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Assignment 4. Translate the following sentences with the Gerund into Russian


1) The thunder is caused by heating the air by a spark.

2) A lightning conductor is a means of protecting buildings from strokes of lightning.

3) We know of this house being destroyed by a stroke of lightning.

4) After having studied the phenomenon of atmospheric electricity, Franklin invented the lightning conductor.

5) Franklin’s having worked in the field of electricity is known all over the world.

6) Before making experiments Franklin made numerous observations.

7) Protecting buildings from strokes of lightning was impossible before Franklin’s time.

8) A lightning conductor is capable of protecting buildings from strokes of lightning.



Assignment 5. Read and translate the text:




Electricity plays such an important part in modern life that in order to get it, men have been burning millions of tons of coal. Coal is burned instead of its being mainly used as a source of valuable chemical substances which it contains. Therefore, finding new sources of electric energy is a most important problem that scientists and engineers try to solve. In this connection one might ask: "Is it possible to develop methods of harnessing lightning?" In other words, could atmospheric electricity be changed into useful energy?

Indeed, hundreds of millions of volts are required for a lightning spark about one and a half kilometre long. However, this does not represent very much energy because of the intervals between single thunderstorms. As for the power spent in producing lightning flashes all over the world, it is only about 1/10,000 of the power got by mankind from the sun, both in the form of light and that of heat. Thus, the source in question may interest only the scientists of the future.

It has already been mentioned that atmos­pheric electricity is the earliest manifestation of electricity known to man. However, nobody understood that phenome­non and its properties until Benjamin Franklin made his kite experiment. On studying the Leyden jar (for long years the only known condenser), Franklin began thinking that lightning was a strong spark of electricity. He began exper­imenting in order to draw electricity from the clouds to the earth. The story about his famous kite is known all over the world.

On a stormy day Franklin and his son went into the country taking with them some necessary things such as: a kite with a long string, a key and so on. The key was connected to the lower end of the string. "If lightning is the same as electric­ity," he thought, "then some of its sparks must come down the kite string to the key." Soon the kite was flying high among the clouds where lightning flashed. However, the kite having been raised, some time passed before there was any proof of its being electrified. Then the rain fell and wetted the string. The wet string conducted the electricity from the clouds down the string to the key. Franklin and his son both saw electric sparks which grew bigger and stronger. Thus, it was proved that lightning is a discharge of electricity like that got from the batteries of Leyden jars.

Trying to develop a method of protecting buildings during thunderstorms, Franklin continued studying that problem and invented the lightning conductor. He wrote necessary instructions for the installation of his invention, the principle of his lightning conductor being in use until now. Thus, protecting buildings from lightning strokes was the first discovery in the field of electricity employed for the good of mankind.


Notes to the text:

1) in order to – чтобы; для того, чтобы

2) in this connection – в этой связи

3) in other words – другими словами

4) because of – из-за, вследствие

5) as for – что касается

6) all over the world – во всем мире

7) both … and – как …, так и …

8) in question – о котором идет речь

9) Leyden jar – лейденская банка

10) such as – такой как

11) in use – в употреблении

12) for the good of – ради



Assignment 6. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Gerundial Construction:


1) We didn’t know about his being sent to the power-station.

2) I remember my having told her about the experiment.

3) His having asked such a question shows that he did not prepare the text.

4) We know of different experiments being made in this laboratory.

5) Your having been sent to Germany was known to everybody.

6) Everybody knows about your having worked at the nuclear power plant.

7) The professor knew about the students’ going to the power-station.

8) The students read about the new achievements having been made in the field of nuclear physics.

9) Thanks to the lightning conductor having been invented, it is possible to protect buildings from strokes of lightning.



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