Л е к с и ч е с к и е у п р а ж н е н и я
UNIT 9. 5
Unit 10. 30
Unit 11. 72
Unit 12. 105
UNIT 13. 132
«Английский язык для факультетов ИКСИ» представляет собой учебно-методическое пособие, предназначеное для обучения слушателей 2 курса переводу научно-технической литературы.
Целью УМП является развитие навыков перевода на основе изучения лексики и грамматических конструкций, характерных для научно-технической литературы.
Часть III включает в себя уроки с 9 по 13. Каждый урок УМП содержит:
Учебно-методическое пособие составлено в соответствии с тематическим планом изучения учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык (английский)» со слушателями факультетов ИКСИ.
Radio is a system of communication employing electromagnetic waves propagating through space. Because of their varying characteristics, radio waves of different lengths are employed for different purposes. Radio waves are usually identified by their frequency. The shortest waves have the highest frequency, or number of cycles per second; the longest waves have the lowest frequency, or fewest cycles per second. In honour of Heinrich Hertz, the German radio pioneer, his name was given to the cycle per second (hertz, Hz). Since electromagnetic waves in a uniform atmosphere travel in straight lines and the earth's surface is approximately spherical, long-distance radio communication is made possible by the reflection of radio waves from the ionosphere. Radio waves shorter than about 10 m in wavelength - very high, ultrahigh, and super high frequencies - are usually not reflected by the ionosphere; thus, in normal practice, such very short waves are received only within line-of-sight distances. A typical radio communication system has two main components, a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter generates electrical oscillations at a radio frequency called the carrier frequency. Either the amplitude or the frequency may be modulated to vary the carrier wave. An amplitude-modulated signal consist of the carrier frequency plus two sidebands resulting from the modulation. Frequency modulation produces more than one pair of sidebands for each modulated frequency. They produce complex variations than emerge as speech in radio broadcasting, and in alterations of flight and darkness in television broadcasting. Components of a radio transmitter include: an oscillation generator for converting commercial electric power into oscillations of a radio frequency; amplifiers for increasing the intensity of these oscillations while retaining the desired frequency; a transducer for converting the information into a varying electrical voltage proportional to each successive instantaneous intensity. For sound transmission a microphone is the transducer; for picture transmission the transducer is a photoelectric device. Other important components of the radio transmitter are the modulator and the antenna. Every antenna has some directional properties, that is, it radiates more energy in some directions than in the others. But the antenna can be modified so that the radiation pattern of the antenna will vary from a comparatively narrow beam to a comparatively even distribution in all directions. The latter type of radiation is employed in broadcasting. In a typical broadcasting station the carrier frequency is generated by a carefully controlled quartz-crystal oscillator. The oscillations are generated at low power by an election tube and are amplified in a series of power amplifier that act as buffers to prevent interaction of the oscillator with the other components of the transmitter, because such interaction would alter the frequency. The simplest form of modulation is keying - interrupting the carrier wave at intervals with a key or switch used to form dots and dashes in continuous-wave radiotelegraphy. The carrier wave may also be modulated by varying the amplitude, or strength of the wave in accordance with the variation of frequency and intensity of a sound signal, such as a musical note. This form of modulation, AM (amplitude modulation), is used in many radiotelephony services including standard radiobroadcasts. In frequency modulation (FM) the frequency of the carrier wave is varied within a fixed range at a rate corresponding to the frequency of a sound signal. FM broadcasting is done on high-frequency bands (88 to 108 MHz), which have a limited reception range
С л о в о о б р а з о в а н и е
Упражнение 1. Объясните значение суффиксов существительных. Переведите существительные:
marriage, acreage, herbage, harbourage, breakage, percentage, passage, drainage, leakage, package, storage, shortage, message, voltage, kingdom, freedom, boredom, wisdom, officialdom, childhood, sainthood, brotherhood, neighborhood, priesthood, captainship, draftsmanship, comradeship, citizenship, leadership, partnership, membership, ownership, assistant, student, consultant, contestant, refrigerant, servant, accountant, combatant, participant, democracy, expectancy, vacancy, policy, accuracy, infancy, supremacy, tendency, reading, boiling, cooking, building, meeting, engineering, heating, ventilating, mining, approval, arrival, refusal, triennial, millesimal, removal.
Упражнение 2. Объясните значение префиксов существительных. Переведите существительные:
overestimate, overvalue, overloading, overcharge, oversimplification, overrate, overreach, overpressure, overspeed, overproduction, overheat, overactivity, overgrowth, interconnection, interchange, interaction, interstice, intercross, intercommunication, interaction, interplay, intercalation, interconversion, interconnection, underestimate, underplanting, underpay, undervalue, underload, undercharge, countermeasure, counterforce, countercurrent, counterbalance, counterpart, counterproof, counterattack, counterposition, counterflow, counteroffer, antifascist, antipoison, antifreeze, antiseptic, anti-aircraft, anti-clockwise, anticyclone, co-existence, co-founder, co-author, co-operative, co -operation, co-worker, co-creditor, misunderstanding, misconception, misinterpretation, mismatch, misleading, misusage, misbelieve, misfortune, misuser, mistrust, misprint, misadjustment, semiconductor, semicolon, semi-circle, semi-basement, semifinal, non-conductor, non-smoker, non-stop, non-violence, nonsense, non-entity, output, outpatient, outclass, outgrow, outside.
Л е к с и ч е с к и е у п р а ж н е н и я
adjust (v), adjustable (adj)
1. In most cases, district heating companies install heat meters over several years, a period during which the regulator should carefully review costs and gradually adjust tariffs.
2. You can also use layer adjustments to adjust the hue and saturation, change the brightness and constant, and add some noise.
3. When changing the sample volumes, adjust both the timing and vacuum controls.
4.The piston can be self-adjustable.
5. The mass m is again the adjustable parameter.
6. The "program" is mechanically limited by fixed, but adjustable, stops such as pins or cams.
alter (v), alteration (n)
1. Such a rearrangement of the distribution of electrons does not alter the self-consistent periodic potential in which they move.
2. You will slightly alter the form.html page to accept a URL and a description.
3. To create a new form, load the script in a tool such as Microsoft Front Page and alter or add the necessary controls to the form.
4. This alteration takes two forms, which are different enough to talk about separately.
5. All two invitation mentioned above require considerable alteration of patch panels.
6. The spring being at the same time grasped in a pair of pincers, so as to admit of any alteration in length of the vibrating portion.
1. Satellites are mounted on axes of a carrier.
2. Three of the carries cables were empty, but on two the trolley was hauled up.
comparatively (adj), compare (v)
1. It is a comparatively new one to ethologists.
2. All the grounds are paved with bricks, they gave us comparatively little trouble.
3. It was a comparatively small room and simply though elegantly furnished.
4. Did he compare me to the statue of the commander.
5. How can people compare her with Emerson?
6. How do the results compare to the thresholds?
contain (v), container (n)
1. The active layer in the proposed HS does not contain sub layers and can be at least one.
2. When a column contain no value, it is said to contain a NULL value.
3. Such a bargain must contain two elements.
4. Each additional wheel 4 could have its own means 6 for fastening to the container.
5. Into a calorimeter Joule placed a container having two chambers, A and B, connected by a tube.
6. The container 3 and the value 7 close the opening 6 of the container 3.
desire (v), desirable (adj)
1. That is my one, my only desire.
2. He was a homebody, happy with the people and places he knew, with no particular desire to see any others.
3. She could not resist the desire to make something more of this.
4. It would be therefore be desirable to create a UN Brigade training unit.
5. Hence, a full banking license is desirable.
6. Besides, the piston is not desirable to be made too thick.
1. Iraq has declared all its proscribed programmers and taken the necessary steps to eliminate them.
2. De-worming treatments eliminate an impediment to healthy nutrition.
3. Consequently, it is practically impossible to eliminate them entirely.
1. The system did not emerge instantly.
2. Only at the end of the biennium did that growth begin to emerge.
3. Such a strategy cannot simply emerge as a byproduct of US military campaigns.
employ (v), employment (n)
1. However, these systems employ non-linear techniques of synchronization
2. Components based on FLASH can employ a variety of architectures.
3. Art was employed for the display of religious facts.
4. The employment of two illuminators positioned symmetrically enhances light uniformity and power.
5. The soldiers and officers of the Brigade will need to have UN employee status with individual employment contracts which reflect this.
explore (v), exploration (n)
1. I am going to explore up this other road a little way.
2. In this exercise, we will explore an example of the recursive-function notation.
3. Let's explore what the working Ajax programmer stands to gain from refactoring.
4. Future astronauts will use it to locate resources, possibly including water, that can support exploration of the moon and beyond.
5. The company's basic activity is oil and gas field exploration and development, oil and natural gas production.
6. The instruments on the spaceship indicated that the earth's temperature had risen since their last exploration three years earlier.
intense (adj), intensity (n)
1.The reduction of the M2 velocity may be less intense than in 2005.
2. The greater the local mass, the more intense the local gravity, and the more severe the pucker, distortion or warp of space.
3. The intensity of the current is measured by means of an electromagnetic amplifier BK 2-16.
4. At S we have a source that emits light of one color at very low intensity (let's use red light again).