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Here is a representation of a typical structure of a negotiation. Compare this with the conversation you have just listened to



Counter suggestion




In pairs, suggest a short business conversation with the above structure.


3. a) Listen to a recording of three extracts, each part of a different type of
negotiation. Match each one to the correct picture, A, B or C.

b) Listen again. Match each ne gotiation to one of the three types described below, X, Y or Z.


X – A business negotiation is similar to a discussion between friends arranging a social engagement. Two parties have a shared objective: to work together in a way which is mutually beneficial. Proposals and counter proposals are discussed until agreement is reached. Both sides hope for repeat business. This is an agreement-based negotiation, sometimes referred to as a win-win negotiation.

Y – Two other types of negotiation are less founded on mutual benefit, but on gaining the best deal possible for your side. In the first type, both teams negotiate to independent advantage. This means that each team thinks only about its own interests. In this type, a seller typically seeks to sell a product but is less concerned about repeat business.

Z – A third type is the negotiation to resolve conflict, for example in a contractual dispute. Here, it is possible that each party regards the other as an opponent and seeks to win the argument. This is a win-losenegotiation.




Suggest other situations which match each of the three types of negotiations described here. Think of examples from your own experience.


Preparation for a negotiation


What considerations are important in preparing to negotiate? In pairs, suggest as many as you can.


Listen to the recording in which a Management Communications Consultant, Diana Ferry, talks about preparing for a negotiation. Mark the seven points below in the order in which she mentions them. The first is already marked as an example.


Identify your minimum requirements.

Prepare your opening statement.

Decide what concessions you could make.

Know your own strengths and weaknesses.

Know your role as part of a team.

Prepare your negotiating position – know your aims and objectives. 1

Prepare any figures, any calculations and any support materials

you may need.


2. Match each of the four aspects of good preparation on the left with why important on the right. If in doubt, check your answer by listening again recording.


a) Knowing your aims and objectives

b) Knowing your own strengths and weaknesses

c) Preparing any figures, calculations

and other materials

d) Preparing an opening statement


i) means you can support your argument.

ii) helps clear thinking and purpose.

iii) creates reasonable expectations.

iv) helps you to know the market, the context in which you want to work.



Practice 1

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