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Г р а м м а т и ч е с к и е у п р а ж н е н и я. 15. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода вводящих придаточное подлежащее слова what и that

15. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода вводящих придаточное подлежащее слова what и that. Помните о возможной перестройке предложения:

1. That gas can be turned into a liquid by pressure is known to everyone.

2. What is visible with light microscopes can be seen better through electron microscopes.

3. That the engine stopped running surprised everyone.

4. What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure.

5. That the cosmic ray intensity near the poles is about 15 percent greater than near the equator was found on bringing together the results of last expeditions.

6. What had looked like an inviting ski run[14] is transformed into a mass of snow blasting down the hill.

7. That human flight is possible is the fundamental idea of the book “On the Flight of Birds” by Leonardo da Vinci.

8. What has been said above indicated one of the limitations of this method.

9. That a liquid occupies a certain amount of space is its primary property.

10. What we faced when we tested the new devices are those not ideal conditions.

11. That the radio is the fastest and most reliable way to detect artificial satellites is well known to everybody.

12. What Galileo’s discoveries meant in those dark days of Middle Ages is difficult for us to appreciate.

13. That there was much speculation on the problem of flight for many centuries is not strange.

14. That sites can store and maintain your personal data regardless of your browser’s privacy settings is the main problem here.

15. Privacy depends on context: a youthful indiscretion[15] may cause problems in later life, and what is accepted on Facebook may not be safe in the workplace.


16. Переведите предложения, выделяя те, в которых в которых слова what и that вводят придаточное-подлежащее:


1. Part of the reason is that when an X-ray machine is faced with a container full of cargo, the image it produces may be confused by the large number of objects stacked inside.

2. The material that is made up of two or more different substances is called a mixture.

3. That heat flows from a place of higher to a place of lower temperature is a well-known fact.

4. As glaciers slide into the sea, scientists are racing down to the southern continent to find out how fast it is melting and what that means for sea-level rise.

5. The idea that the lithium-ion battery technology can revolutionize scientific world is not new.

6. That the method is too complicated is obvious.

7. What has been called the scientific method began to appear in the time of Galilei.

8. Another remarkable fact is that the instruments not only show the operator how things are at that moment, but warn him of impending disturbances.

9. That the study of Brownian motion can lead to a determination of the mass of a molecule is not astonishing.

10. If the experiment succeeds, it will change what we currently know about the nature of space and time, suggesting a new architecture of physics.

11. Therefore a computer on the same network as an infected computer or that uses an infected disc or that downloads and runs an infected program can itself become infected.

17. Переведите предложения, содержащие сложные местоимения и наречия:


1. Whatever they do the results of their work are always good.

2. Have you ever noticed how your PC shivers whenever the CD-ROM spins up?

3. However many times the experiment was repeated the final velocity was always the same.

4. Do not say anything definite to whoever asks you about the results of the experiment, until we check the results once more.

5. Whatever you do, however, don’t block any of the air-intake or exhaust vents inside of the PC.

6. Whenever current flows through a resistor heat is known to be generated, and the greater the current, the greater the heat.

7. Whenever a snowfield on a mountain slope reaches a depth of about 100 feet, it begins to move slowly forward under its own weight.

8. The property of plastics being superior to that of wood, the designers work at the problem of replacing the latter wherever possible.

9. In fact this theory has shown this to be true whenever the wave motion extends into more than one dimension.

10. There are some people who repeatedly arrive late to class whenever they’re working on a program because they forget the time.

11. A scientific bloodless revolution occurs whenever lots enough facts and experimentally verified proofs are accumulated to produce a new theory.

12. Whenever we see that an object suddenly begins to move, we assume at once that something has acted, or is acting, upon to produce the change.

13. Whenever one body exerts a force on another, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the first body.

14. Whenever any object is lifted, work is done against the force of gravity and potential energy is produced. Whenever an object is moving, it has kinetic energy because of its velocity.


18. Выделите в составе каждого из данных сложных предложений главное предложение и установите способ присоединения к нему придаточного предложения. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. We are in the most productive era science has ever known.

2. The designers should first determine the required performance of the craft they are going to create, and build a picture of the general appearance of the new plane.

3. Antimatter first popped out of an equation Paul Dirac, a British theorist, was working on in 1928 to explain the analyzing of electrons.

4. We know the molecules move faster in the places of the body which are being heated.

5. Space exploration can lead to the discovery of new strange worlds unlike the world we live.

6. The methods we have developed extend to these designs.

7. The molecules of the medium the sound travels in move back and forth in the direction of the propagation of the sound.

8. The particular task I have spoken of was chosen because quite a bit is known about it.

9. The molecules of the medium the sound travels in move back and forth in the direction of the propagation of the sound.

10. The vertical speed of plane is known to vary according to the load the plane carries.

19. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод предлогов:


1. That is one of the ideas behind Google’s latest move to automatically tailor maps for individuals.

2. Many chemical processes are named after their original discoverers.

3. The motivation behind many programming practices is to reduce a program’s complexity.

4. This process begins like all 3D printing with software that takes a series of digital slices through a computer model of an object.

5. With no charge and practically no mass, high-energy neutrinos pass unperturbed through interstellar magnetic fields.

6. Volcanic ash prevents the flow of air through jet engines when it solidifies as a glassy substance on turbine blades.

7. The burning of hydrogen into helium will release about 0.7 % of the mass equivalent of the energy.

8. The idea behind inheritance in programming is that you can create new classes that are built upon existing classes.

Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на наличие запятой перед служебными словами и возможное изменение привычного значения этих слов: , or – иначе говоря, другими словами; , for – так как, поскольку, ибо; , which – что.


1. The device may be relied upon, for it is of the latest design.

2. Kinematics, or the study of motion differs from geometry in having to consider the element of time.

3. This value is not effected, which is in agreement with the mathematical solution of the model.

4. Intuitive conclusions based on immediate observations are not always to be trusted, for they are often misleading.

5. The agreed-upon properties, or assumed properties, are called postulates, or axioms.

6. As new digital technique improves, which is bound to happen, the distinction between digital and traditional film characters is going to be increasingly blurred.

7. If a system of forces (including moments or effect of relative position) applied to a body at rest, or in uniform motion, does not change its position or rate of motion, the system will be in equilibrium.

8. The degree of penetration of X-rays depends upon wavelength, for X-rays are produced over a large waveband, and upon the atomic weight of the material they are en­tering.

9. In flight aircraft must report their position and the most obvious way to do this is to give the bearings and distance of the aircraft from any well-known landmark, lighthouse, or lightvessel.

10. Discussing the term “work” in detail is the subject of our next article, for we know of its being often misused.

11. One should take into consideration that the term ohm cannot be abbreviated as the letter 0, for this abbreviation would be often taken for zero.

12. The acceleration of a freely falling body denoted by the letter g is called the acceleration due to gravity, or the acceleration of gravity.


Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что запятая здесь носит разъяснительный характер, и в этом случае ее удобно переводить словами: а именно, например, что является и т.д.


1. An alternative mode of stabilization, by negative substituents, is also possible.

2. This difficulty, of making a machine, is always extremely hard to resolve.

3. Using less glass, a costly ingredient, such structure weighs only 30 pounds as compared to 33.5 for types in current use.

4. The amount of energy of any river depends upon two circumstances, its volume and its velocity.

5. That property should make it possible to build ballistic transistors, ultrahigh-frequency devices that would respond much more quickly than existing transistors.

6. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that a stable solution of monatomic hydrogen may be produced, by the use of very low temperatures.

Прочитайте и переведите предложения, помня о том, что and, or или запятая часто стоят между несколькими определениями к одному существительному. В таких случаях при переводе целесообразно пользоваться «правилом ряда».



We use oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen reactions.

Мы применяем реакции кислорода, водорода и азота.


1. On the instrument board there are two sets of operational and navigational instruments.

2. We must include in our work the design and speed considerations.

3. Let’s scrutinize at all altimeter and compass readings.

4. During the 19th century the wave theory of light gained universal acceptance thanks to a remarkable series of developments on both the experimental and theoretical basis.

5. Brownian movement is the motion of very small particles under the impact of gas or liquid molecules.

6. The wave and particle properties of light are found by modern scientists to be two different aspects of the same thing.

7. From classical electrodynamics we know that when a charge is accelerated it radiates. This is the process that causes radio and television antennae to radiate.

8. Both types of propellants are used in modern rocket engines: liquid and solid propellants.

9. The obscuring dust clouds of the Milky Way dim the distant stars and make it impossible to trace them out with any certainty by optical or photographic observations.

10. The scanning pattern[16] at the transmitter, the exploring[17] and reproducing elements and the communication channel connecting them are symbolically illustrated in the figure below.

11. Spaceships present an entirely new design and operational concept, unlike that in the common vehicle.

12. The fundamental difference between fusion and fission reactions is that it is extremely difficult to make light elements react.

The less stable a chemical compound, the greater is the chance of its being transformed into another or several other compounds.

14. STM (short-term memory) capacity can be enhanced by consolidating many individual bits of information into fewer, meaningful units.


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