Г р а м м а т и ч е с к и е у п р а ж н е н и я. Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на форму инфинитива:
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на форму инфинитива:
1. I am happy to work with you.
I am happy to have worked with you.
I am happy to be working with you.
2. He is happy to be sent to the Pilot Training School.
He is happy to have been sent to the Pilot Training School.
3. We are happy to be included in the research group.
We are happy to have been included in the research group.
4. They are glad to take part in the expedition.
They are glad to have taken part in the expedition.
They are glad to be taking part in the expedition.
Упражнение 5. Определите функцию инфинитива, стоящего на первом месте в предложении. Переведите:
1. To learn the principles of lift people had to solve many problems.
To learn the principles of lift was very important for the development of aviation.
2. To leave the earth is a most complicated problem for a spaceship.
To leave the earth the spaceship will have to overcome the gravity of the earth.
3. To be able to fly was one of the greatest desires of man.
To be able to fly people had to know certain laws of nature.
4. To understand the principles underlying atomic energy one must know the Periodic Law.
To understand the principles underlying atomic energy is very important for any student.
5. To control completely the position of the body in space requires the control of the forces and moments about all the three axes.
6. To understand the actions between electrical charges is very important for radio engineers since these actions have direct applications when we consider the design of most of the radio devices.
7. To determine the position of an enemy plane in the air it is necessary to have a special radio device.
8. To fly at high altitudes and not to feel bad it is necessary to use oxygen.
9. To understand two laws of motion that Galileo discovered you must first learn the scientific meaning of velocity and acceleration.
10. To determine the position of an enemy airplane in the air is very important.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в составе сложного дополнения:
1. Certain materials allow electric current to travel through them easily.
2. Scientists consider the principles underlying this theory to be
3. We want this device to function properly.
4. I know this instrument to be very accurate.
5. He thought these data to differ greatly from the information that he received from his experiments.
6. If a piece of wood is dropped into the water we shall see it rise and fall as the water moves.
7. This arrangement of the device enables the currents to be accurately measured.
8. The lens was attached to a "metering rod" which enabled its position to be measured precisely by a process called optical interferometry.
9. Modern defense against aircraft requires the pilot to know the presence of enemy aircraft long before they can be seen or heard.
10. We know physical changes to be caused by heat.
11. An electric current flowing in a wire causes a magnetic field to appear.
12. An open window can cause sound waves to be diffracted through large angles.
13. We know metals to conduct electricity.
14. Experiments have proved the pressure of a gas at fixed temperature to depend on its concentration.
15. This superposition enables the computers to solve multiple problems at once.
16. It is customary to consider the electric current to flow in the opposite direction to the motion of the electrons which constitute it.
17. We have thought this law to hold only for gases which are under normal conditions.
18. One may safely expect this prediction to be quite reliable.
19. Only a few of the substances that we now know to be elements, twelve to be exact, were known in 1630.
20. This allows fine technological operations to be automated.
21. If we can get the student to ask, "Why?" instead of just "What?" we will have made an essential step in his education.
22. Let us take the volume of this body to equal v.
23. Mendeleeff predicted the eventual discovery of certain elements he had assumed to be missing from the table.
24. This enabled us to handle cybernetic systems.
25. The technique permitted problems to be solved that had been regarded as intractable.
26. This sequence causes digitized images to be stored in core memory.
27. Experience shows this strategy to have produced better results than more traditional algorithms.
Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на то, как изменяется значение глаголов to cause и to make, если за ними стоит сложное дополнение:
1. What causes ionization in the upper layers of the atmosphere?
2. Heat energy causes atoms to vibrate.
3. A force acting upon a body causes it to accelerate in the direction of the force.
4. You know very many examples of expansion caused by heat.
5. The radio wave passing across the aerial causes an alternating current to flow up and down the aerial ground system.
6. The varying current causes the diaphragm of the receiver to vibrate, and these vibrations produce sounds similar to those acting on the transmitter.
7. There is a force which causes bodies having opposite electric charges to attract each other.
8. Transistors generate heat, and a hot processor can cause a computer to shut down.
1. When evaporated onto glass, aluminium makes a very good mirror.
2. What are the forces that make our planet rotate?
3. What makes the engine go?
4. Heavy hydrogen has one proton plus a neutron. This makes its atomic weight two instead of one.
5. Philosophers such as Aristotle, who were some of the first scientists, made little distinction between physical and chemical processes.
6. The "silver" helium balloons that we see at birthday parties are made of a tough plastic called Mylar, covered with a thin, evaporated coating of aluminium metal.
7. A changing rate of expansion adds a new force to the mix, but even this new force does not make objects expand or contract.
8. E.M.F. is the force that makes electrons move from one point to another.
9. Leonardo da Vinci stated that it was necessary to make a surface support a given weight by the application of power to the resistance of the air.
10. An external force must be applied to make the electrons flow in a definite direction through a conductor.
Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в составе сказуемого:
1. The air at an altitude of 150 miles proved to be very hot (+600°C).
2. When a body changes its position it is said to be in motion.
3. The gas mixture in the cylinders of the engine is known to consist of a definite proportion (in weight) of gas and air.
4. The carrying of mail (почта) was expected to be the first useful application of aviation.
5. Half a century ago the atom was considered to be a hard, impenetrable particle, whose interior was unknown.
6. The aircraft of a new design is reported to have been tested.
7. The most varied chemical compounds were shown to be composed of about ninety different kinds of atoms.
8. The solid fuel rocket seems to have been first developed by the Chinese.
1. When hydrogen was first examined it was found to be very
light and it still remains the lightest element yet discovered.
2. When either the rate or direction of motion of a particle changes, it is said to be moving with variable velocity.
3. Efficiency is known to be the ratio between useful work of energy got out of a machine and total energy or work put into a machine.
4. If a substance easily allows current to pass through it, it .is said to have a low resistance.
5. A device that can generate and radiate energy in wave form at radio frequency is known to be a transmitter.
6. The atmosphere is found to change with the increase of the altitude.
7. The line connecting the two poles of magnet is known to be its magnetic axis; and the distance between the poles is considered to be the effective length of the magnet.
8. When an electric current flows through a wire the direction of the flow is always assumed to be from the positive pole.
9. As soon as neutrons were known to exist, it became possible, to understand how the atom was constructed.
10. When an electric current flows through a wire, it is found produce a number of effects, the most important ones being thermal, chemical, and magnetic effects.
11. The report of the Antarctic expedition is likely to be of interest and importance to all people.
12. A rocket which will be able to make a flight to the moon likely to be built soon.
13. The atmosphere happens to change with the increase of altitude.
Упражнение 9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на изменение значения глаголов to appear и to happen в зависимости от того, стоит ли после глагола инфинитив:
1. The first rockets appeared in China in the thirteenth century.
2. The works of Tsiolkovsky concerning rocket propulsion appeared to have attracted little attention at the time when they were first published.
3. Heat appears to be the result of the flow of electrons through material.
4. This type of construction appears to be gradually displacing the previous types.
5. As the radio waves travel out from the transmitting antenna they appear to decrease in intensity very rapidly at first and then more slowly.
6. The observation of meteors appears to indicate that our atmosphere extends upwards at least 500 miles.
1. This article happens to deal with the fundamental principles of radio equipment.
2. All matter happens to be composed of atoms.
3. What happens to the electrons and ions which form in the ionosphere?
4. The radar station sends a short series of radio waves of very short wavelength in a definite direction. If any obstruction happens to be in their way they are reflected and return in the form of an echo.
5. To find the answer we have to look at what happens inside the cell.
Упражнение 10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в пассивной форме в функции определения:
1. The result to be expected is important.
2. The work to be finished next week is of great interest.
3. We should consider the problem to be solved and a plan to solve it.
4. To build up a magnetic field requires the expenditure of a certain amount of energy.
5. Often when engineers analyse a system to be controlled or optimized, they use a mathematical model.
6. One of the main conditions to be observed when we burn fuel in a cylinder is that the proportions of gasoline and air should be correct at all times.
7. The resistance of the circuit is the opposition to be overcome in the circuit.
8. With the development of greatly increased speeds in aircraft there appeared many complicated problems to be solved.
9. In practice it has been found that the mass of metal to be heated is one of the factors governing the heat capacity required.
10. All the engines to be installed on the plane must be carefully checked.
11. In order to explain the phenomena to be dealt with later, it is desirable to mention the main points of this theory now.
12. In practice this method, though the simplest in principle, is not used for reasons to be given later in the chapter.
Упражнение 11. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию типа the first to invent… первый, кто изобрел…:
1. Berzelius, a Swedish scientist, was the first to use letters as symbols for the elements.
2. The first to achieve a chain reaction were the Joliot-Curies.
3. The Russian pilot Nesterov was the first to make a "loop".
4. England was the first country to use machines in industry.
5. Faraday's observation was the first to show that light is related to magnetism.
6. Daniel Bernoulli was the first person to study fluid flow mathematically.
7. English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle was the first to describe the relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas.
Упражнение 12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкцию «for + существительное + инфинитив»:
1. Clearly, for classroom reading to be effective we have to take account of the interest factor.
2. The language of specialists is often difficult for the layman to read.
3. Two years were sufficient for the work to be done.
4. The problem is far too involved for one to be able to solve it.
5. Two hours were sufficient for the reaction to occur.
6. It took a long time for mathematicians to realize that not all continuous functions have a derivative.
7. It is necessary for the investigator to apply the knowledge gained from his library to the exploration problem.
8. Preliminary experiments showed that the time required for the specimen to reach thermal equilibrium was quite long.
9. It is possible for computers to handle all types of information.
10. There seems to be a general tendency for industrial problems to become more complex.
11. For a computer to be programmed each problem must be reduced to a series of very simple steps.
12. It remains for us to examine the problem from the opposite point of view.
13. There is a tendency for the method to be used in all the experiments.
14. For this method to be valuable it must be improved.
15. There is a possibility for him to attend the conference.
Упражнение 13. Переведите предложения. Укажите, где глагол to be является глаголом-связкой, а где модальным глаголом:
1. The programme is to be announced in a few weeks' time,
2. No line is to be seen when its intensity is predicted to be zero.
3. The earliest use of the device was to measure air currents.
4. If the laptop and router are to communicate, it is important that they speak the same language.
5. A very important problem was to find a source of power that could drive the plane forward.
6. It is very important to know as much as possible about the load the airplane is to carry.
7. Another approach is to add electrons from outside by "doping" the semiconductor with impurities.
8. One of the first problems which we are to solve is to determine the number of neutrons released for each fission process produced.
9. If one is to make a measurement one must have a standard or a unit to measure with.
10. If a polymer is to be perfectly conducting, the material must allow electrons to move freely, as in a metal.
11. The truth of Joule's discovery is to be found in everyday life.
Упражнение 14. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив в обстоятельственных конструкциях:
1. The form of the equation should be simple so as to be useful for the calculation.
2. The postulates should be simple enough to seem almost obvious.
3. Some molecules are large enough to be seen in the electron microscope.
4. Usually hydrates are too unstable to be isolated.
5. Some molecules are large enough to be seen in the electron microscope.
6. This method is used to obtain good results.
7. A number of methods has been proposed to provide this formal representation.
8. Phosphorus is too active an element to be found free in nature.
9. The surface tension of water is strong enough to let a steel needle float on water.
10. Only the most swiftly moving molecules possess sufficient energy to escape.
11. The molecules of water are fitted in between the other molecules or ions of the crystal in such a way as to make the crystal stronger and more stable than it otherwise would be.
Упражнение 15. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в зависимости от выполняемой им функции:
1. We know copper to be distinguished by its red colour from
all other metals.
2. The results obtained are to be carefully investigated.
3. We've all heard the joke about buying a computer only to find out it's obsolete by the time you get home.
4. The theory assumes that light elements combine in successive steps to form the heavier ones.
5. There remains a huge amount of work to be done before these quantum devices find their way into wristwatches.
6. To fill in the missing knowledge requires experimental data, and the next big step to achieve this is with LHC.
7. Both plants and people are complex creatures, but even the simplest organisms seem to have internal clocks of one sort or another.
8. The main disadvantage with electron microscopy is that researchers have first to coat samples with metal in order to form an image.
9. The current flowing through an electronic lamp causes the lamp to give off light.
10. To add heat to a body is to increase the motion of the molecules.
11. There exist three types of water wheels, in each case the pressure exerted by the moving stream of water is used to make the wheel rotate.
12. While alchemy is often defined as "unscientific" great scientists, including Isaak Newton, took it seriously enough to conduct alchemical experiments.
13. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way
since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar
sample sufficiently large to allow a sound (серьезный) analysis.
14. Japan in 1999 became the first large country to ban hand-held mobile-phone use while driving.
15. These two effects combine to reduce the usefulness and reliability of transistors and semiconductor diodes at the lowest temperatures.
16. We may call any waves of length less than 100 meters short
waves, although generally the tendency is to apply that term only to waves of 50 meters or less.
17. Radiation entering the radiometer passes through optical filters to screen out all the unwanted wavelengths.