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The A380: The Future of Flying



 

Combining the very latest technologies for materials, systems and industrial processes, the A380 meets the most stringent inter­national certification requirements. It can carry 35% more pas­sengers than its closest rival and enables airlines to deliver un­paralleled comfort in every class and more open space for passengers to stretch their legs. The A380 will provide passengers on major long routes like London - Singapore and Los-Angeles - Sydney with a new way of flying.

The A380's efficiency and advanced technology result in 15-20 per cent lower seat mile costs, while its range is 10 per cent greater than that of other large aircraft (up to 15,000 km/8,000 nm with a capacity of 555 passengers). The freighter version, the A380F, will carry a payload of 150 tonnes (330,000 lbs) over 10,400 km/5,600 nm.

With air travel expected to continue growing, the A380's ability to carry more passengers will help to avoid the danger of collision by transporting people without additional flights. Its significantly reduced noise and emission levels will minimize its effects on the environment. Its new generation engines and advanced wings and undercarriage (шасси) design mean the A380 will be significantly quieter than its competitors (конкурент), producing half as much noise on take off.

The A380's high level of weight-saving composite materials makes it a highly fuel-efficient aircraft, it burns 12 per cent less fuel than its competitor, reducing exhaust emissions. Indeed, the A380 will be the first aircraft to consume less than three litres of fuel per passenger over 100 km, a rate comparable to an economical family car. While offering all the advantages of a completely new design, the A380 will have much in common with other Airbus aircraft. Therefore, pilots will be able to make the transition to the A380 from other Airbus family aircraft with minimal additional training.

 

 

Упражнение 9. Переведите текст без словаря.

 

Automation in the Research Process



 

Our goal should be automating the routine and thereby leave more time for the creative process.

With that word of caution, let's proceed by arbitrarily di­viding research into three stages and examining each stage to find what functions of the research process might be automated without endangering creativity. Stage one includes the dreams, the ideas, the exploratory work, selecting the problem, setting the objective, testing technical feasibility, and searching the literature. Stage two involves planning the experiment, conduct­ing the experiment, checking the alternates, data taking, and data evaluation. Stage three is the solution of the problem — drawing conclusions and making recommendations.

Although there is a great deal of creativity involved in stage one, there are also opportunities for automation. The burden of keeping up with the literature even in one's own restricted field is becoming heavier with each passing year. The mass of reading necessary to make a literature search has increased immensely. Advances in computer technology have made possible storing and quick retrieving essentially all the scientific literature.

 

Упражнение 10. Переведите текст без словаря.

 

A New Era for Aircraft

 

Aviation experts expect that today's aircraft will begin to be re­placed with some new form of supersonic transport in a few years' time. A 21st century hypersonic aircraft may open a new age of air­craft design.



The designers of this country displayed the project of such a supersonic passenger liner among the prospective models at one of the latest Aerospace Salon held on the old Le Bourget airfield in Paris. An elongated fuselage with a sharp nose and without a hori­zontal stabilizer makes it look more like a rocket. The speed matches the looks. This plane will fly at a speed five to six times above the speed of sound, e.g., it will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. The diameter of the fu­selage will be 4 meters and the overall length 100 meters, with the cabin accomodating 300 passengers. The future superplanes of such a class will have no windows, but the passengers can enjoy watch­ing the panorama of the Earth on the TV monitor at the front of the cabin. They will fly so fast that ordinary aircraft windows would make the structure too weak to withstand the stresses at such a speed. At high velocities the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is so great that the skin is heated to very high temperature. The only way out is to fly higher. Therefore, airliners' routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere.

In general, to build a reliable hypersonic plane one has to over­come a whole set of technological and scientific difficulties. Apart from creating highly economical combined engines and heat-insulating materials, designers have to make such an amount of thermodynamic computations that can't be performed without using supercomputers. One of the ways to make planes as economi­cal as possible is lightening the aircraft by substituting new com­posite materials for conventional metal alloys. Accounting for less than 5 per cent of the overall aircraft weight now, the percentage of composite material parts will exceed 25 per cent in new generation models. An extensive use of new materials combined with better aerodynamics and engines will allow increasing fuel efficiency by one-third.

Because of the extreme temperatures generated by the atmo­sphere friction, a hypersonic craft will also require complicated cooling measures. One possibility is using cryogenic fuels, such as liquid hydrogen, as both coolants and propellants. The fuel flow­ing through the aircraft's skin would cool the surfaces as it vapor­izes before being injected into combustion chamber.

In addition, specialists in many countries are currently working on new propeller engines considered much more economical and less noisy than jets. The only disadvantage is that propeller planes fly slower than jet planes. However, it has recently been announced that specialists succeeded in solving this problem. As a result a ventilator engine with a propeller of ten fibre-glass blades has been built, each being five meters long. It will be mounted in the experi­mental passenger plane.

 

Примечания к тексту:

the looks — внешний вид

heat-insulating materials — теплоизолирующие материалы

accounting for — составляя

by one-third — на одну треть

coolant — охлаждающая жидкость

succeeded in — удалось

 

Vocabulary

 

1attend (v.) [ə'tend] 1) посещать; присутствовать

to attend a lecture посетить лекцию;

to attend a meeting присутствовать на собрании;

2) обслуживать;

attendee (n.) [əten'di] участник (конференции,

семинара), слушатель (курсов и пр.)

2progress(v.) [prə'gres] 1) развиваться,

совершенствоваться

2) делать успехи

progress (n.) 1) прогресс, развитие, движение

вперед

2) продвижение

progress прохождение (обрабатываемой

through the system детали) через систему;

progress of work ход работы;

production progress ход производства;

to be in progress выполняться, развиваться, вестись;

apply (v.)[ə'plaɪ] 1) обращаться с просьбой, (письменным) заявлением;

apply in person обращаться лично;

apply by letter обращаться в письменном виде;

to apply a rule применить, использовать правило

to apply the new method внедрить новый метод

3application (n.) 1) просьба; заявление;

[æplɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n] 2) применение, использование,

употребление; приложение;

применимость

application of new применение новых

techniques технологий;

the place of application место приложения силы;

of a force

4accept (v.) [ək'sept] принимать, брать;

accept equipment производить приемку

оборудования;

acceptance (n.) получение, приём, признание;

[ək'septən(t)s]

5master (v.) ['mɑːstə] одолевать; справляться;

усваивать; достичь вершин мастерства;

to master completely/ полностью преодолеть;

thoroughly

master(n.) специалист, знаток своего дела;

web-master веб-мастер;

master(adj.) главный, старший;

квалифицированный; контрольный;

master copy контрольная копия;

6accomplish (v.) совершать, выполнять;

[ə'kɔmplɪʃ] достигать; завершать;

to accomplish a distance пройти расстояние

accomplishment (n.) выполнение, завершение, достижение, успех;

 

7define определять (значение слова),

[dɪ'faɪn] (define as) давать определение (какому-л. понятию); задать (процедуру); определить, описать (переменную):

очерчивать, ограничивать, устанавливать границы;

to define smb.'s powers определить чьи-л. полномочия

definition [defɪ'nɪʃ(ə)n] определение, формулирование

(процесс); дефиниция, формулировка;

dictionary definition словарное определение;

formulaic definition стандартное определение;

referential definition определение-ссылка;

stipulative definition условное определение;

8demonstrate ['demənstreɪt] показывать, демонстрировать

to demonstrate new демонстрировать новое

software программное обеспечение;

to demonstrate convincingly убедительно доказывать;

demonstrationпоказ, демонстрация;

[demən'streɪʃ(ə)n] доказательство;

logical demonstration логическое доказательство;

theoretical demonstration теоретическое доказательство;

resist [rɪ'zɪst] сопротивляться, оказывать сопротивление; противостоять

9resistance сопротивление; отпор,

[rɪ'zɪst(ə)n(t)s] противодействие;

to offer / put up resistance оказывать сопротивление;

valiant resistance героическое сопротивление;

resistance to interference помехоустойчивость;

resistance of ground path сопротивление заземления;

calculate ['kælkjuleɪt] вычислять; подсчитывать;

рассчитывать на что-л.;

calculate the cost определять стоимость;

to calculate to six digits вычислять с точностью до шестого знака;

10calculation вычисление; подсчёт,

[kælkju'leɪʃ(ə)n] расчёт;

arithmetic calculations арифметические расчёты;

analog calculations аналоговые вычисления;

integer calculations целочисленные вычисления;

approximate calculation приближенное вычисление;

11exert[ɪg'zɜːt] приводить в действие;

оказывать давление, влиять;

приводить в действие;

exert pressure оказывать давление

to exert force прилагать силу

exertion[ɪg'zɜːʃ(ə)n] напряжение, усилие

приведение в действие;

physical exertion физическое напряжение;

strenuous exertion сильное напряжение;

to redouble one's exertions удваивать свои усилия;

 

12react [rɪ'ækt] реагировать;

вызывать химическую реакцию;

to react with вступать в реакцию;

reaction [rɪ'ækʃ(ə)n] реакция, реагирование; отклик,

ответное действие (на что-л.);

chain reaction цепная реакция;

delayed reaction замедленное реагирование;

nuclear reaction ядерная реакция;

match [mæʧ] вещь или предмет, подходящие

к другой или составляющие с ней пару;

to have no match не иметь равного себе;

to match exponents выравнивать порядки;

to constitute a match давать совпадение;

to match up подходить, соответствовать (о сопряжённых деталях);

inconsistent match некорректное сочетание;

13match [mæʧ] быть достойным соперником, противником;

противопоставлять;

подбирать пару;

to be well/ быть хорошо / плохо

ill matched подобранным;

хорошо / плохо сочетаться

14supply [sə'plaɪ] снабжение, поставка

to bring up / обеспечить снабжение,

provide supplies

fresh supplies новые поступления,

новые поставки

military supplies военные поставки

power supply электроснабжение, энергоснабжение

supply снабжать (чем-л.), поставлять; доставлять;

to supply smb with снабжать кого-л. секретной

secrets информацией;

15fuel[fjuəl ] топливо, горючее;

nuclear fuel ядерное топливо;

to take on fuel заправиться;

to run out of fuel растратить топливо;

jet fuel топливо для реактивных двигателей;

liquid fuel жидкое топливо;

solid fuel твёрдое горючее;

synthetic fuel синтетическое топливо;

fuel = fuel up снабжать топливом,

заправляться топливом,

горючим;

16establish [ɪs'tæblɪʃ] учреждать, устанавливать;

to establish the cause of установить причину

error ошибки;

establishment создание, образование,

[ɪs'tæblɪʃmənt] учреждение, организация;

a scientific научно-исследовательское

research establishment учреждение;

circuit establishment установление соединения;

call establishment установление соединения

(с сетью Интернет);

achieve [ə'ʧi:v] добиваться, достигать;

to achieve one's purpose добиться своей цели;

(aim)

17achievement достижение, успех;

[ə'ʧi:vmənt] выполнение, исполнение,

завершение

outstanding achievements выдающиеся научные

in science достижения

18base [beɪs] базировать, размещать (войска);

основывать;

to base one's conclusions основываться в своих

upon knowledge выводах на знаниях;

base [beɪs] основа, основание; базис

advanced / forward / главное основание,

main base главная причина;

to establish/set up a base создать базу;

army / military base военная база;

missile base ракетная база;

naval base морская база;

 

UNIT 13

 

Грамматика: Сложное предложение. Служебные слова. Местоимение и наречие. Местоимения и наречия типа whenever. Перевод сложных предложений с подлежащим, выраженным придаточным предложением, вводимым союзами that and what. Перестройка предложения при переводе. Текст: Carbon Wonderland

CARBON WONDERLAND

 

(I) Whenever1 someone scribes a line with a pencil, the resulting mark includes bits2 of the hottest new material in physics and nanotechnology: graphene. Graphite, the “lead”3 in a pencil, is a kind of pure carbon formed from flat, stacked4 layers of atoms. Graphene is the name given to one such sheet. It is made up entirely of carbon atoms bound5 together in a network of repeating hexagons6 within a single plane just one atom thick. Not only is it the thinnest of all possible materials, it is also extremely strong and stiff7. Moreover, in its pure form it conducts electrons faster at room temperature than any other substance. Engineers at laboratories worldwide are currently8 scrutinizing9 the stuff10 to determine whether it can be fabricated into smart displays, ultrafast transistors and quantum-dot computers.

In the meantime11, the peculiar12 nature of graphene at the atomic scale is enabling physicists to delve into phenomena that must be described by relativistic quantum physics. Investigating such phenomena has heretofore13 been the exclusive preserve14 of astrophysicists and high-energy particle physicists working with multimillion-dollar telescopes or multibillion-dollar particle accelerators. Graphene makes it possible for experimenters to test the predictions of relativistic quantum mechanics with laboratory benchtop apparatus. Two characteristics of graphene make it an exceptional15 material. First, despite16 the relatively crude17 ways it is still being made, graphene exhibits remarkably high quality – resulting from a combination of the purity of its carbon content and the orderliness of the lattice18 into which its carbon atoms are arranged19. Investigators have so far20 failed to find a single atomic defect in graphene – say21, a vacancy at some atomic position in the lattice or an atom out of place. That perfect crystalline order seems to stem22 from the strong yet highly flexible interatomic bonds, which create a substance harder than diamond yet allow the planes to bend23 when mechanical force is applied. The quality of its crystal lattice is also responsible for the remarkably high electrical conductivity of graphene. Its electrons can travel without being scattered24 off course by lattice imperfections and foreign atoms.

(II) The second exceptional feature25 of graphene is that its conduction electrons move much faster and as if they had far less mass than do the electrons that wander26 about through ordinary metals and semiconductors. Indeed, the electrons in graphene – perhaps “electric charge carriers” is a more appropriate term – are curious creatures27 that live in the weird* world where rules analogous to those of relativistic quantum mechanics play an important role. That kind of interaction inside a solid, so far as anyone knows, is unique to graphene. Thanks to this novel material from a pencil, relativistic quantum mechanics is no longer limited by cosmology or high-energy physics; it has now entered the laboratory.

One engineering direction deserves28 special mention: graphene-based electronics. We have emphasized29 that the charge carriers in graphene move at high speed and lose relatively little energy to colliding with atoms in its crystal lattice. That property should make it possible to build ballistic transistors, ultrahigh-frequency devices that would respond30 much more quickly than existing transistors.

Even more tantalizing* is the possibility that graphene could help the microelectronics industry prolong31 the life of Moore’s law. The remarkable stability and electrical conductivity of graphene even at nanometer scales could enable the manufacture of individual transistors substantially less than 10 nanometers across and perhaps even as small as a single benzene ring*. Eventually, one can envision32 entire integrated circuits carved33 out of a single graphene sheet.

Whatever34 the future brings, the one atom-thick wonderland will almost certainly remain in the limelight* for decades to come. Engineers are expected to continue working on bringing its innovative by-products to market, and physicists will continue to test its exotic quantum properties. But what is truly astonishing is the realization that all this richness and complexity had for centuries lain35 hidden in nearly every ordinary pencil mark.

 

Примечания к тексту:

* weird (a) – странный

* tantalizing (a) – привлекательный, соблазнительный

* benzene ring – бензольное кольцо

* in the limelight – в центре внимания

 

С л о в о о б р а з о в а н и е

 

1. Переведите на русский язык слова одного слово-образовательного ряда:

emphasize current (n) result (n) respond

emphasis current (a) result in response

emphatic currently result from responsive

resulting (a) responsible

 

create relate substance

creative relative substantial

creativity relativity substantially

creature relatively in substance

creativeness relativistic

 

2. Укажите от каких слов и с помощью каких средств образованы приведенные ниже слова и переведите их:

 

possibility, exceptional, remarkable, creature, responsible, orderliness, substantially, richness, stability, analogous, realization, complexity

 

3. Переведите следующие наречия на русский язык:

 

precisely, namely, considerably, obviously, naturally, definitely, mainly, essentially, properly, actually, sufficiently, simply, totally, constantly, perfectly, immediately, appropriately, remarkably, successfully, successively, highly, permanently

 

 

4. Предложите к ниже приведенным словосочетаниям синонимы, выраженные наречиями, образованными при помощи суффикса. Переведите их на русский язык:

 

in essence –

in accordance with –

in particular –

in practice –

in part –

in addition to –

in general –

 

5. Определите связь между частями сложного термина. Переведите на русский язык:

space-time scale (мат.), color three-dimensional lattice (электр.), high-order interaction (мат.), fail-safe feature (комп.), error-check program (комп.), receiver-tuning scale (телекомм.), rocket-borne recorders (авиа.), radiation-measuring apparatus (мед.), radiation-proof material (физ.), long-range propagation (физ.), off-the-job training (эконом.), ground-based beacon (телекомм.), high-capacity storage (комп.), battery-driven vehicle (авт.), self-check system (комп.), gravity-free state (косм.), water-tight chamber (инж.), rocket-assisted take off (авиа), flight-path deviation indicator (навиг.), battery-fed receiver (телекомм.), pressure-operated switch (физ.), two-way arrangement (мат.), off-the-shelf software (комп.), off-the-road tire (авт.).


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