Л е к с и ч е с к и е у п р а ж н е н и я. 6. Переведите пары слов на русский язык, обращая внимание на их схожую графическую форму:
6. Переведите пары слов на русский язык, обращая внимание на их схожую графическую форму:
to wander to wonder
rich to reach
to carry to care
7. Переведите следующие сочетания слов. Укажите, от чего зависит перевод выделенных слов:
to investigate natural phenomena
to investigate a crime
to investigate the causes of an illness
to apply the new method to arrange furniture
to apply a payment to arrange papers
to apply artificial respiration to arrange flowers
to apply force to arrange a trip
to apply power to to arrange a marriage
to scatter light more intensively
to scatter gravel on the road
to scatter the clothes about the house
to scatter birds
stiff resistance crude oil peculiar habit
stiff dough crude gasoline peculiar event
stiff door crude method peculiar features
stiff prices crude analogy peculiar behaviour
stiff brush crude materials
a stack of paper a bit of bread
a stack of work a bit of straw
a stack of magazines a bit of blood
a stack of instructions a bit of string
8. Переведите слова первого столбца и подберите к каждому из них близкие по значению слова из двух других столбцов, образовав тем самым синонимичный ряд:
defect (n) property difficult
characteristic (n) conventional imperfection
complex (a) blemish generate
ordinary (a) link feature
fabricate (v) imagine special
bind (v) produce surprising
envision (v) fascinating comparable
astonishing (a) specific visualize
analogous (a) complicated connect
peculiar (a) similar usual
9. Подберите для каждого английского наречия соответствующее ему наречие русского языка:
herein здесь, в этом (месте)
hereinto прежде, до сих пор
10. Найдите соответствие для каждого русского слова и переведите словосочетания приведенные ниже:
шестиугольник trigon (triangle)
regular octagon, plane pentagon, skew hexagon, acute triangle, equilateral tetragon, obtuse triangle, complete tetragon, simple hexagon, isosceles triangle
11. Переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие слова одного словообразовательного ряда:
lead (n, v), leading (a)
1. Detecting abnormalities leads to such severe distress that many have questioned the value of such tests.
2. It is important to maintain a balance between the needs of security and the right of each citizen to lead a private life.
4. The test is conducted by mounting the components on PCB with proper potting to protect the leads.
5. Scientists around the world have been taking a close look at the unusual behavior of these insects in search of possible leads.
6. For the most part, experts have abandoned alternative explanations for the magnetic sense, finding at least one of the two leading hypotheses plausible.
bind (v), bound (n, a), boundary (n)
1. These forces bind the nucleus and give it its stability.
2. Study of the nucleus is more difficult, for the particles comprising it are very firmly bound together and only the most vigorous disturbance will separate them.
3. Spacecraft are bound to assist in advancing our knowledge of the universe.
4. We know of the velocity of electromagnetic waves changing when the wave front crosses a boundary between two media.
5. Earlier lunar missions identified abundances of hydrogen in craters near the south pole that are permanently shielded from sunlight, leading to speculation that the hydrogen was bound with oxygen in the form of water.
6. Such waves are similar to light waves in that they are bound to travel in straight lines or in lines of sight from the transmitter.
7. The stars in closely bound double-, triple- and higher-multiple star systems orbit the center of mass of each system under their mutual gravitational influences.
8. The emission source may be a light emitting diode optically bound with the emission filtration block and the microchip by means of optical elements, lenses and mirrors, for example.
9. Obviously, the tighter (точный) the initial upper bound B is, the fewer will be the number of iterations of the main algorithm.
current (n, a), currently (ad)
1. Since the ions are essentially stationary there is a current of charge arising from the motion of the electrons.
2. Given the current state of technology, it is not cost-effective to transport heat hundreds or thousands of kilometres.
3. However, none of the handsets currently available on the market support text compression.
4. Only equipment marked with the current colour code shall be released for use.
5. The two configurations that exist currently represent the two categories of portable devices.
scrutiny (n), scrutinize (v)
1. Currently the suspects under the scrutiny are infections with bacteria, viruses or parasites.
2. The rocket scientists scrutinized thousands of pages of computer printouts, looking for a clue to why the rocket had exploded.
3. The clever forgery fooled the museum curator but did not withstand the scrutiny of the experts.
4. He thoroughly scrutinized the large surviving repertoire of the nineteenth century and selected the works being worthy of resurrection.
peculiar (a), peculiarity (n)
1. The scientists at the California Institute of Technology used the new telescope to take a spectrum of peculiar but little-studied galaxy.
2. A peculiarity of the muscle layer is a powerful blood supply and innervation.
3. Unfortunately, some packages are not fully functional because they make peculiar and contradictory assumptions about the locations of files.
4. These discs have the peculiarity of passing current only in one direction.
5. The artist was dressed in style peculiar to the 18th century.
preserve (v), preserver (n)
1. We extend more energy still to preserve and prepare our food.
2. He swam about an hour and finally found two sailors with a life preserver.
3. This software preserves its leading status as the most functional and comprehensive data analysis and graphing software on the market.
4. Some suggest that the structure of a nerve pathway changes when data are preserved, forming a neural road map of a thought.
except (v), exception (n), exceptional (a), exceptionally (ad), except for (prp), except (that) (cj)
1. All usable forms of energy on the Earth’s surface, with the exception of atomic and thermonuclear energy, are directly or indirectly due to the storing or conversion of the sun’s energy.
2. The rare earth elements are a group of 15 elements whose position in the periodic table was once considered exceptional.
3. Except for Mercury, Venus, and probably Pluto, each of the planets has at least one satellite.
4. Those students who passed the first test were excepted from the second.
5. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filling systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals.
6. Although one foreign company has copied the motorcycle, it has failed to attract the motorcycle customers because its product lacks the exceptionally loud noise made by the motorcycle.
arrange (v), arrangement (n)
1. With the help of X-rays it is possible to deduce the spatial arrangement of atoms in the solid.
2. The second principle of paragraph construction is order: events must be related in the order of their occurrence, and all ideas should be connected with the leading idea and arranged according to their importance or order.
3. A somewhat similar process occurs when the DNA in immune cells rearranges itself to produce an array of antibodies.
4. The books were arranged on the shelves using a classification scheme.
5. A brake arrangement includes a rotor, an annular magnet, a laminated silicon steel structure, plural sets of coils, and a brake mechanism.
bend (n, v)
1. We know we cannot bend spoons with our mind, it would violate the laws of physics.
2. It is known that the strength of steels in compression is considerably higher than in bending.
3. Most of the blades were found bent and many had deep cuts on the edges.
4. We can measure how strongly water bends light rays compared with other media.
5. It is a familiar fact that a bar of soft metal, after repeated bendings back and forth, eventually refuses to be bent, and breaks.
scatter (n, v)
1. In principle, rainbows were explained using a standard optics theory when German physicist Gustav Mie wrote down an exact mathematical solution of how water droplets scatter light.
2. This concentration of scatter in the backward direction is known as a “glory” (ореол).
3. Clouds of small droplets, moreover, are brighter than clouds of large droplets – so they scatter more radiation back into space.
4. There is an abundant choice of all types of particles (absorbing, scattering, fluorescent) and their manufacturers on the market now.
emphasis (n), emphasize (v)
1. With the increasing emphasis on a global economy and international cooperation, people need to understand their role as citizens of the world.
2. “Big Progress on the Little Things” emphasizes that microUSB, not miniUSB, is becoming the de facto standard in the world for devices from cell phones to MP3 players.
3. In studying motion at constant speed around a circular curve, the author places emphasis upon the fact that even though the body moves at constant speed its velocity changes continually.
respond (v), response (n), responsive (a), responsible (ad), responsibility (n)
1. The speed, at which computer data processing system can respond, adds to their value. The response required might be a fraction of a second.
2. By using computers in a cost-effective manner, we will be better able to respond to the challenges of our post-industrial, information-dependent society.
3. Particle physicists come to think that dark matter and dark energy may be responsible for the loudest bangs since the big one.
4. Logic errors can be avoided through careful planning of the program logic, but it is the programmer’s responsibility to test thoroughly all of the program performs according to specifications.
5. In each eye, 100 million photoreceptors in the retina respond
to changing patterns of light.
6. A flexible service is responsive to changing social patterns.
7. Evidence indicates that both drugs and alcohol affect a driver’s decisionmaking and ability to respond.
8. The product should respond to our requirements.
carve (v), carver (n)
1. Carving is the act of using tools to shape something from a material by scraping away portions of that material.
2. Certain machines and processes allow for slow freezing and the removal of impurities and therefore are able to produce the clear blocks of ice that are favored by ice carvers.
3. Frescos, moldings, carvings and other decorations create the unique atmosphere of the past.
12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что одно и то же слово может переводиться по-разному в зависимости от контекста:
1. Space may not be smooth and continuous – instead it may be digital, composed of tiny bits. Physicists have assumed that these bits are far too small to measure with current technology.
2. As much as 40 percent of the world’s ocean surfaces harbor garbage that ranges in size from shipping containers to small bits of plastic that can poison marine mammals.
4. The smallest point of computer data is called a bit – a contraction of the expression ‘binary digit’.
1. The distinctive feature of cosmic rays is a unique concentration of energy in single elementary particles.
2. In particular cases, the invention is characterized by the following features.
3. The system exploits a little-used feature in operating systems that permits multiple simultaneous users.
4. The main feature of the neutron is lack of charge.
5. This unique combination of advanced features not only enhances fluorescence microscopy – it also enables many new imaging capabilities for applications that previously could only be handled by CCD technology.
6. Click the Setting button for each feature to further determine how the feature works.
1. To find exotic materials with new properties, chemist Joanna Aizenberg investigates odd sea creatures such as stars and sponges.
2. When you were children, I was confident that you would grow up to be wonderful creatures.
3. In this real-time strategy game, players exert a godlike role over a cluster of creatures, leading them to develop their economy and prepare for skirmishes with a neighboring society.
4. As fellow creatures on this planet, animals deserve respect.
lie ( v)
1. The picture lay hidden in the archives for over 40 years.
2. The main reason for this difference lies in the significant distance between our countries.
3. The terms of the agreement are listed at this point and hereunder lies the signature line.
4. His worst mistake lay in thinking that all his workers were trustworthy.
5. In physics, for example in the theory of Brownian motion, the key out of this difficulty lies in statistics.
13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов:
1. Traditional steganography hides its message as, say, every 20th word in a letter, or as the colour of every hundredth pixel in an electronic image.
2. Outside the Earth’s atmosphere, the insulation problem is negligible and it would seem to be a simple matter to arrange for the liquid hydrogen temperature to be maintained at, say, —258° С by a small refrigerating system.
3. For the resistance of a conductor to be measured, it is necessary to have some fixed standard, say, the ohm.
4. Once in space, the vehicle moving at high velocity, say in a satellite orbit, requires no further propulsion to stay aloft.
5. If the mode of interaction changes – say, from a graphical user interface to a command line interface – virtually all the code will have to be modified.
despite, in spite of
1. Despite much research, the effect of dust on the atmosphere is complex and poorly understood.
2. In spite of these difficulties, physicists have gone on to extensive calculations on these lines (models).
3. Stars in all structures almost never make contact; huge expanses of space separate them despite their astronomical neighborliness.
4. In spite of the increased number of variables, he simplified the analysis by fixing certain symmetries.
so far, thus far
1. From what has been said so far, one might think that alternating current has little advantage over a direct current.
2. Thus far we have treated the Earth as spherically symmetrical, but this is not the case.
3. A screen material of a different category from those so far discussed is white crystalline potassium chloride: this substance darkens when bombarded with electrons.
4. Previous models of the universe assumed the existence of several so-far-unseen phenomena: ancient black holes, cosmic strings, dark matter and pregalactic explosions.
heretofore, herein, herunder
1. They reported that clouds are an important and heretofore uninvestigated contributor to the climate.
2. The point is that some people do not think and act in a responsible and independent way. Herein lies another big problem.
3. Included hereunder are particular issues in response to this resolution.
4. We now make available these works wich were heretofore unpublished.
5. Some legal documents say “in the terms specified hereunder” reffering to the terms of the arrangement which are outlined in the following parts of the document.
6. Scientists wonder if toxins in the environment are affecting our bodies in a negative way and if some genes that were heretofore inactive are now being reactivated in response to chemicals.
Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, что выделенные слова могут выступать в качестве слов-заместителей существительных, обозначающих отдельные предметы или абстрактные понятия.
1. Chalk is made up of the shells of little animals. They must have been tiny things, for you can only see the shells with a very strong glass.
2. One study of blue-green algae predicted that rising sea temperatures could help the already widespread creatures expand their territory by more than 10 percent.
3. Nowadays there are many types of engines in use for various purposes. These engine types have one thing in common.
4. The scientist looked for an individual who would match his patient’ leukocyte antigens that the immune system uses to distinguish its own tissues form that of other creatures.
5. Having read the above, you might be thinking, “I can do most of that stuff right in my data base application”.
6. Certainly, in former times man could not give a proper definition of electricity although he used electricity for many purposes. To use the thing does not always mean to know its nature.
7. The sequence of things to come is shown by the data obtained by the experts.
8. Steganography, the art of hiding things in plain sight, is a trick as old as espionage.