Упражнение 18. Определите форму и функцию причастий в тексте и переведите его на русский язык
The example of motion with constant acceleration often mentioned is the example of a body falling towards the earth. The air resistance being absent, it is found that all bodies regardless of their size or weight, fall with the same acceleration at the same point on the earth's surface and if the distance covered is not too great the acceleration remains constant through the fall. This ideal motion described is spoken of as free fall. The acceleration of a freely falling body denoted by the letter g is called the acceleration due to gravity, or the acceleration of gravity.
Д о п о л н и т е л ь н ы е т е к ст ы
Supply, demand and capacity
Calculating the capacity of an electricity grid - the amount of energy it needs to supply to users - might seem simple. Just add up the power supplied over a given period of time to give the total amount consumed by users. Then, divide the cumulative amount of power used during the whole period by the number of hours in the period. The result is an average level of consumption per hour. But there's one problem with this method - and it's a major one.
The rate of power consumption - the amount that's being consumed at a particular moment - is not constant. In other words, consumption does not stay at the same level all the time. So electricity supply requirements cannot simply be averaged out over time. People use more power at certain times of day, and less at other times, which means that demand for power fluctuates significantly. Generally, it rises to a maximum in the evening (peak demand is at evening mealtimes), and falls to its lowest levels during the night. These fluctuations are so big that at peak times consumption can be twice as high as it is during off-peak times. Clearly, the grid needs to have sufficient capacity to meet demand when consumption peaks. But since each peak is brief, the grid will only run to capacity - at or close to its maximum capability - for a few moments each day. This means, most of the time, it has significant spare capacity.
Input, output and efficiency
Power lines and transformers are relatively inefficient, wasting energy - mainly by giving off heat. As a result, there is a difference between input - the amount of energy put into the grid by power stations, and output - the amount used by consumers. On a typical grid, the difference between input and output is about 7% - there is a 7% energy loss. But if electricity is generated at the place where it's consumed, and not transmitted through long-distance power lines, this loss can be avoided. Consequently, locally produced electricity is more efficient than grid-supplied power, as there is a gain in efficiency of around 7%.
One way to produce power locally is with photovoltaics (PVs) - often called solar panels. However, many PV installations are still connected to the electricity grid. This means that when there is surplus power - when electricity is being produced by the solar panels faster than it is needed in the home - it is fed into the grid. If consumption exceeds production - if electricity is being used in the home faster than the solar panels can produce it - then power is taken from the grid. Homes with low consumption may therefore become net producers of power, producing more electricity than they consume.
Materials under the microscope: composites
When you think of examples of hi-tech materials, composite materials come to mind - such as carbon-fibre, used in aerospace and Formula 1 cars. But although we think of composites as hi-tech and highly expensive, that's not always true. The earliest examples of composite materials were bricks made from mud and straw. Or, to use the correct composite terms, from straw reinforcement - the structural network that reinforces the material inside, and a mud matrix - the material surrounding the reinforcement. These terms explain what a composite material is: a matrix with a reinforcing material inside it. A modern everyday example is fibreglass - correctly called glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) - which has a plastic matrix reinforced with glass fibres.