If you open first, then you are showing a lead and forcing the other person to follow

If you open second, then you have the opportunity to respond to whatever the other person says.

At the opening stage:

Create a positive atmosphere quickly.

Respect cultural expectations of behaviour.

Establish a framework: agenda, procedure, roles.

Agree a timetable.

Establish a framework: agenda, procedure, roles.

Stress common interest.


During the negotiation

Listen and clarify the objectives of the other party.

Check to make sure they understand you.

Focus initially on areas of agreement.

Make constructiveproposals.

Be clear, firm and to the point.

Handle conflict positively.

Be creative and flexible when bargaining.

Reach a position of mutual advantage.



Ending the negotiation

Summarize and agree the deal.

Clarify future responsibilities.

End positively.


After the negotiation

Recognize success.

Learn from failure and improve for next time.

Build up and extend a new relationship.

Some golden rules

have clear objectives with strategies for concession and fallback know the negotiating culture of your partner be flexible when bargaining, give what is cheap for you and valuable to them keep your true objectives secret as long as possible be friendly when you haggle over money never set unrealistic targets never give anything away without getting something in return never be the first to make an offer never accept the first proposal never alter your offer without hearing a counter-offer never say no, say if never make promises you cant keep

Useful Expressions

Negotiating at a glance


Greetings Welcome to Its good to see you.
Introductions I think you have met
Small talk So, how was the trip? Can I get you something to drink?
Establishing a framework: agenda, procedure, roles. OK. Shall we get started? To begin, we should agree an agenda. May I suggest that we.OK? Just to clarify roles As for timing, I hope we can finish by If you have nothing to add, we can move on to outlining our position.
First moves
Establishing positions. The main objective of todays meeting is to To begin, I would like to review the background up to to day. OK. Let now turn to our objectives to day in more detail. Just interrupt me if you want to clarify anything. Basically, we would like to/It is essential for us to Futhermore/In addition How does that sound? Any questions? OK. Can we now hear from your side?
Questions Could we just clarify one thing? Sure. Of course.
How important to you is? This depends on several factors.
So, if I understand you correctly, you would like Yes, although let me clarify one thing
Bargaining We propose OK. From our point of view
We would be willing toif I think we could go along with that provided that
That is out of the question. The major obstacle seems to be
What do you think is reasonable? Well, so long as you.then we could
We can agree to that. Great. I think we are making progress.
Agreement and close
Summarising I think we have a deal! Can I just run over the main points of the agreement? We have agreed to We willat a later date. Is that correct?/Do you agree?
Agreeing a deal OK. We can draw up a contract next week.
Ending It just remains for me to say thank you for coming. I think we have a good deal and a basis for a long term relationship. I look forward to the next meeting. For now we can finish here.



Supplement File Cards


File card 17 A

Team A: Coen Brothers. You are representatives of Coen Brothers, manufacturers of prefabricated industrial buildings. You are planning to launch a major sales drive in Italy, a new market for your company. The market. The Italian market for prefabricated industrial buildings is very competitive, and since you are based in London and the Netherlands you have transport costs to add to your manufacturing costs. However, you know that on average your prices are 10% lower than Italian competitors, though at the top of your product range, your prices are a little higher than the average, but the quality is also better. The product. Your buildings are highly functional, and can be adapted to a range of industrial needs. They are built according to strict Scandinavian design quality and use the best available materials. You supply all materials. You also take care of the actual construction, including connections for electricity, water systems, insulation and heating. You can also supply the buildings at finished quality, in other words, fully decorated according to the customer's wishes. Different qualities are available: basic, standard and ultra, which includes a full range of services at residential quality.



File card 18 A

You are a sales representative for an advertising consultancy. You are responsible for selling perimeter advertising for sports arenas in Italy. You sell 25 metre electronic advertising at Italian Serie A (first division) football matches.   Price: on live television: - corner position: $120 per flash (one minute) - halfway line or behind the goal $240 per flash (one minute) You can offer discounts of up to 20%, but only for deals of three matches or more. You can offer two free flashes at non-televised games instead of a discount.   Notes: You have no space on the halfway line (middle of the playing area) in January and February. A deal must be for a minimum of 10 flashes per match.


File card 19A

You represent an international company with business links in Tokyo. You urgently need to buy a brand-new luxury apartment in Tokyo's Shinjuku district.   You could spend up to ¥250m, but you would prefer to spend only about ¥l50m because you would also like to buy a second, smaller apartment in Hachioji - but this is not essential.



Shinjuku is one of the most famous and prestigious districts in downtown Tokyo.

You would like the apartment to be near Shinjuku Gyoen Park, or dose to Shinjuku station.

Hachioji is a suburb you are not sure exactly where.

You need the apartment to be ready in less than three weeks.

You want the inside decorated to your specific requirements - you will pay extra for this.

You would like an apartment with a swimming pool and tennis courts.

You want a large apartment about 200 sq.m.

If you cannot have any of the above, you would like to pay less.


File card 20 A

Situation 1 You work for a translation agency. You can translate legal contracts into any language: cost: $300 per 1,000 words a job of more than 5,000 words will take a week if it is more urgent than a week, the cost will be a lot higher. Situation 2 You are in Hamburg. You urgently need to rent four vans from a local car and van rental company: you expect to pay about 100 per day per van you have to have the vans today or tomorrow. Situation 3 You are the Conference Organiser for Lake View Hotel. You rent conference space: cost: normally $1,000 per day for facilities for five people 50% non-refandable deposit six months before the conference date (this is negotiable) bed and breakfast conference rate - another $1,000 per day for five people no deposit required for bed and breakfast.


File card 17 B


Team B: Fratelli Taviani. You are representatives of Fratelli Taviani, an Italian agricultural feeds manufacturer. You have a meeting with Coen Brothers, a London-based Anglo-Dutch company.   Your requirements. You need to build a new office and storage buildings at your Asti plant in Piedmont, in Northern Italy. There are many suppliers of prefabricated industrial buildings. You need two standard-quality storage buildings with electricity, water and air-conditioning systems. You also need an office building of the highest quality. You expect to have the buildings decorated at extra cost by a local decorator. You want the buildings to be supplied and erected within 30 days, but you could allow 60 days.   The market. You would like to use a local supplier, Daniele Edili, who supplied some of your existing buildings. Unfortunately they are on average 10% more expensive than Coen Brothers. Coen products are also better quality. On the other hand, Coen is a new company and you need assurances on their quality and ability to meet deadlines.


File card 18 B


You represent an international fashion house with a major youth market, especially in Italy and Spain. You want to advertise at Italian Serie A (first division) football matches. You have a budget of $10,000. You would like the following:   electronic advertising at matches on live television only a minimum of ten flashes in every game (a flash = one minute) you prefer halfway line positions (they are most often seen by the TV cameras) you don't want behind the goal unless you get a good discount you would like to advertise at between four and six matches in the early part of the year (January-March).


File card 19 B


You represent an international property company. You are selling luxury apartments in Tokyo.   Costs: Shinjuky district ¥100m to ¥200m Ueno ¥70m to ¥80m Hachioji ¥60m Chofu ¥80m   Notes: Apartments in Tokyo are small: land is very expensive. 70 sq.m is normal, 100 sq.m is large by Tokyo standards. It is virtually impossible to provide a swimming pool or tennis courts. You have two new apartments in Shinjuku: 100 sq.m at ¥120m 150 sq.m, near the Shinjuku Gyoen Park, ¥200m. Shinjuku is one of the most famous and prestigious districts in downtown Tokyo. Prices are negotiable but no more than 20% less. Hachioji is a suburb, about 40 minutes by train from the centre. You have an excellent apartment in Chofu (nearer the centre) for sale at ¥120m. The apartments could be ready in 5 to 6 weeks. Special interior designs can be arranged cost about ¥20m.



File card 20 B


Situation 1 You want a legal contract translated into English: it is 6,000 words long you expect to pay between $1,200 and $1,500 you need it in two days - three days maximum.   Situation 2 You are a car and van rental company in Hamburg: van rental costs 120 per day 10% discount for orders over 1,000 no vans are available today and only two tomorrow.   Situation 3 You want to rent conference space at the Lake View Hotel: find out the cost for ten people for your two-day sales conference in eight months' time ask for a discount ask if you have to pay a deposit insist that it is refundable.





Module 1 Meetings 4

Unit 1. What makes a good meeting? 4

Quick Communication Check Unit 1 14

Unit 2 Sorry to interrupt, but... 16

Quick Communication Check Unit 2 24

Unit 3 What do you mean by...? 26

Quick Communication Check Unit 3 35

Quick Communication Check Units 1-3 36

Summary 38

Supplement 1 Minutes Taking 43

Supplement 2 Conference Game 47

Supplement 3 File Cards 50

Module 2 Negotiations 56

Unit 1 Know What You Want 56

Quick Communication Check Unit 1 64

Unit 2 Getting what you can 65

Quick Communication Check Unit 2 74

Unit 3 Not getting what you can 75

Quick Communication Check Unit 3 86

Summary 87

Supplement File Cards 93




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Meetings Negotiations




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