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Charles Dickens - Чарльз Диккенс 5 часть



In 1972 NASA launched Pioneer 10, a Jupiter spacecraft. Interest was shifting to four of the outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Four NASA spacecraft in all - two Pioneers and two Voyagers - were sent in the 1970s to tour the outer regions of our solar system. Because of the dis­tances involved, these travellers took anywhere from 20 months to 12 years to reach their destinations. NASA also developed highly specialised spacecraft to revisit our neighbours Mars and Venus in the middle and late 1970s. Twin Vi­king Landers were equipped to serve as seismic and weather stations and as biology laboratories. Two drum-shaped Pioneer spacecraft visited Venus in


1978. A new generation of automated spacecraft - including Magellan, Gali­leo, Ulysses, Mars Observer and Cassini - is being developed and sent out into the solar system to make detailed examinations that will increase our un­derstanding of our neighbourhood and our own planet.

Упражнение 2. Прочитайте перевод текста упражнения 1 вслед за пре­подавателем, читающим исходный текст на английском языке, с отставанием в три-четыре слова.

Упражнение 3. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим словосо­четаниям.

to make a flyby..........................................................................................................

to maintain one's bearings in space........................................................................

to explore the Solar system......................................................................................

to observe a planet from close range .....................................................................

to develop highly specialised spacecraft...............................................................

to send robotic spacecraft on a mission.................................................................

to perform close-range surveys...............................................................................

to conduct surveys of our planetary neighbours in space...................................



to represent a quantum leap in technology advancement...................................

Упражнение 4.Переведите на слух следующие сообщения.

1. From our small world we have gazed upon the cosmic ocean for un­
told thousands of years. Ancient astronomers observed points of light that
appeared to move among the stars. They called these objects planets, mean­
ing wanderers, and named them after Roman deities - Jupiter, king of the
gods; Mars, the god of war; Mercury, messenger of the gods; Venus, the god
of love and beauty, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture. The
stargazers also observed comets with sparkling tails, and meteors or shoot­
ing stars apparently falling from the sky.

2. During the nineteenth century, astronomers were puzzled over unex­
plained deviations in the motion of Mercury. The French mathematician Urbain
Jean Joseph Le Verrier, who had predicted the position of Neptune based on de­
viations in the motion of Uranus, believed similar forces were at work. During a
lecture on January 2, 1860, he announced that the solution to Mercury's devia-


 


tions could be explained by assuming the existence of an intra-Mercurial planet, or possibly a second asteroid belt, inside Mercury's orbit.

3. In 1846, Frederic Petit, director of the observatory of Toulouse, stated
that a second moon of the Earth had been discovered. It had been seen by the
observers during the early evening of March 21, 1846. Le Verrier grumbled
that one needed to take air resistance into account, something nobody could do
at that time. Petit became obsessed with this idea of a second moon, and 15
years later announced that he had made calculations about a small moon of
Earth which caused some then-unexplained peculiarities in the motion of our
main Moon. Astronomers generally ignored this, and the idea would have
been forgotten if a young French writer, Jules Verne, had not read an abstract.



4. Above the core of Jupiter lies the main bulk of the planet in the form
of liquid metallic hydrogen. This exotic form of the most common of ele­
ments is possible only at pressures exceeding 4 million bars, as is the case in
the interior of Jupiter. Liquid metallic hydrogen consists of ionised protons
and electrons. At the temperature and pressure of Jupiter's interior hydrogen
i$ a liquid, not a gas. It is an electrical conductor and the source of Jupiter's
magnetic field. This layer probably also contains some helium and traces of
various "ices."

5. The Cassini spacecraft, on its journey to Saturn, made a flyby of the
giant planet Jupiter. The Galileo spacecraft has been exploring Jupiter since
1995. It is unusual in the history of space exploration to have two robotic
spacecraft on separate missions, actively observing a planet - other than
Earth - at the same time from such close range. Middle and high school stu­
dents had the opportunity to participate in this distinctive event by observing
Jupiter between November 2000 and February 2001, using ground-based ra­
dio antennas through the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

6. The space shuttle main engines are among the most powerful, most
sophisticated devices ever invented. They represent a quantum leap in tech­
nology advancement over preceding engines. Each of the three main engines
in tail of the shuttle can provide almost a half-million pounds of thrust. Un­
like most previous rocket engines, which were designed to be used only
once the space shuttle's main engines are designed to be used again and
again, for up to 7.5 hours. The thrust to weight ratio for these engines is the
best in the world - each engine weighs less than 7 thousand pounds but puts
out the power equivalent of seven Hoover Dams!




Упражнение 5.Прочитайте про себя текст А, одновременно прослуши­вая текст В, который зачитывает вслух преподаватель.

A. On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American to blast off
from Cape Canaveral in a flight that was to be of great importance to
American future programs. Quite soon the Americans were ready for
manned flight into orbit. The United States was extremely fortunate to have
six successful Atlas launch vehicles in a row to complete the Mercury pro­
gram. John Glenn's Mercury - Atlas mission on February 20, 1962, was
America's first orbital flight. The scientists were to learn much from these
flights that helped in planning for the lunar program. The exposure of man
to zero gravity in these early manned flights was perhaps among the greatest
medical experiments of all time. All the Mercury astronauts found the
weightless state no particular problem. All returned to Earth with no medical
difficulties whatever. This finding was so fundamental and straightforward
that its importance was missed by many medical critics at the time. It now
became simply a question of how long man could withstand weightlessness,
and detailed medical measurements were made to cast light on how the body
compensated for the new environment. The longest flights of the future
would probably require only methods of keeping the human body properly
exercised and nourished in order to prevent a different reaction on returning
to the gravity of Earth.

B. Галактики - это большие звёздные системы, в которых звёзды
связаны друг с другом силами гравитации. Существуют галактики,
включающие триллионы звёзд. Наша Галактика - Млечный Путь -
также достаточно велика: в ней более 200 млрд. звёзд. Самые малень­
кие галактики содержат звёзд в миллион раз меньше и скорее напоми­
нают находящиеся в Млечном Пути шаровые скопления, только значи­
тельно больше по размерам. Помимо обычных звёзд галактики
включают в себя межзвёздный газ, пыль, а также различные «экзотиче­
ские» объекты: белые карлики, нейтронные звёзды, чёрные дыры. Газ в
галактиках не только рассеян между звёздами, но и образует громад­
ные облака, яркие туманности вокруг горячих звёзд, плотные и холод­
ные газопылевые туманности. Большие звёздные системы имеют мас­
сы в сотни миллиардов масс Солнца. Наименьшие из карликовых
галактик «весят» всего лишь в 100 тыс. раз больше Солнца. Таким об­
разом, интервал масс у галактик значительно шире, чем у звёзд: самые
«тяжёлые» и самые «лёгкие» звёзды различаются по массе менее чем в


1000 раз. Ближайшими к нам и самыми яркими на небе галактиками являются Магеллановы Облака. Они выглядят как два туманных об­лачка, подобно двум оторвавшимся кусочкам Млечного Пути. К сожа­лению, в Северном полушарии их не видно. Но морякам, плававшим в южных морях, издавна были известны два небольших «облака», кото­рые серебристо светятся в хорошую погоду на ночном небе. Во время кругосветного путешествия Магеллана его спутник и летописец Анто-нио Пигафетта описал Облака, а после гибели известного мореплавате­ля предложил назвать Облака Магеллановыми - Большим и Малым.

Упражнение 6.Закройте учебник. Изложите письменно на русском язы­ке содержание текстов упражнения 5.

Упражнение 7.Переведите на слух по абзацам следующий текст, по­вторяя перевод предыдущего абзаца, сделанный вашим коллегой (перевод с повторением).


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