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Order of Succession to the Throne. Prince William of Wales



The Prince of Wales

Prince William of Wales

Prince Henry of Wales

The duke of York

Princess Beatrice of York

Princess Eugenie of York

Prince Edward

Dates Relating to Queen Elizabeth IIAnne, Prince Royal

Marriage: 20 Nov. 1947 Peter Phillips

Accession to throne : 6 Feb. 1952 Zara Phillips

Coronation : 2 June 1953 Princess Margaret

Birthday : 21 April Viscount Linley

Official Birthday Celebration : During June Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones

 

 

Alexander Bell-the inventor of the telephone

Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1847. Both his father and his grandfather studied the mechanics of a sound. Bell’s father was one of the pioneer teachers of speech to the deaf. Alexander Bell never planned to be an inventor. He wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people. Between 1868 and 1870 Alexander worked with his father and studied speech and taught deaf children in Edinburgh. In 1870 he moved to Canada and the next year he went to the USA. In 1866 the nineteen year-old Bell thought about telegraph and he tried to find a way to send musical sound through the wires. In 1873 he worked as professor at Boston University. He was interested in the mechanical production of a sound and based his works on the theories of Helmholtz. It was possible for Bell to convert the sound wave vibrations into a fluctuating electric current and to carry sound across wires at the speed of light. Alexander Graham Bell invented the first telephone in 1876. He became a citizen of the United States in 1882. Bell was a modest humanitarian who once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf than as the inventor of the telephone . both his mother and his wife were deaf. In tribute to Scotland and America, the inscription on Bell’s grave reads: ”Born in Edinburgh … died a citizen of the United States of America”. ”I wonder what the world would be like toady if the telephone hadn’t been invented; Sashe thinks to himself.”



Marie Curie

Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on 7th of November 1867. her father was a teacher of science and mathematics at school in town, and from him little Marya Sklodovska ― which was her Polish name ― learned her first lessons in science. Marya’s wish was to study at the Sorbonne in Paris and after many years of waiting she finally left her native land in 1891.

Once in Paris Marya began a course of hard study and simple living. She decided to work for two Master’s degrees ― one in Physics, the other in Mathematics. Thus she had to work twice as hard as the ordinary student. Yet she had not enough money to live on. She lived in a bare attic in the poorest quarter of Paris. Night after night, after her hard day’s works at the University, she would climb to her poorly furnished room and work at her books for hours. Her meals were poor, sometimes no more than a bag of cherries, which she ate as she studied. Though she was often weak and ill under this hard mode of life, she worked in this way for four years. She chose her course and nothing could turn her from it.

Among many scientists Marya met and worked with in Paris was Pierre Curie. Pierre Cutie, born in 1859 in Paris, was the son of doctor, and from childhood he liked science. At sixteen he was a Bachelor of Science and he took his Master’s degree in Physics when he was eighteen. When he met Marya Sklodovska he was thirty five years old and was famous throughout Europe for his discoveries in magnetism. But in spite of the honour he brought to France by his discoveries, the French Government could only spare him a very meagre salary as a reward, and the University of Paris refused him a laboratory of him own for his researches.



Pierre Curie and Marya Sklodovska , both of whom loved science more than anything else, very soon became the closest friends. They worked together constantly and discussed many problems of their researches. After little more than a year they fell in love with each other, and in 1895 Marya Sklodovska became Mme Curie. Their marriage was not only to be a very happy one but also one of the greatest scientific partnerships.

 

Notes

a teacher of science ― преподаватель естественных наук (химия физика биология)

master’s degree ― учебная степень магистра

under this hard mode of life ― при такой тяжелой жизни

a Bachelor of Science ― бакалавр естественных наук (звание присваиваемое после окончания университета

spare him a very meager salary ― (зд.) платило ему мизерное жалованье

 

 


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