Tourists, Travelers, and Local Culture
Travel theorist Stanley Plogg places the personalities of tourists and travelers along a broad scale. On one end are people who want their travel experience to be as "like home" as possible. They want to take it easy and not be faced with stressful situations and decision-making. They want everything to "go right." These are frequently (but not always) the people found at posh resorts, or on group tours.
On the other end are those travelers who enjoy new situations, dig deeply into local culture, and travel as if they were natives of the land. They find lodging where the locals sleep, eat where the locals dine, and use their transportation. They may hitch rides to get from place to place, not only as a means of saving money, but as a way to meet local people. Most of these travelers are backpackers.
These most-adventurous travelers prefer travel destinations which are not yet developed for the mass tourist trade. They often lament about an area becoming developed and losing its charm. They then push out to new, virgin areas, and unintentionally begin laying the groundwork for future tourist expansion. Of course, most backpackers fall somewhere in the middle of the scale.
As an area develops for the tourist trade relations between locals and travelers become more formalized. Locals become accustomed to foreigners, now seeing them as either a source of income, or a nuisance. No longer are they interesting new friends from far away.
Travelers and the travel industry may both benefit and harm a local economy and culture. Locals may gain from jobs, taxes, and contact with democratic cultures. But severe disruptions also occur. Crime may increase as crooks congregate to prey on rich visitors. The tourist area may rapidly rise in population as villagers from other parts of the country migrate to get jobs, which may or may not be available. Sanitation and medical facilities may be overwhelmed, and housing may become a short commodity, with land prices unaffordable for the local population. One example: few native Hawaiians now own any part of Hawaii.
When tourist culture meets local culture, a clash is inevitable. Locals may decide their own products and way of life are no longer desirable. In the 1960's there was a popular campaign in Europe to donate used clothing to "poor, naked Africans." It had such appeal many kind-hearted souls donated new clothing. The organizers failed to understand, however, that Africans had been beautifully dressing themselves, as necessary, for thousands of years.
Consequently, as Western clothing poured into Africa and came to market (which is the natural outcome of such a program), prices were driven far below normal. Africans eagerly snatched up the bargain Western styles they had seen or heard about. Many local clothing makers--pillars of the African economy--were driven from business as their hand-made products were now perceived as inferior. Africans became more reliant on imports, further weakening the economy, further increasing unemployment.
That said, tourism as cause of culture clash is a distant second to electron-conveyed information, and both are only going to increase as Earth truly becomes a global village over the next century. Moreover, information via television, HDTV, satellites, fiber optics, ubiquitous Internet, and unknown means will exponentially increase until world culture eventually becomes one well-stirred bowl of alphabet soup.
So go now while the traveling is great!
C. Watch the film “Family Album” (Episode 25 “Country music”) and enlarge on different types of travelling.
Countries and Nationalities
I. Phonetic Training
1. Train the pronunciation of the following geographical names:
Scotland the Netherland
Egypt the USA
Sweden the Ukraine
2. Listen to the rhyme, repeat it after the speaker and learn by heart.
(by Katherine Mansfield)
Rain and wind, and wind and rain.
Will the summer come again?
Rain on houses, on street,
Snow and sleet and sleet and snow
What do beggar children do
With no fire to cuddle to?
Hail and ice and ice and hail,
Water frozen in the pail.
See the robbins, brown and red,
They are waiting to be fed.
3. Listen some tongue twisters.
I can think of six thick things, can you?
Yes, I can think of six thick things
And six thin things too.
Can you imagine
An imaginary menagerie manager
Managing an imaginary menagerie?
4. Listen to the song, learn the words and sing the song.
Thank you for the music
I’m nothing special, in fact I’m a bit a bore
If I tell a joke, you’ve probably heard it before
But I have a talent, a wonderful thing
‘Cause everyone listens when I start to sing
I’m so grateful and proud
All I want is to sing it out aloud
So I say
Thank you for the music, the song I’m singing
Thanks for all the joy they’re bringing
Who can live without it, I ask in all honesty
What would life be?
Without a song or a dance what are we?
So I say thank you for the music
For giving it to me
Mother says I was a dancer before I could walk
She says I began to sing long before I could talk
And I’ve often wondered, how did it all start?
Who found out that nothing can capture a heart
Like a melody can?
Well, whoever it was, I’m a fan
I’ve been so likely, I am the girl with golden hair
I wanna sing it out to everybody
What a joy, what a life, what a chance!
II. Grammar Revision
A. Passive Voice.
1. Повторите структуру английского предложения (см. Unit II.) и сравните следующие модели:
A. S + Pr + Obj + Adv M
(Subject) (Predicate) (Object) (Adverbial
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Doer Action Sufferer Circumstances
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
My father built this house in 1970.
В приведенном выше примере деятель (My father) выполняет действие (built) над объектом (this house). Это активный залог, который употребляется в том случае, когда подлежащее (S) в предложении обозначает деятеля, а дополнение (Obj) – объект действия.
B. S + Pr + Obj + Adv M
(Subject) (Predicate) (Object) (Adverbial
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Sufferer Action Doer Circumstances
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
This house was built by my father in 1970.
В речи возникают такие ситуации, когда говорящему не важно, кем выполнено действие (деятель) или нет необходимости его упоминать.
На логическом уровне в предложении оказывается более важным само действие или обстоятельства, в которых оно совершалось. В приведенном выше примере логически выделяется информация о времени построения дома (in 1970).
Перемещение логической информации на обстоятельство времени приводит к смене формы сказуемого (was built). Это – пассивный или страдательный залог (Passive Voice), который употребляется, когда подлежащие в предложении (S) обозначает объект действия (Sufferer). Если нам все-таки необходимо указать кем действие выполнено, употребляется предлог “by” перед дополнением.
E.g. The house is old. It was built in 1930.
Two hundred people are employed by the company.
2. Из предыдущего пункта следует, что пассивный залог может употребляться только с переходными глаголами (transitive verbs), т.е. с глаголами, которые могут иметь прямое дополнение: to read smth., to see smb. or smth., to write smth., to clean smth., etc.
Формы пассивного глагола образуются следующим образом:
To be + V3, где to be - вспомогательный глагол, употребляемый в нужной форме (am, are, is, was, were, will be, shall be), V3 – третья форма основного глагола, т.е. причастие II.
Таблица форм глагола в пассивном залоге представлена ниже. Обратите внимание на тот факт, что все грамматические категории, характерные глаголу в активном залоге, имеют место и в пассивном залоге, т.е. глагол в пассивном залоге может обозначать простые, длительные или завершенные (совершенные ранее) действия в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем.
Passive Voice (to be + V3).
Note 1. Форма Future Continuous заменяется в пассивном залоге формой Future Simple, а формы Future Perfect Continuous – формами Future Perfect.
E.g. When we move to a new district, the supermarket there will still be built
By that time it will have been built for 18 month.
Note 2. Некоторые глаголы (to give, to offer, to write, etc.) могут иметь два дополнения. В этом случае возможны два типа пассивных конструкций.
E.g. We gave the police some information. (Active Voice)
The police were given some information. (Passive Voice)
Some information was given to the police. (Passive Voice)
Выбор пассивной конструкции зависит от логического центра высказывания (см. Unit II). Логическое ударение падает на последнее слово в предложении. Перевод на русский язык будет различным.
The police were given the information. – Полиции предоставили информацию.
The information was given to the police. – Информацию передали в полицию.
Note 3. Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения в пассивном залоге образуются с помощью глагола “to be” (входящего в состав самой формы пассивного залога) по общим правилам образования вопросов.
Ex 1. Change active forms to passive in the following sentences. Do not change the tense forms.
1. The milkman brings the milk to my door, but the postman leaves the letter in the hall.
2. In future, perhaps, they won’t bring letters to the houses, and we shall have to collect them from the Post Office.
3. People steal things from supermarkets every day.
4. Normally men sweep this street every day, but nobody swept it last week.
5. Someone turned on the light in the hall and opened the door.
6. Women clean this office in the evening, when the staff have left, they clean the upstairs offices between seven and eight in the morning.
7. We never saw him in the dining-room.
8. They are repairing my piano at the moment.
9. Has anyone posted my parcel?
10. We have sold all our copies but we have ordered more.
11. They will do this work in time, they promised to.
12. They will have done this work by the 1st of September, they promised.
13. I couldn’t give him a lift. They were repairing my car at the moment.
14. This tour is very expensive. You will spend a lot of money.
Ex 2. Put the verbs into the correct form, Present Simple or Past Simple, Active or Passive.
1. It’s a big factory. Five hundred people …are employed … (employ) there.
2. Water …… (cover) most of the Earth’s surface.
3. Most of the Earth’s surface …… (cover) by water.
4. The park gates …… (lock) at 6:30 p.m. every evening.
5. The letter …… (post) a week ago and it …… (arrive) yesterday.
6. The boat …… (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody …… (rescue).
7. Ron’s parents …… (die) when he was very young. He and his sister …… (bring) up by their grandparents.
8. I was born in London but I …… (grow) up in the north of England.
9. While I was on holiday, my camera …… (steal) from my hotel room.
10. While I was on holiday, my camera …… (disappear) from my hotel room.
11. Why …… (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?
12. Why …… (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
13. The company is not independent. It …… (own) by a much larger company.
14. I saw an accident last night. Somebody …… (call) an ambulance but nobody …… (injure) so the ambulance …… (not/need).
15. Where …… (these photographs/take)? In London? …… (you/take) them?
Ex 3. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Sometimes the verb is active, sometimes passive.
1. There’s somebody behind us. (I think/we/follow) … I think we’re being followed.
2. This room looks different. (you/paint)? … Have you painted it?
3. My car has disappeared. (it/steal)! It …… .
4. My umbrella has disappeared. (somebody/take) Somebody …… .
5. Tom gets a higher salary now. (he/promote) …… .
6. Ann can’t use her office at the moment. (it/redecorate) …… .
7. The photocopier broke down yesterday, but now it’s OK. (it/work/again; it/repair) ……. .
8. The police have found the people they were looking for. (two people/arrest/last night) …… .
9. A tree was lying across the road. (it/blow down/in the storm) …… .
10. The man next door disappeared six months ago. (nobody/see/since then) …… .
11. I was mugged on my way home a few nights ago. (you/ever/mug) …… ?
Ex 4. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Future Simple and the Future Perfect of the Passive. Add suitable adverbial phrases or clauses.
The article (to be read) aloud.
The article will be read aloud at the next lesson.
The article will have been read aloud before it is discussed.
1. The luggage (to be packed).
2. The torn trousers (to be patched).
3. The vegetables (to be prepared).
4. The fish (to be stuffed).
5. The fruit (to be stewed).
6. The dough (to be kneaded).
Ex 5. Put the verbs in the correct form.
1. I’ve collected all the documents that …… (need) for the house sale. Can you take them to the lawyer’s office to ……(sign)?
2. Look here, this is a secret. Come into the garden where we ……(not / overhear).
3. If you hadn’t been so late for work, you ……(sack).
4. This office is very inefficient. The telephone ……(never / answer) promptly, no proper records ……(keep), and, worst of all, no reports ……(written) for weeks.
5. I was so worried about my garden while I was in hospital, but I have very good neighbours. When I got home I could see that the vegetables ……(water) every day and grass ……(cut) regularly.
6. Can you come to the police station? The man who ……(suspect) of stealing your wallet …… (arrest), and …… (question) at the moment. The police hope he ……(identify), either by you or another witness.
7. We had hoped to see several famous paintings, but the gallery ……(re-organized) at the time of our visit and most of the really valuable works ……(move) for safe keeping.
Ex 6. Put the verbs into a suitable tense in the Passive.