 billion tenge has been allocated for the implementation of Employment Road Map 2020 program, the chief expert of the Ministry of Labour said. He noted that the process of urbanization taking a toll on the labor market in rural health centers. There is of lack of qualified specialists in agriculture, especially in the social sphere in the villages.

African countries define youth as someone from as young as 15 to someone well into their mid thirties, which varies from the standardized definition of the United Nations. Africa has the youngest population of any continent which means that the problem of youth unemployment there is particularly relevant. Approximately 200 million people in Africa are between the ages of 15 and 24. This number is expected to double in size in the next 30 years. Between 2001 and 2010, countries in Africa reported some of the world's fasted growing economies. In Africa, the message the youth are receiving from schools and adults is to become job creators rather than job-seekers, which encourages them to become entrepreneurs.

Canada's economy has braved the global recession better than many others. But last year, 14.3 percent of Canadian youth were unemployed, up from 11.2 percent in 2007 and double the current national jobless rate of 7.2 percent, according to Statistics Canada. That amounts to the biggest gap between youth and adult unemployment rates since 1977. The average post-secondary graduate carries $28,000 in student debt. The unemployment rate for Canadian young people is about double that of the rest of the population. Only youth who collect Unemployment Insurance (UI) or welfare are recorded in Canadas unemployment statistics. In Canada's largest province, Ontario, joblessness rates are the highest. The rate of unemployment for Ontarians between the ages of 15-24 is hovering between 16 and 17 per cent, double that of the normal provincial rate and higher than the national youth unemployment rate of 13.5-14.5 per cent. The percentage of youth in Ontario who actually have a job hasnt climbed above 52 per cent this year. Torontos youth unemployment rate is at 18 per cent, but only 43 per cent of the areas youth are employed, the lowest rate in the province.

Due to the great recession in Europe, in 2009, only 15 per cent of males and 10 per cent of females between ages 1619 in were employed full-time. The youth employment rate in the European Union reached an all time low of 32.9 percent in the first half of 2011. Of the countries in the European Union Germany sticks outs with its low rate of 7.9%. Some critics argue that the decrease of the youth unemployment began even before the economic downturn, countries such as Greece and Spain.

The United Kingdom has experienced increased youth unemployment in the past few years, with rates reaching over 20 percent in 2009. The term NEET originated here, meaning youth that are not in education, employment or training.

The general unemployment rate in the United States has increased in the last 5 years, but the youth unemployment rate has jumped almost 10 percentage points. In 2007, before the most recent recession began, youth unemployment was already at 13 percent. By 2008, this rate had jumped to 18 percent and in 2010 it had climbed to just under 21 percent. The length of time the youth are unemployed has expanded as well, with many youth in the United States remaining unemployed after more than a year of searching for a job. This has caused the creation of a scarred generation, as discussed below.

Unemployed youth has been called a lost generation: not only because of productivity loss but also because of the long-term direct and indirect impact unemployment has on young people and their families. Unemployment has been said to affect earnings for about 20 years. Because they aren't able to build up skills or experience during their first years in the workforce, unemployed youth see a decrease in lifetime earnings when compared to those who had steady work or those who were unemployed as an adult. A lower salary can persist for 20 years following the unemployed period before the individual begins earning competitively to their peers. Widespread youth unemployment also leads to a socially excluded generation at great risk for poverty. For example, Spain saw an 18% increase in income inequality.

The lost generation effect impacts also their families. Youth in many countries now live with their parents into their late twenties. This contributes to what is called thefull-nest syndrome. In 2008, 46% of 18- to 34-year-olds in the European Union lived with at least one parent; in most countries the stay-at-homes were more likely to be unemployed than those who had moved out. In families, it is common that when one person becomes unemployed, other members of the family begin looking for or securing employment. This is called the added worker effect. This can sometimes take the form of employment in the informal sector when necessary. Alongside the shift in youth living situations, the impact of returning to live with parents, as well as difficulty finding a fulfilling job lead to mental health risks. Being unemployed for a long period of time in youth has been correlated to decreased happiness, job satisfaction and other mental health issues. Unemployed youth also report more isolation from their community. Youth who are neither working nor studying do not have the opportunity to learn and improve their skills. They are progressively marginalized from the labor market and in turn can develop an anti-social behavior.

The economic crisis has led to a global decrease in competitiveness. There is a risk of loss of talent and skills since a great amount of university graduates are unable to find a job and to put their knowledge and capabilities into producing innovation and contributing to economic growth. Excluding young people from the labor market means lacking the divergent thinking, creativity and innovation that they naturally offer. This fresh thinking is necessary for employers to foster new designs and innovative ideas. Fighting youth unemployment is therefore key to maintaining the economic performance of a country.

The role of labor market policy and institutions varies a lot from countries to countries. Here is a brief account of key propositions recently elaborated to facilitate access to employment for youth. First, a more balanced employment protection for permanent and temporary workers is needed. It will ensure that young people who lack work experience can prove their abilities and skills to then progressively transition to regular employment. It will also encourage a more equal treatment between permanent and temporary workers and help combat informal employment. This proposition has led to multiple discussions on flexible contracts to be designed and offered to youth. Second, discussions are focused on the level and spread of income support provided to unemployed youth. While some countries consider shifting their support from direct financial assistance to funding apprenticeship, others are increasing their support tying it back to stricter obligations of active search and training. Third, Governments are progressively involving employers and trainers to create a holistic approach to youth unemployment and provide intensive programs with focus on remedial education, work experience and adult mentoring.

The role of initial education in ensuring a smooth transition to work: the case of vocational education. The case has been made the past few years on the need to provide technical training to youth to prepare them specifically for a job. Vocational education would help address the skills crisis. Some countries among them Switzerland, The Netherlands, Singapore, Austria, Norway and Germany have been remarkably successful in developing vocational education and have reduced youth unemployment to as little as half the OECD average.

When taking into consideration the need to foster competitiveness through innovation and creativity, recent studies have advocated for entrepreneurship as a viable a solution to youth unemployment. With the right structure and facilitated administrative processes, young people could create enterprises as means to find and create new jobs. According to the OECD, Small and Medium Enterprises are todays main employers with 33% of jobs created over the last ten years. It shows that big companies no longer represent the main sources of employment and that there is a necessity to prepare young people for an entrepreneurship culture. This alternative is often regarded as a way to empower young people to take their future into their hands: it means investing in teaching them the leadership and management skills they need to become innovators and entrepreneurs. These skills also include: communication, teamwork, decision-making, organizational skills and self-confidence.

This solution ties back with labor market and regulations as many reforms are yet to be implemented to ensure that the market is flexible enough to incentivize young people to create enterprises. Target tax and business incentives are key to support young entrepreneurs in creating and scaling their businesses.

A number of studies have shown that young people are not sufficiently advised on work related opportunities, necessary skills and career pathways. Before they leave education, it appears critical that they have access to this information to be better prepared for what to expect and what is expected of them. Good quality career guidance along with labor market prospects should help young people make better career choices. Too many young people choose to study a field that leads to little if no jobs. Governments, employers and trainers should work together to provide clearer pathways to youth. Similarly, programs should be developed to better transition young people to the world of work. Here, vocational education and apprenticeship systems have shown that practice and on-the-job training had a positive effect.

Awareness has been raised around youth unemployment and it appears clearly that cross-sector collaboration is needed to tackle this issue. Policy makers but also entrepreneurs are trying to address the causes listed below. Best practices and key success factors are now identified and discussed on many forums, such as Decent Work 4 youth, an initiative by the International Labor Organization. Social entrepreneurs have also invested the field with the creation of new online platforms and applications.

Internet has been seen as a new world of opportunities for youth unemployment. With the use of social networks such as Facebook, Aboutme, LinkedIn, Twitter, young people are actively building their informal networks. New web applications are being designed today to use these networks to better match job seekers with employers, training volunteers and other forms of placement or mentoring. The Internet has contributed to redefining traditional forms of communication and young social entrepreneurs are now thinking about designing a job application that fits more with todays online presence and use of new technology. For example, the introduction of 1-minute videos to send to potential employers is being tested. Serious games to mimic the world of work or provide an online smart coach are also being developed.



1 Fill in the chart with translations in Russian:

Claims for unemployment benefit  
Work / a job / labour  
Equal opportunities x unequal  
Occupation / position  
job advertisement / advert / ad  
Benefits payments  
jobless rate / unemployment rate  
Average earnings /salaries /wages /pays  
Joblessness / unemployment  
financial crisis  
To work part-time  
a full-time job  
To work part-time  
To work full-time  
To work flexi-time  
To work nine-to-five  
To work shifts ( to do shift work)  
To work overtime  
youth unemployment  
Training, schooling  
to gain /get skills  
skilled /qualified x unskilled / unqualified worker  
To re-qualify (for a car mechanic)  
affordable housing  
State housing  
Social housing  
working class  
school leavers  
university graduates  
Yearly / monthly / weekly income x Yearly / monthly / weekly costs/expenditures  
To pay income tax  
To pay Value Added Tax (VAT)  
To fill in a tax return form  
family / personal savings  
labour market  
Labour law  
Job interview  
personal adviser  
To terminate / end employment ( to dismiss sb., to fire sb., to sack) /to make sb. redundant  
To lose a job  
Loss of employment  
redundancy payment  
To register at the labour office / unemployment office / job centre  
To claim / apply for unemployment benefit / jobseekers allowance  
claimants of/ applicants for job seekers allowance / of unemployment benefit  
To look for/ search for / seek a new job  
To apply for a job  
To write a job application letter  
To fill in an job application form  
To have an interview  
To go to an audition  
To get a new job / to be accepted  
To fill a position / a vacancy  
A superior x a subordinate  
To be on maternity (parental) leave  
To be on sick leave  
Self-employed person  
To employ / to recruit  
Employed x unemployed  
Employment x unemployment  
Employable x unemployable  
to sign an employment contract  
Employment policy /strategy  
The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs  
Labour Law  

2 Write an essay on Unemployment in Kazakhstan and all over the world using the vocabulary (250 words)



Module 1: Political life and Mass Media. 31, 16. Court system.


1 Vocabulary: Translate all the words and rewite them into your vocabulary:

1. Courts: trial Courts, common pleas courts, municipal and county courts, mayors' courts, courts of claims, courts of appeals, the State Supreme Court.

The Federal courts, district courts, the US Supreme Court, juvenile court.

2. Cases: lawsuit, civil cases, criminal cases, framed-up cases.

3. Offences: felony, misdemeanour, murder, manslaughter, homicide, rape, assault, arson, robbery, burglary theft/larceny, kidnapping, embezzlement bribery, forgery, fraud, swindling, perjury, slander, blackmail, abuse of power, disorderly conduct, speeding, petty offence, house-breaking, shoplifting, mugging, contempt of court, subpoena.

4. Participants of the legal procedure: 1) parties to a lawsuit: claimant/plaintiff(in a civil case); defendant, offender (first/repeat); attorney for the plaintiff (in a civil case); prosecutor (criminal); attorney for defence; 2) jury, Grand jury, to serve on a jury, to swear the jury, to convene; 3) witness a credible witness; 4) a probation officer; 5) bailiff.

5. Legal procedure: to file a complaint/a countercomplaint, to answer/challenge the complaint; to notify the defendant of the lawsuit; to issue smb a summons; to issue a warrant of arrest (a search warrant); to indict smb for felony; to bring lawsuit; to take legal actions; to bring the case to court; to bring criminal prosecution; to make an opening statement; the prosecution; the defence; to examine a witness direct examination, cross-examination; to present evidence (direct, circumstantial, relevant, material, incompetent, irrelevant, admissible, inadmissib, corroborative, irrefutable, presumptive, documentary); to register (to rule out, to sustain) an objection; circumstances (aggravating, circumstantial, extenuating); to detain a person, detention; to go before the court.

6. Penalties or sentences ( ): bail, to release smb on bail; to bring in (to return, to give) a verdict of guilty/not guilty; a jail sentence; send smb to the penitentiary/jail; to impose a sentence on smb; to serve a sentence; a penitentiary term = a term of imprisonment (life, from 25 years to a few months imprisonment); hard labour, manual labour; probation, to be on probation, to place an offender on probation, to grant probation/parole; parole, to release smb on parole, to be eligible for parole.

7. A court room: the judge's bench, the jury box; the dock, the witness stand/box; the public gallery.

2 Read and translate the text:

The US Court System

The courts are the overseers of the law. They administer it, they resolve disputes under it, and they ensure that it is and remains equal to and impartial for everyone.

In the United States each state is served by the separate court systems, state and federal. Both systems are organized into three basic levels of courts trial courts, intermediate courts of appeal and a high court, or Supreme Court. The state courts are concerned essentially with cases arising under state law, and the federal courts with cases arising under federal law.

Trial courts bear the main burden in the administration of justice. Cases begin there and in most instances are finally resolved there.

The trial courts in each state include: common pleas courts, which have general civil and criminal jurisdiction and smaller in importance municipal courts, county courts and mayors' courts.

The common pleas court is the most important of the trial courts. It is the court of general jurisdiction almost any civil or criminal case, serious or minor, may first be brought there. In criminal matters, the common pleas courts have exclusive jurisdiction over felonies (a felony is a serious crime for which the penalty is a penitentiary term or death). In civil matters it has exclusive jurisdiction in probate, domestic relations and juvenile matters. The probate division deals with wills and the administration of estates, adoptions, guardianships. It grants marriage licenses to perform marriages. The domestic division deals with divorce, alimony, child custody.

The juvenile division has jurisdiction over delinquent, unruly or neglected children and over adults, who neglect, abuse or contribute to the delinquency of children. When a juvenile (any person under 18) is accused of an offence, whether serious, orminor, the juvenile division has exclusive jurisdiction over the case.

The main job of courts of appeal is to review cases appealled from trial courts to determine if the law was correctly interpreted and applied.

The supreme court of each state is primarily a court of appeal and the court of last resort.

The federal court structure is similar to the structure of the state court system. The trial courts in the federal system are the United States district courts. The United States courts of appeal are intermediate courts of appeal between the district courts and the United States Supreme Court.

The US Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation and the court of last resort. It consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all of whom are appointed for life by the President with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. The duty of the Supreme Court is to decide whether laws passed by Congress agree with the Constitution. The great legal issues facing the Supreme Court at present are Government involvement with religion, abortion and privacy rights, race and sex discrimination.




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