The Psychological Department
Odessa National University was founded on the 1-st of May 1865. At that time it was called Novorossiyskiy University. It was one of the biggest scientific and educational center in the South of the country.
Psychology was taught there from the very begging. It was a part of philosophy and physiology. L.F.Voevodskiy, D.P.Lebedev, R.V Orbinskiy were the first lecturers of psychology. Ivan Michailovich Sechenov worked at the University for 5 years as a professor of physiology. Sechenov was invited to Odessa by I.I.Mechnikov. They worked together. Sechenov published in Odessa his famous articles “Who and How should Elaborate Psychology”, “Psychological Sketches”
The great contribution to the development of psychology was made by P.A.Spiro. He worked at the University from 1871 till 1879. He published a great number of works in physiology and psychology.
At that period of time Psychology started to get independence as a scientific field when a brilliant psychologist M.I.Grot got a lectureship there. He established a famous magazine “Question of philosophy and psychology”. He suggested that psychology had wide connections with physiology and sociology. It was rather progressive point of view.
The University became an important psychological center when N.N.Lange headed the chair. In 1896 Lange set up the first experimental laboratory. Psychology was developing very rapidly at that time and approximately became fully independent field of science.
In 1921 E.A.Shevalev became the head of the chair. He was a talented disciple of a great Russian scientist V.N.Behterev. The course of applied psychology was delivered to all faculties and always attracted a lot of students.
Almost at the same time another great psychologist worked at the University. In 1919 Sergej Leonidovich Rubinstein got the position of a lecturer. Rubinstein was not only psychologist, he was also a prominent philosopher. He obtained a brilliant education. He lived several years abroad (although he was born in Odessa).
In 1921 Rubinstein became a professor. He wrote a great number of articles and books. His textbook “Basic Psychology” was one of the best.
In our University also worked D.G.Elkin. He was Lange disciple. He is famous for so-called “psychology of time”. Under his supervision specialized research work was fulfilled in three main directions:
- Basic Psychology
- Child Psychology
- The History of Psychology
There are many followers of Elkin’s study.
Nowadays, we keep very carefully the academic traditions and we are very proud that such outstanding scientists worked at the University.
V. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
1. When was Odessa University founded?
2.Was Odessa University opened in May or October?
3.Who worked at the University?
4.What was the name of the famous magazine?
5.Who headed the chair in 1921?
6.When did Rubinstain become a professor?
7..Was Rubinstein a biologist or psychologist?
8.He published a textbook “Basic Psychology”, didn’t he?
9.Who establied first applied laboratry?
10.We are proud of academic traditions, aren’t we?
I. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть в кожному дієслово-присудок, визначте його вид та стан. В розділі b) зверніть увагу на переклад пасивних конструкцій. Речення перекладіть.
1. Ukrainian psychological science is successfully solving many complex problems.
2. Gestalt psychology focused on describing the organization of cognitive process.
3. The biological basis of psychology has been part of psychological theory and research from the beginning.
4.How have your parents influenced your thinking and behaviour?
1. How behaviour is changed under different conditions with an emphasis on learning?
2. The school of psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud.
3. We influence and are influenced by other people to a profound degree.
4. Some psychologists are primarily interested in the role of the social environment in influencing and changing our lives.
5. The doctor is sent for.
II. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть Part. I i Part. II та визначте їx функції у реченні (означення, обставина, складова частина присудка). Речення перекладіть.
1. An entire subfield of psychology is dedicated to the study of an individual’s behaviour, attitudes and thinking.
2. A modified form of behaviourism is one of the major forces in contemporary psychology.
3. Psychologists working from the biological perspective study how biological processes influence behaviour.
4. Three interrelated versions of the biological perspective are explored in this article.
5. Educational psychology is concerned with learning process and problems associated with the teaching of students.
III. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть модальні дієслова або їx еквіваленти. Речення перекладіть.
1. Psychology can be related to be biological and social science.
2. How can behaviour be changed under different conditions with an emphasis on learning?
3. I had some free time yesterday, and was able to go to my friends.
4. All children must go to school.
5. The girl is only five but she can already read.
IV. Перепишіть речення та перекладіть їx, звертаючи увагу на підрядні речення.
1. The school of psychoanalysis was founded on the theory that Human behaviour and personality development is due primarily to unconscious motivations.
2.Psychoanalysts believed they could open a window and peer into the unconscious regions of the human mind.
3. The world of psychology looks different depending on the perspective from which it is viewed.
4.Psychodynamic psychology analyses the fears, desires and memories that are not consciously recognized by a person who is often a patient undergoing therapy.
5. Social psychology analyses experiments that involve the real or implied presence of others.
V. Прочитайте, перепишіть, перекладіть, вивчіть та розповідайте біографічну довідку про 3. Фрейда як тему для складання заліку та іспиту.
Sigmund Freud may be called the most influential intellectual of his age. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. His work remained powerful well after his death and in fields far removed from psychology.
He was born on May, 6, 1856 on the territory modern Czechia (Habsburg empire at that time). His father was a Jewish wool merchant and he had been married for several times. The father was 40 years old at Freud's birth and all his life he was a remote figure for his son. Freud was grown up with his two older half-brothers.
In 1859 the Freud family had to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Vienna (for economic reasons). And Freud remained in Vienna until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later.
In 1873 Freud was graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium and turned to medicine as a career. At the University of Vienna he worked with the leading psychologists of his day. In 1882 he entered the General Hospital in Vienna as a chemical assistant to get further training. In 1885 he concluded important research on the brain's medulls and was appointed lecturer in neuropathology. At this time he also developed an interest in the pharmaceutical benefits of cocaine which he pursued for several years. Although some beneficial results were found in eye surgery, the general outcome was disastrous. Addiction tarnished his medical reputation for some time.
In late 1885 Freud left Vienna to continue his studies of neuropathology at the clinic of professor Charcot in Paris. His 19 weeks in the French capital proved a turning point in his career. He was introduced to the possibility that psychological disorders might have their source in the mind rather than the brain. In February, 1886 he returned to Vienna with the seed of his revolutionary psychological method implanted.
Soon after his return he was married. There were six children in his family one of whom, Anna Freud, became a distinguished psychoanalyst and child psychologist in her own right. -
The most important of his works are:
—the Psychopathology of Everyday life (1904);
—three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905): this work established Freud as a pioneer in the serious study of sexology.
In 1909 Freud made a historic trip to Clark University in Worchester, Mass. The lectures he gave there were soon published. They made his ideas known to a wide public.
In 1938 he escaped to London. His family followed him later being tortured in Gestapo His two elder sisters died in concentration camp. He died in 1939 being 83 years old.
IV. Дайте відповіді на запитання.
1. How may S. Freud be called?
2. When and where was he born?
3. Where did he live till the Nazi annexation of Austria?
4. When did Freud leave Vienna?
5. How many children were in his family?
6. What are the most important his works?
7. Where did he live the rest of his life?
8. When did he die?
9. Was Freud a pioneer in the study of sexology of biology?
10. When did he return to Vienna?
I. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть в кожному дієслово-присудок, визначте його вид та стан. В розділі b) зверніть увагу на переклад пасивних конструкцій. Речення обов'язково перекладіть.
1. School learning stimulates process of development.
2. L. Vygotsky and G. Piaget expressed identical views of school learning.
3. A series of experiments has been made.
4. She is going to tell the whole truth.
5. Human perception is mysterious and unpredictable.
1. A meeting was held in Washington.
2 Visitors from the continent are surprised at this.
3. A car was bumped by a heavy truck in the night.
4. The two powers are expected to sign the agreement.
5. The summit conference is known to be held in December.
ІІ. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть Part I i Part II та визначте їx функції у реченні (означення, обставина, складова частина присудка). Речення перекладіть.
1. The sad news has broken his heart.
2. The boy's questions puzzled his parents.
3. Mr. Smith bores us with his manner of speaking.
4. He is a well-known scientist and his method known to most students.
III. Перепишіть наступні речення, підкресліть модальні дієслова або ixнi еквіваленти. Речення перекладіть.
1. We trust our feelings because we cannot see how they can be wrong.
2. We have to go right now.
3. The train was to go at six o'clock.
4. She could play the piano three years ago.
5. May I help you?
IV.Прочитайте, перепишіть, перекладіть, вивчіть та розповідайте текст як тему для складання заліку та іспиту.
The greatest single contribution to medical history in the 19th century was made by a Frenchman named Louis Pasteur. He produced the theory that disease and infection were caused by germs and he proved that they were carried and spread, not by bad smells, but through the air.
Pasteur was a scientist, not a doctor, and he first discovered the action of germs whilst studying fermentation in wines and other liquids. He found that germs could be killed by applying heat to the liquids and the term pasteurization was given to this process. Milk is treated in this way today to make sure it is safe to drink.
Germs are tiny living organisms which cannot be seen with the naked eye. By Pasteur's time the microscope had been invented and he was able to examine them. He discovered that different kinds of germ caused different diseases and he found a way of keeping them alive in his laboratory and even breeding them. Artificially made germs are known as cultures.
During an experiment on disease in chickens he made another discovery. If he injected the chickens with a state culture of the disease, they did not catch it but remained healthy even when fresh germs were injected. From this experiment our whole system of inoculation against disease has developed. Louis Pasteur invited the prominent Russian scientist I.I.Mechnikov to his institute to work together. After Pasteur death Ilija Iliich headed Pasteur Institute.
V. Дайте відповідь на запитання.
1. Who was made the greatest contribution medical history?
2. What did he produce?
3. Pasteur was a scientist, wasn't he?
4. What is pasteurization?
5. What another discoveries were made by him?
6. Who worked together?
7. What has been developed from his experiment?
8. Who was invited to his Institute?
9. What cannot be seen with naked eye?
10.How do we treat milk to be sure that it is save for us?