V. Reading and comprehension. Read and translate the text B
Read and translate the text B
Political System of Ukraine
Ukraine is a sovereign state. On June 16, 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. On August 24,1991, Ukraine’s independence and the formation of the independent state of Ukraine was proclaimed by the Ukrainian Parliament.
On December 1,1991, an all-Ukrainian referendum was held , involving 84.18 percent of citizens.
Winning 61.6 percent of the votes, L.Kravchuk, the former head of the Verkhovna Rada, was elected President of Ukraine.
In 1994 L.Kuchma won the Presidential elections and became the new President of Ukraine.
A new state, Ukraine, appeared on the world political map in 1991. It is a democratic state, which is ruled by the law. It includes 24 administrative regions and the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea. Ukraine has its own Constitution, which was adopted in 1996. The Constitution of Ukraine consists of 15 chapters (161 articles). The day of its adoption (June, 28, 1996) is a state holiday – the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine.
The political system of Ukraine is really democratic. The powers of the Government are divided into legislative, executive and judicial. The President is the head of the state. He is elected for a term of five years. The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verkhovna Rada. It carries out domestic and foreign policy of the state.
The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine. It includes 450 deputies who are elected for a term of four years. The Verkhovna Rada adopts the State Budget and controls the execution of it.
Judicial power in Ukraine is led by the Supreme Court.
There are very many political parties in Ukraine. The main parties are: the Social Democratic Party, the People’s Rukh of Ukraine, the Batkivshchyna, the Communist Party, the Women of Ukraine.
The National Emblem of Ukraine is a Golden Tryzub (trident) on a blue shield. The National Flag of Ukraine is a rectangular cloth with two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper colored blue and the lower golden yellow. The National Anthem has been performed since January 1992 (music by M.M.Verbytsky).
The National Holiday, Independence Day, is celebrated on August 24.
Now Ukraine establishes new relations with countries throughout the world. It sets direct contacts with them signing agreement and treaties.
Exercise 1. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following:
- to elect
- to divide
- to rule
- to carry out
- the Supreme Court
- the national anthem
- domestic policy
- to be accountable to
- foreign policy
Exercise 2. Give English equivalents for the following:
- суверенна держава
- президентські вибори
- законодавча влада
- виконавча влада
- судова влада
- приймати (про закон)
- державне свято
Exercise 3. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. On August 24, 1991, Ukraine’s independence was proclaimed by the Ukrainian Parliament
2. The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is the only body of the executive power.
3. Ukraine includes 24 administrative regions and the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea.
4. The powers of the government are divided into legislative, executive and judicial.
5. The National Holiday, Independence Day, is celebrated on August 28.
6. In 1993 L.Kuchma won the Presidential elections and became the President of Ukraine.
7. L.Kravchuk was the first President of Ukraine.
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:
1. When did the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine pass the Declaration of State Sovereignty.
2. By whom was Ukraine’s independence proclaimed?
3. What event took place in Ukraine on December 1, 1991?
4. Who was elected the first President of Ukraine?
5. When did L.Kuchma become the President of Ukraine?
6. How many regions does Ukraine include?
7. How are the powers of the government divided into?
8. What is the National Emblem of Ukraine?
9. Who was a music to the National Anthem written by?
10.When is Independence Day celebrated?
11. When is the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine celebrated?
Exercise 5. Speak on the topic “Political System of Ukraine” . Use the chart:
Exercise 1. Role – play the following situations:
Situation 1.Paula Smith, a British guide of the Ukrainian students in London is going to visit Ukraine. She is interested in information on Ukraine. Answer her questions on geographical position, history, natural resources of Ukraine.
Situation 2.A student of the Law faculty is taking an exam in the Constitutional Law of Ukraine. He has difficulty with the question about the political structure of Ukraine. The teacher asks him questions and helps to reveal the question about the political system of Ukraine.
Situation 3. A young businessman has a possibility to invest money in the development of our country. He is interested in Ukrainian industry. Prove him that investing money in the development of industry will give a profit. Tell him about the main industrial centres of Ukraine.
Useful expressions:I’d like to say a few words about – я б хотів сказати декілька слів про … ; As I know– як відомо; I think that – я думаю що; Quite on the contrary – навпаки; Certainly – звичайно; (Could) Can I ask you – чи можу я вас запитати;
I want to give a few examples to prove it – я б хотів навести декілька прикладів,щоб довести це; As far as I know – наскільки мені відомо; I am interested in – мене цікавить; What can you say about – що ви можете сказати про …; You are welcome – будь ласка; Thank you – дякую .
Listen to the text C. Be sure that you know the following words and word combinations.
the core – центр
remnants – залишки
medieval church - середньовічні церкви
scenic city - живописне місто
vegetation – рослинність
to resemble - бути схожим
residents – жителі
Galicia - Галичина
Principality of Galicia-Volhynia - галицько-волинське князівство
Mickiewicz square – площа Міцкевича
Horodetska Street – вулиця Городецька
The Lychakiv Cemetry – Личаківське кладовище
The Janiv Cemetry – Янівське кладовище
Vysoky Zamok – Високий замок
St.Nickola’s Church – церква Святого Миколая
The Chapel of Three Saints – Церква Трьох Святих
Byzantine Romanesque Style візантійсько-романський стиль
Renaissance architecture - архітектура доби Ренесанс
Lviv, the historical capital of Galicia and Western Ukraine, and after Kyiv, the second cultural, political, and religious center of Ukraine. By population it is the seventh-largest city in Ukraine.
Lviv was founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Danylo Romanovych near Zvenyhorod which had been named after his son Lev. In 1260s, Lviv became the capital of the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. It stretched as far as the Poltva River.
Today Lviv has an area of 155 sq km. The core is the city of the 14th to 18th centuries. The core is densely built up with tall stone buildings, many of them in their original style. The most imposing part of Lviv includes Shevchenko prospect, Mickiewicz square, and Horodetska street, with many public buildings, hotels, cafes, stores and banks in 19th- and 20th-century styles.
Lviv is a very scenic city with a varied vegetation. There are a lot of picturesque parks in the city. The Lychakiv Cemetery, which contains some famous monuments to noted Ukrainian and Polish residents of Lviv, and the Yaniv Cemetery with other 200 graves of fighters for Ukraine's independence, resemble parks.
The oldest monument in Lviv consists of the foundation and walls of St. Nickolas's Church, built by Prince Lev Danylovych in the 13th century. The remnants of Vysoky Zamok date back to the 13th century. There is a great number of the medieval churches built in the Byzantine Romanesque style in Lviv.
Lviv is the only city in Ukraine that still has some original Renaissance architecture. The finest examples of the style are the Dominican Church and the Chapel of Three Saints and some other buildings.
The main monuments in the cityore to A.Mickiewicz, I.Franko, V.Stefanyk, I.Fedorovych.
Lviv is the leading scientific and cultural center of western Ukraine. It has a number of research institutes with high reputation, higher educational establishments, theaters and libraries.
Exercise 1. Find the right ending of the sentence:
1. Lviv was founded …
a) in the 15th century by Prince Danylo Romanovych
b) in the 10th century by Yaroslav the Wise
c) in the 13th century by Prince Danylo Romanovych
2. Lviv became the capital of the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia in …
3. The most imposing part of Lviv includes:
a) Shevchenko square, Mickiewich street, Horodetsky prospect
b) Shevchenko prospect, Mickiewich square and Horodetska Street
c) Shevchenko street and Mickiewich square
4. The oldest monument in Lviv consists of …
a) the walls of St.Peter’s Church
b) the foundation and walls of St.Nickolas’s church
c) the Chapel of Three Saints
5. The remnants of Vysoky Zamok date back to …
a) the 15th century
b) the 13th century
c) the 16th century
6. Lviv is …
a) the center of ship-building and textile industry
b) the leading scientific and cultural center of western Ukraine
c) the leading scientific and cultural center of eastern Ukraine