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Quick Communication Check Unit 2


1 Bargaining and making concessions


Choose the right alternative from the words in italics.


1. It's okay with us so long as / whereas you can supply the goods by January.

2. If / Unless the specifications are right we'll be happy.

3. We won't pay that price if / unless you increase the quantity.

4. If you ask us to help you then we’ll / we do send someone immediately.

5. If you pay in dollars we had to / will have to pay bank charges.

6. We can offer a discount but only / however if you pay at the time of the order.

7. We can reach agreement unless / on the condition that the price is fixed for two years.



2 Accepting and confirming


A Match the word on the left to the correct meaning on the right.


1. agree with someone a. tie to

2 check (v) b. all right

3 link (v) c. problem

4 issue d. formal written agreement

5 acceptable e. accept what someone says

6 contract f. repetition of something

7 confirmation g. confirm


B Complete the exchanges below with words from the box.


confirm (2) happy think accept contract agree okay reach


- Is that (a)_______?

- Yes, fine. We (b)_______.

- What do you (c)_______?

- We (d)_______ that.

- We're (e)_______ with that.

- Let's (f)_______ what we have agreed on.

- Naturally all this will be in the (g)_______.

- Can you (h)_______ this in writing?

- We're glad we have been able to (i) _______ agreement.



Unit 3 Not getting what you can


The delicate art of negotiation

Types of negotiator


Try to remember the three different types of negotiation described in Unit 13. We may also speak about three types of negotiator: the fighter, the creative negotiator and the one who looks for independent advantage (see the Skills Checklist for this unit).

To find out which one you are, answer the following questions and check your answers with the key at the end.

What type of negotiator are you?

1 Your aim in a negotiation is ...

a) to find the greatest area of agreement in the joint interests of both parties.

b) to win and to make the other side lose.

c) to find the best deal for your side.

2 When the other side is talking you ...

a) use the information you are hearing to identify weaknesses in the other party.

b) plan what you are going to say next.

c) listen with maximum attention.

3 You think that ...

a) part of the available time must be spent socializing and getting to know the other side.

b) goodwill is important but the speed of the meeting should be quick and businesslike.

c) the meeting should get down to business as soon as possible and reach quick decisions.

4 When you speak in a negotiation you ...

a) make bold and forceful statements, possibly banging on the table.

b) make carefully considered statements in a calm, controlled voice.

c) are occasionally forceful and inflexible.

5 If the other side disagrees with you, you ...

a) try hard to find a creative position by modifying your position.

b) repeat your demands and will not concede - your objective is to make the other side give in.

c) reshape your offer without fundamental changes.

6 If the other side states an opinion you disagree with, you ...

a) tentatively suggest an alternative.

b) ask for clarification and explanation.



ridicule it with sarcasm.



Dealing with conflict

What causes conflict in a negotiation?



1. Read the text on the next page. How many ways are suggested to reduce conflict in a negotiation?

2. Match each of the following to a phrase in the text with a similar meaning:


a) highlight the disadvantages of failing to reach a deal

b) think of new benefits for both sides

c) alter parts of what is being offered

d) take a break to consider positions

e) have the negotiation in a different place

f) change the individuals involved

g) ask an independent person to come and help you reach agreement

h) have an informal meeting to talk things over.



Conflict may sometimes be an unavoidable step on the road towards agreement. However, in some cases conflict leads to the breakdown of negotiations as one or both sides realize that agreement is not possible. In many cases this is better than agreeing to something which would be against the interests of the people concerned.

When conflict arises, there are several possible actions which may help to resolve conflict in a negotiation:

• leave the problem, go on to a different topic and return later to the point at issue

• summarize progress and areas of agreement

• emphasize the benefits available to both sides

• emphasize the loss to both sides of not reaching agreement

• restate the issue and wait for a response

• change the package

• invent new options for mutual gain

• offer conditional concessions

• adjourn to think and reflect

• set up an off-the-record meeting

• change location

• change negotiator (personal chemistry?)

• bring in a third party (mediator?)

• consider walking away.


Adapted from The Pocket Negotiator published by Gottschalk Hartley-Brewer (1989).



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