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Module 1: Person, culture, education and science. 1-2, 1. Change.


1 Answer the pre-reading question:

1. Why do people usually want to change something in their appearance or lifestyle?


To yearn for something means to long for/ want it very much.

Swanky means very luxuruos.

If you experienced raised eyebrows, you caused a lot of surprise or disapproval.

Forced smiles are smiles that are not genuine.

To keep in touch with someone means that you maintain contact with them usually by writing or phoning.

Roots are your friends, family and background that tie you to a place.

A failed marriage is a marriage that ended in a separation or divorce.

2 Read and translate the texts, answer the questions:

1 Why do Britons travel to South Africa for cosmetic surgery?

2 What are clients told before they undergo surgery?

3 Why did Angie decide to immigrate to South Africa?

4 How did her friends react to her decision? Why?

Changing appearance through cosmetic surgery.

What better way to satisfy the yearning for beauty and travel than fly to the opposite end

of the planet for plastic surgery, followed by recuperation in the privacy of a South African game

park? Three years after setting up her company, Surgeon and Safari, Lorraine Melville is taking

clients from all over the world, notably Britain. The appeals are obvious. Britons who spend

£200 million on cosmetic surgery each year have woken up to the fact that operations in

Johannesburg or Cape Town can be a third of the price at home. A full face-lift, fourteen nights

at Johannesburgs swanky Westcliff hotel and a chauffeur comes to less than £6,000. Potential

clients are sent a medical questionnaire and interviewed about their motivation. Those who

expect the operation to transform their lives, find a partner, become happy, are advised it will

not. From the airport they are shuttled to their hotel and often operated on the next day,

giving a week or two for bruises to fade before returning home to a (hoped for) shower of

compliments on how well they look after their holiday.

Lifestyle change.

There had been more than a few raised eyebrows when shed announced her decision to go.

The congratulations had lacked spontaneity, the smiles were forced. And if her friends reactions

had caused her on occasion to question the wisdom of what she was doing, she had been determined

not to show it. Anyway, it was too late now the house had been sold, the money divided up with

her ex-husband, the leaving party held and the promises made to keep in touch.

South Africa was such a long way, theyd all concurred. She had no roots there, no friends,

no contacts. Would she be safe on her own? But Angie needed to break with the past, with the

painful memories of a failed marriage, and start a new life abroad. Europe was ruled out she

spoke no languages and America was too expensive. The Cape coast had it all: the weather,

the lifestyle, the food. And there were plenty of Brits to make her feel at home.

1. Discuss the following questions:

1 How popular is cosmetic surgery in your country?

2 What are the main reasons for having it?

3 Would you ever consider living abroad? Why or why not?

4 What major changes have taken place recently in your country?

5 Have these changes been for the better or for the worse?

2. Note down one example for each of the following:

a problem in your country or local area which is getting worse

something you have recently started or stopped doing

something you have been doing for a long time

the place you went to on your most recent holiday

what you were doing this time last Sunday

what you will or might be doing this time next Sunday


1. Grammar: simple and continuous verb forms

Read the rules:

Continuous forms are used to:

- talk about actions which were, are or will be in progress at a specific time, which is either stated or understood.

When I last met him, he was still looking for a job.Im having a really hard time at work at the moment. Dont call me at 1.30. Ill be having my lunch then.

- talk about an activity that has recently stopped.

Weve just been playing tennis.

- suggest that a situation or action is temporary or incomplete.

My flats being decorated so Im staying at my mums. Ive been writing my thesis - Ive almost finished.

- emphasize duration, using for or since.

Shed been waiting for him for over an hour. Ive been sitting here since three oclock.

- refer to repeated actions. Always, forever, continually are used with present and past continuous to show that the speaker finds the repetition annoying or curious.

Ive been taking that herbal remedy you recommended. Youre forever forgetting your keys! She was always climbing trees as a child.

- describe change and development.

Simons growing up - hes getting taller and taller.

- talk about future arrangements.

Im meeting Sally at three tomorrow.

Simple forms are used to describe:

- single completed actions.

Ive written my thesis. I submitted it yesterday.

- habitual actions.

I often went fishing as a boy but I rarely go now.

- repeated actions where the frequency or number is stated.

Iphoned the bank twice yesterday, and Ive made another three calls today.

- timetabled or scheduled events in the future.

My train leaves at six thirty tomorrow morning.

- states. State verbs include appear; believe, know, like, own, prefer, remember, seem, understand, want.

I understand why you like it, but 1 dont want one.

Some state verbs can be used in the continuous form, but with a change in meaning, eg appear, expect, fit, have, see, smell, think.

Im seeing Alan on Friday (see = meet). Sorry, I dont see what you mean (see = understand).

The continuous form of the state verb be can be used to describe temporary behaviour.

Youre not being very helpful. In fact, 1 think you're being very rude.

When describing feelings, the verbs feel, hurt and ache can be used in the simple or continuous form with no difference in meaning: feel/m feeling tired and my neck hurts/s hurting.

However, with some time adverbials the simple form must be used: feel tired all the time. My neck hurts when I turn my head.

Continuous forms can be used to:

- describe actions in progress at a specific time which is either stated or understood.

He was cooking his dinner when I phoned.

- talk about an activity that has recently stopped.

It looks as though its been raining here.

- emphasize repetition, duration or the temporary nature of an event.

Ive been trying to speak to him for weeks.

Shes only working there this month.

- talk and ask about arrangements or plans.

Im playing tennis with Paul tomorrow.Will you be going into town later?

- describe change and development.

The weathers changing - its getting cold again.

Simple forms can be used to:

- describe single or habitual actions, or repeated actions with a stated frequency or number.

I often went to France as a child.Youve told me that three times today!

- describe states.

I think I know what she wants for Christmas.

Some state verbs can be used in the continuous form, but with a change in meaning.

The situation appears to be improving. (= seems) Janet Burns is currently appearig in The Seagull at the Connaught Theatre. (= is performing)

Some others can be used in either simple or continuous form with no change in meaning.

I feel/m feeling terrible. My back really aches/is really aching.

The continuous form of the verb to be can be used to describe temporary behaviour.

Youre being very naughty!

2 Do the following exercises:

1 Name the tenses in bold in the following sentences from the recording.

When I was bringing up my own children, we moved house two or three times.

I think the least we can do is encourage our children to make friends.

Some parents are probably wondering what they can do.

Schools have opened their doors once again.

Weve just been talking about childrens very first day at school.

I cant guarantee it will work in all cases.

Later this month ... 60,000 school leavers will be starting their first year at a university.


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