Exercise 1. Find the right ending of the sentence
1. Among the modern branches are ….
a) textile industry
b) metal industry including production of steel and non-ferrous metal
c) aerospace, electronic and machine tool industries
2. the British aerospace industry is the …
a) largest in the world
b) third largest in the world
c) second largest in Europe
3. The Western world largest producer of agricultural tractors is …
4. The leading centres of aviation industry are …
a) Newcastle and Birmingham
b) London and Sheffield
c) Greater London and Bristol
5. Nottingham, Lester and Derby are known to be the most important centres of …
a) footwear industry
b) metal industry
c) chemical industry
Exercise 2. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. Aerospace, electronic and machine-tool industries are traditional branches of industry
2. Britain’s chemical industry is the first largest in Europe.
3. The British cotton textile industry is centered in Lincolnshire.
4. Engineering is the basic branch of industry in Great Britain .
5. Birmingham, Sheffield and Manchester are the main ship-building centers.
Exercise 3. Ask questions to get answers:
1. About one- quarter.
2. Coal-mining and textile industry
3. Glasgow, Newcastle and Belfast are
4. After the Second World War
5. In Wales, Scotland in the Cumberland Mountains
6. The woolen industry
Exercise 4. Make a chart of the development of industry in Great Britain and speak on the topic.
Science and Technology
Nobel prizes for science have been awarded to 70 British citizens, a greater number than for any other country apart from the United States.
Spending on scientific research and development in 1988 was about £10,300 million, 2-2 percent of gross domestic product. The Government takes responsibility for funding research in basic science.
The Science and Engineering Research Council supports fundamental research in pure and applied science, including engineering. With the other research councils, it is setting up interdisciplinary research centres.
The Medical Research Council supports major projects in all types of disease, including Alzheimer's disease and AIDS. The earth's resources, the oceans and the atmosphere are the concern of the Natural Environment Research Council. The Agricultural and Food Research Council supports work on crops and livestock.
The Government supports university research through the Universities Funding Council. Research on nuclear power is the responsibility of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, which also offers a contract research service to industry. The Ministry of Defense’s share of government research expenditure has fallen to some 45 per cent. Increasing emphasis is placed on its research funded jointly with industry. "Spin-off" from defense technology to the civil market is encouraged. British firms and academic institutions participate in European Community and other international programs.
Industry is the second major source of funds for research and development. There have been major advances in the development of optical fibre communications, systems. The pharmaceutical industry accounted for 10 per cent of manufacturing industry's research and development expenditure in Britain in 1989. British firms make 11 of the world's 50 best-selling medicines. In aerospace British companies play a major role.
The Government sets the arts budget for a three-year period so that arts bodies can plan ahead and diversify their sources of funding. The Government encourages arts bodies to seek funds from the private sector.
The British Council furthers knowledge of British culture and the English language overseas. It initiates or supports tours by British companies and artists.
London is a major international centre for theatre, opera and dance. There are many important companies and theatres outside the capital. The Royal National Theatres stages classical and modern plays. The Shakespeare Festival takes place in April. People flock to Stradford and pack its theatre. On the 23rd of April – the Bardic Birthday – representatives of all nations walk from the theatre and stand under their national flag in Bridge Street. A procession goes to the Birthplace - the house where Shakespeare is said to have been born. The Royal Shakespeare Company performs both at Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeare’s birthplace, and in London. The Royal Opera, Covent Garden, and the English National Opera are the main London opera companies. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own .
British pop musicians and groups have worldwide appeal and have set new trends.
Some 650 professional arts festivals take place each year. The Edinburgh International Festival is the largest of its kind in the world.
British films, actors and the creative and technical services which support them are acclaimed at international film festivals. The industry also produces films for television.
About 2,500 museums and art galleries include the major national museums, with world-famous artistic, archeological, scientific and historical collections. The Queen’s Gallery in Buckingham Palace shows pictures from the royal collection. Many of Britain’s great private houses (some open to the public), of prime architectural interest, also contain art treasures.
A network of free public and other institutional and private libraries helps to maintain the vast wealth of English literature and culture. The British Library, Britain’s national library, is one of the world’s three largest.