Exercise 2. Agree or disagree with the following statements
1. Lviv, the historical capital of Galicia and Western Ukraine, and after Kyiv, the second cultural, political, and religious center of Ukraine.
2. By population it is the first largest city in Ukraine.
3. Today Lviv has an area of 200 sq.km.
4. Lviv is the only city in Ukraine that still has some original Renaissance architecture.
5. The main monuments in the city are to Ushakov, T.Shevchenko, B.Khmelnitsky.
Exercise 3. Ask questions to get these answers.
1.In the mid-13th c.
2. St. Nickolas's Church.
4. Vysoky Zamok.
5. Renaissance architecture.
6. To A.Mickiewicz, I.Franko, V.Stefanyk, I.Fedorovych.
Exercise 4 . Put the sentences of the text into the logical order. Retell the text.
1. Lviv was founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Danylo Romanovych
2. The most imposing part of Lviv includes Shevchenko prospect, Mickiewicz square, and Horodetska street.
3. Today Lviv has an area of 155 sq km.
4. The oldest monument in Lviv consists of the foundation and walls of St. Nickolas's Church.
5. There are a lot of picturesque parks in the city.
6. Lviv is the only city in Ukraine that still has some original Renaissance architecture.
7. Lviv is the leading scientific and cultural center of western Ukraine
8. The main monuments in the cityore to A.Mickiewicz, I.Franko, V.Stefanyk, I.Fedorovych.
Exercise 5. Tell about any Ukrainian city which you have ever visited.
IX . Supplementary
Text D The Constitution of Ukraine
The adoption of a new constitution of Ukraine on the 28th of June, 1996, became an important event in the life of the people of Ukraine. Our country has long-standing constitutional traditions. The first Constitution of Ukraine was written by hetman Pylyp Orlyk in 1710. Being the first constitution in Europe, it was notable for its profound democracy. The experience of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1918) played a significant role in the constitutional process. The constitution of the Ukrainian People's Republic approved by the Centralna Rada is the embodiment of the statehood principles of Ukraine.
On the 24th of October, 1990, the constitutional commission was appointed by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. The draft constitution was written during the first stage of its preparation (1990—1993). It was logically and juridically completed during the second stage (1994—1996). The draft constitution was published and went through nation-wide discussion. On the 28th of June, 1996, the Constitution was confirmed by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Common to all mankind principles of democracy are embodied in the Constitution. The basic economic, social, cultural, public and political rights are guaranteed by the Constitution. According to the Constitution, Ukraine is a sovereign, independent, democratic, social and juridical state. Territorial integrity and inviolability of Ukraine are proclaimed in the Constitution.
The power in Ukraine belongs to people. It is exercised through democratic elections and referendums and by state government bodies and self-government institutions. The form of state government is a republic. The head of the state is the president. The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is the highest legislative body in the country. The principles of economic, political and ideological multiformity are proclaimed in the Constitution. All citizens have equal rights. People are proclaimed to be the greatest social value in Ukraine. These and other regulations are successively developed in the chapters of the Constitution. The best national traditions are embodied in the Constitution, which creates the legal bases of regulation of social relations.
Text E Ukrainian Music
The real development of musical education in Ukraine began in the 19th century with the opening of a music schoolinKyiv in 1868. In 1883, it became a music high school. Such schools were opened in other towns as Odesa, Poltava, Kharkiv. Conservatories were opened in Kyiv and Odesa in 1913. The music and drama school was founded in Kyiv in 1904 by M Lysenko. In a year the M. Lysenko Music Institute was opened in Lviv. They played an important part in the training of national musicians.
The best representatives of the Ukrainian musical culture were well-known artists as the conductor 0. Koshyts, the singers S. Krushelnytska, M. Sadovska, the composers K Stetsenko and L. Revutsky. The first permanent opera theatre in Ukraine was opened in Odesa in 1809. The Kyiv and Kharkiv opera companies were organized later.
The Drama Theatre (1882) greatly influenced the development of Ukrainian music. From the beginning of the 19th century the Ukrainian theatre was associated with folk song and dance culture. Folk music became an important dramatic component in the plays of this period ("Natalka Poltavka", "Nazar Stodolya", etc.) National opera developed under the influence of the Ukrainian music-drama theatre.
The choir activities of M Lysenko, which continued during almost his entire musical career, played an important part in the history of Ukrainian choral culture. He conducted the students' choir of Kyiv University.
The most consistent followers of the traditions set by M. Lysenko were the composers Stetsenko, Stepovy and Leontovych.
Many famous Russian composers, such as M. Glinka, P. Tchaikovsky, M. Musorgsky, wrote music on Ukrainian themes.
Text F Ukrainian literature
The great body of Ukrainian oral literature attained its zenith in the 16th century with the Cossack epic songs, the "dumy". The first books printed in Ukrainian were translations of the Gospels (16th century). Early books were usually religious, but a grammar appeared in 1596 and a dictionary in 1627. Ukrainian cultural life of the 17th century centered around the Kyivan academy, established in 1633. The outstanding poet and philosopher of the 18th century wasHryhory Skovoroda (1722- 1794). A leading figure in the Ukrainian literary revival of the early 19th century was Ivan Kotlyarevsky (1769-1838), whose travesty of the 'Aeneid" and operetta "Natalka Poltavka" are major works of Ukrainian classical literature. Classicism predominates also in the writings of the novelist Hrytsko Kvitka-Osnovyanenko (1778-1843) and in the plays of Vasyi Gogol.
Interest in folklore and ethnography is represented in the works of Levko Borovykovsky (1806—-1889) and Ambros Mellynsky (1814—1870), poets of the Kharkiv romantic school.
With the founding in the 1830s of a University in Kyiv, the capital became once again the cultural centre of Ukraine. The leading scholar of the period was the historian Mykola Kostomarov (1817- 1885).
The poet Taras Shevchenko was the great figure of Ukrainian romanticism, which predominates in the dramatic works of Mykhailo Starytsky (1840- 1904), Marko Kropyvnytsky (1840- 1910) and Ivan Tobilevych (1845-1907).
Realism in Ukrainian prose found expression in the works of Borys Hrinchenko (1863- 1910) and Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky (1838- 1918) and in the naturalistic tales of Marko Vovchok (1838-1907).
Modern Ukrainian literature is represented by the outstanding writer Ivan R-anko and the poetess Lesia Ukrainka. Masters of impressionist prose were Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky (1864-1913) and Vasyi Stefanyk (1871 - 1936).
The novelist Olha Kobylyanska (1868- 1942) and the novelist and political writer Volodymyr Vynnychenko were among the major literary figures of the early 20th century.
Many Ukrainian writers were killed or deported by the Soviet regime during the 1930s, among them the dramatist Mykola Kulish (1892-1934), the humorist Ostap Vyshnya, and the theorist of neoclassicism Mykola Zerov.
One of the leading writers of the proletarian age, Mykola Khvylyovy (1893 - 1933) proposed the reorientation of Ukrainian literature toward the West. Important writers who survived the purges of the 1930s include the master of subjective verse Maksym Rylsky, the necromantic poet Mykola Bazhan, the lyric poet Pavlo Tychyna, the dramatist Oleksandr Komiychuk, and the novelist Oles Honchar.