A Reported Speech (Affirmative sentences and Statements)
Прямая речь (direct speech) – это речь к-л лица передаваемая буквально и в письменной речи заключаемая в кавычки.
Косвенная речь (reported speech) – речь передаваемая другим лицом по содержанию.
E.g. He says: “I sent them the catalogue on Monday.” (Direct Speech)
He says (that) he sent them the catalogue on Monday. (Reported Speech)
Если основной глагол главного предложения употребляется в настоящем времени, в косвенной речи по смыслу меняются только местоимения.
E.g. Mary says: “I decided to give him a piece of advice.”
Mary says (that) she decided to give him a piece of advice
В косвенной речи основной глагол главного предложения употребляется, как правило, в прошедшем времени и в этом случае в английском языке действует правило согласования времен (Sequence of Tenses).
Формы глагола в придаточном предложении меняются следующим образом:
Present Simple → Past Simple
Present Continuous → Past Continuous
Present Perfect → Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous → Past Perfect Continuous
Past Simple → Past Perfect
Past Continuous → Past Continuous (иногда Past
Past Perfect → Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous → Past Perfect Continuous
Future Simple → Future in the Past
Future Continuous → глаголы “shall” “will”
Future Perfect → “should” “would”)
Future Perfect Continuous →
E.g. He said: “I’m not well today. ”
He said (that) hewasn’t well that day.
Tom said: “I’m not feeling well.”
Tom said (that) he was not feeling well.
Judy said: “John has given up his job.”
Judy said (that) John had given up his job.
Judy said: “I don’t know where to go for my holiday.”
Judy said (that) she didn’t know where to go for her holiday.
Tom said: “I woke up feeling ill and didn’t go to work.”
Tom said (that) he had woken up feeling ill and hadn’t gone to work.
Peter said: “I don’t need your help. I’ll do it myself.”
Peter said (that) he didn’t need my help and that he would do it himself.
Mr. Brown said: “We have already conducted negotiations.”
Mr. Brown said (that) they had already conducted negotiations.
Note 1.Past Simple и Past Continuous могут не изменяться в косвенной речи:
Direct Tom said: “I woke up feeling ill.”
Reported Tom said (that) he woke up feeling well.
или Tom said (that) he had woken up feeling well.
Note 2.Present Simple или Present Continuous могут не меняться в косвенной речи, если говорящий передает факт, который в момент говорения имеет место.
E.g. Tom said: “New York is more lively than London.”
Tom said (that) New Yorkis more lively than London.
She told her sister: “You must consult a doctor.”
She told her sister (that) she must consult a doctor. (необходимость до сих пор существует)
Tom said: “I’m feeling ill.”
Tom said (that) he is feeling ill. (если Том до сих пор болен)
Замена Present на Past обязательна, если ситуация в момент говорения изменилась.
E.g. 1. You met Sonia a few days ago. She said: “Jim is ill.”
Later that day you see Jim. He is looking well and carrying a tennis racket. You say: “I didn’t expect to see you, Jim. Sonia said you were ill.”
2. She told her sister (that) she had to consult a doctor. It was reasonable because after the doctor’s examination her sister calmed down that her lungs were in order. (В настоящее время ситуация изменилась и уже нет необходимости идти к врачу).
Note 3. Say and tell.
Если в предложении указано кому адресовано высказывание, употребите глагол “tell”.
E.g. Sonia told me that she was ill.
What did you tell the police?
Но: Sonia said(that)you were ill.
Или:Ann said good bye to me and left.
Ex 1. Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Charlie. Here are some of the things Charlie said to you. Tell us what he said to you yesterday.
1. I'm living in London now.
2. My father isn't very well.
3. Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.
4. Margaret has had a baby.
5. I don't know what Fred is doing.
6. I saw Helen at a party in June and she seemed fine.
7. I haven't seen Diane recently.
8. I'm not enjoying my job very much.
9. You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.
10. My car was stolen a few weeks ago.
11. I want to go on holiday but I can't afford it.
12. I'll tell Ann I saw you.
Ex 2. Last week you had lunch with Rachel, a friend you hadn't seen for a long time. Look at the list of things she said to you, then tell another friend what she said. Use reported speech.
Model: Rachel said she was going to work in Spain next year.
1 I'm going to work in Spain next year.
2 I work for a small publishing company.
3 I'm their marketing manager.
4 The company has opened an office in Barcelona.
5 It's been very successful.
6 I've been chosen to run a new office in Madrid.
7 I'm studying Spanish in the evenings.
8 I don't have much time to enjoy myself.
9 I haven't had lunch with a friend for ages.
10 I hope my friends will come and visit me in Madrid.
11 I’ll go there last week with my secretary.
12 We didn't have much time for sightseeing.
13 I have to get back to work now.
Ex 3. Last week Julius had flu and had to call the doctor. When he was back at work, he told a colleague about what the doctor said to him. Look at the things his doctor said, then write down what Julius said to his colleague. Change the tense of verbs only where necessary.
Model: She said he had a high temperature.
She said Julius didn’t look after himself properly.
1. You have a high temperature.
2. You don't look after yourself properly.
3. You've obviously been ill for several days.
4. You can't go to work.
5. You're much too thin.
6. You don't eat sensibly.
7. You need to stay in bed.
8. You don't keep your flat warm enough.
9. You've got a nasty cough.
10. You can phone me if you feel worse.
11. You'll feel better in a few days.
12. You need a good holiday.
Ex 4. John had a row with his girlfriend, Julie. His friend Mark tried to help them get back together, and talked to Julie for John. Complete the conversation he had later with John.
MARK: Julie, John's asked me to talk to you.
JULIE: I don't want to speak to him.
MARK: Look Julie, John's really upset.
JULIE: I'm upset, too.
MARK: Will you just let me tell you his side of the story?
JULIE: I'm not interested. He promised to meet me at the restaurant, but he didn't turn up. I don't want to see him again.
mark: But, Julie, his car had broken down.
JULIE: So? There is a telephone in the restaurant.
MARK: But that's the point. He tried to phone, but he couldn’tget through,
JULIE: I don't believe he tried.
MARK: Yes, he did. He came to my flat. Do you believe me?
JULIE: OK. I'll talk to him. Listen, I'm going to be late for work. I'll meet him at six o'clock in the square.
MARK: Thanks, Julie. He'll be really happy. And I promise he'll be there.
JOHN: What did she say?
MARK: She said she (1).
JOHN: Well, what did she say when you told her I was really upset?
MARK: She said she (2)_________ too, so I asked her to let me tell her your side of the story. She said she (3)___________ because you (4)_________ at the restaurant, but you (5)___________. She said she (6)_____________ again.
JOHN: Did you explain about the car?
MARK: Yes, and she was very sarcastic. She said there (7)_____________ at the restaurant. So I told her you couldn't get through, but she said she (8)___________. Then I told her you'd been to my flat and asked if she believed me. She said 'OK' and she said (9)______________. Then she said she (10)___________, so we had to finish. You have to meet her in the square at six o'clock.
JOHN: Thanks, Mark. I really owe you one.
MARK: That's all right. Just don't be late this evening
Ex 5. Complete the sentences with say or tell (in the correct form). Use only one word each time.
1. Ann said goodbye to me and left.
2. _______us about your holiday. Did you have a nice time?
3. Don't just stand there! __________something!
4. I wonder where Sue is. She_________she would be here at 8 o'clock.
5. Jack_______me that he was fed up with his job.
6. The doctor______________that I should rest for at least a week.
7. Don't_________anybody what I___________. It's a secret just between us.
8. 'Did she_____________you what happened?' 'No, she didn't________anything to me.'
9. George couldn't help me. He__________me to ask Kate.
10. George couldn't help me. He___________to ask Kate.
Ex 6. Complete the sentences with the correct form of say or tell.
1. Did you tell your brother the truth about that money?
2. What____________ (you) to Wendy last night? She looks terribly upset this morning.
3. Is something wrong? Can you__________ me about it?
4. My little sister kept asking me_____________ her a story but I couldn't think of one.
5. If I asked you to marry me, what_______________ (you)?
6. I never know what___________ to people when they pay me a compliment.
7. Don't worry, I'm sure everything will go smoothly. Anyway, the manager ____________ to call him if we had any problems.
8. I'll never speak to him again after all the lies he_________ me last weekend.
9. If I were you, I__________ (not) anything to the police about your suspicions until you have more evidence.
10. Promise you____________ (not) anything to my parents. They'll be furious if they find out what I've done.
11. I__________ (already) you, I don't know where your diary is.
12. Please________ you'll forgive me. I'm really sorry for all the trouble I've caused.
13. I'm ready to serve the meal. Can you___________ the children to go and wash their hands, please?