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B. Read the text and do exercises after it

Education in the USA

Education in the USA is free and compulsory for children aged 5 through 16. The majority of children complete their high school education at grade 12 (age 17 or 18), but they can leave school at the age of 16.

There are two significant influences on American education which give it its present character, its size and its great variety on all levels. The first influence is legal, the second is cultural. The US does not have a national system of education. Education is considered a matter for the people of each state, as a result, each of the 50 states legislatures is free to determine its own system for its own public schools. State constitutions give actual administrative control of the public school to the local communities. School boards, made up of several individuals, elected from each community, oversee the school in each community.

The major result of this unusual situation is that there is an enormous amount of variety and flexibility on all levels of education. Today 88% of American children attend public (free) schools, and 12% go to private schools.

After high school, students seek vocational or technical training or enter a university.

Student must pay tuition for education, and some colleges are very expensive. Because of this, students work part-time or full-time, to help pay their tuition.

Tasks to the text:

Task l. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following Russian words and expressions:

- бесплатное и обязательное образование;

- ступень обучения, класс;

- две важные черты (американского образования);

- дело граждан каждого штата;

- законодательство;

- осуществлять административный контроль;

- контролировать школы;

- большое разнообразие и гибкость всех уровней образования;

- выбирать общее профессиональное или техническое образование;

- поступать в университет;

- работать по совместительству;

- степень бакалавра (бакалавриат);

- первокурсник;

- второкурсник;

- студент третьего курса;

- студент выпускного курса;

- после вузовское образование.

Task 2. Look through the text again and complete the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. American education is very flexible and various in its ... .

2. Each state's ... determines the curriculum and methodology of school.

3. A school board is a group of individuals, elected from the local....

4. Students who want to learn a trade, have to get some ... training.

5. All American universities are paid, but the size of the ... varies from one university to another.

6. If you want to make a good living you have to work ....

Task 3. For each word on a list find a suitable context in the following dialogue:

- confidence

- classics

- the commonest

- public

- sake

- institution

- boarding

- school

A Little More Gossip

- I hear that the new people at number thirty-five send their boy to a private ____ instead of the local school. What snobs they are!

- They are, aren't they? I wouldn't dream of sending my little boy away to some strange ______ for months on end every year. I think it's cruel.

- It is, isn't? It would break my heart every term. And the thing is that these private schools are often not as good as _______ state schools.

- They aren't, are they? My nephew only went to his local grammar school and he's just been awarded a scholarship to study _______at Oxford.

- The Williams only send their boy away for the _____. of appearances. They just like to show off.

- Yes, they do, don't they? Of course, some people say that a boarding-school education is good for children because it teaches them to have ____ in themselves and they learn to be less dependent on their parents .... But I think it only turns them into snobs.

- It does, doesn't it? Still, I don't know what I'll do with my Trevor next year. I don't want him to go to that big new school. The children of all ________ people in the area go there.

- Well, they're closing all the old schools. If you don't like the new state school, you'll just have to pay to send him to a private school, won't you?


C. Speak on Russian Education using the vocabulary and texts A and B. Here is a passage to help you. Add more details.

Образование в России

Система образования в России отличается скорее не по форме, а по содержанию. Как и в других странах мира, обучение начинается с поступления в начальную школу в 5-7 лет и фактически может продолжаться еще 10-15 лет в той или иной форме: это и средние профессиональные колледжи, институты и университеты, дающие высшее образование, и аспирантура, в которой проводятся диссертационные исследования, а дальше - самообразование.

Координационным центром, осуществляющим контроль над разными ветвями народного образования (а оно действительно народное в России), является Министерством образования Российской Федерации, которое издает документы, регламентирующие деятельность каждого образовательного учреждения в отдельности. С одной стороны, это дает возможность обеспечивать определенный уровень обучения, но с другой стороны, это является в некотором смысле тормозом, так как ограничивает самостоятельность образовательных структур и снижает их творческий потенциал…


D. Read the text.

Imperial College. London

The Imperial College of Science and Technology is one of the oldest and most important scientific institutes in England. It now forms part of the University of London, and fulfils the dual purpose of teaching students and fostering research in science and technology.

Imperial College began as the Royal College of Science in the middle of the nineteenth century, when it was realized that teaching and pursuing science and its applications was necessary to fully carry out the industrial revolution and keep Britain in the forepost of technological advance. Many famous scientists were associated with the early days of the College, for example Huxley and Wells. Prince Albert, the royal patron, also closely followed scientific work at the College. With the addition of the City and Guilds Institute and the Royal School of Mines/ Imperial College acquired large engineering facilities in addition to those for pure scientific research.

Today the main departments are: Physics (of which Professor Blockett is well known), Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Aeronautics, Mining Technology, Chemistry and Mathematics. A large new department is the Biochemical Department, headed by Professor Chain.

Imperial College is fortunate in having several new buildings with many excellent laboratories, and more are being built. A Computer Section develops the facilities of the College's two computers for the use of all departments. The College also has facilities outside London in a biological field station and a mining research station.

At the present time about 2000 students are studying at Imperial College for their first degree. There are also about 1000 research students, working for higher degrees and participating in the research work of the College. A large proportion of them are overseas students from many different countries. There is much excellent research work undertaken at Imperial College in a wide range of subjects. Now research groups include one working on traffic problems, an operational research group, and a history of science department.

Imperial College is still growing in size and numbers, and as an almost independent institution it rivals many other colleges of London University put together. It is possible that it will be associated with other institutes nearby, the Royal Schools of Art and Music, to develop into a separate University. In this way it is hoped to continue to train specialized scientists and engineers in a more varied cultural atmosphere than a university is supposed to embody.

Imperial College [im'piəriəl 'kolid ]

Royal College ['roiəl kolid ]

City and Guilds Institute ['siti ənd 'gildz 'institju:t]

Royal School of Mines ['roiəl 'sku:l əv 'mainz]

Civil Engineering ['sivil ˛en(d) i'n iəriŋ]

Aeronautics [εərano:tiks]

Mining Technology ['mainiŋ tek'noləd i]

Royal School of Art and Music ['roiəl 'sku:l əv 'a:t ənd 'mju:zik]

Task 1. Find the following expressions in the text and translate the following expressions into Russian

- to fulfill the dual purpose of

- to foster research in

- teaching and pursuing science

- to fully carry out

- to keep in the forepost

- department, faculty

- to be fortunate in having smth

- to study for the degree of

- research students

- to participate in the research work

- to undertake the research work

- to grow in size and numbers

- to rival other colleges

- to be associated with other colleges

- to develop into a separate University

- in a cultural atmosphere

Task 2. Make up your own sentences.


E. Read the text "Our Institute" and prepare to discuss it.


When I was still in the last grade of the secondary school the entire family flung itself into the task of solving the problem of my future education. Each member has his or her own idea of what was best for me. Mother thought that it was essential for me to learn foreign languages. Father was sure that I should be getting some sort of grounding in things like mathematics, engineering or economics. My elder brother tried to convince me to take law and the rest as he said will come later.

But they all agreed upon the fact that the sooner I start my education the better. As for me I was not sure about my future. I wanted first to get a really good knowledge of one or two European languages, for example English and German, and one Eastern language — Chinese, and then try for an economic degree. I'll try to explain why foreign languages and why the Chinese language particularly. I am sure that the increasing role of the Eastern economy and culture is obvious in the twenty-first century. So it is useful to take Chinese. At least, knowledge of foreign languages and foreign cultures is becoming more important nowadays. Now, in a period when we are reconstructing our economy, when there are many joint ventures with foreign companies operating in our country, we need a great number of specialists who know foreign languages. Besides, learning a language develops our mind and character because it takes intellectual effort, persistence and patience to comprehend a system different from that of a mother tongue. And whatever the purposes, for people knowledgeable in languages the world is definitely bigger and much more interesting than it is for those who not know any.

Some of my classmates decided to go to other cities to try their fortune there. But I think that it is always scaring for a school-leaver to live somewhere apart from the family. Besides, there are a lot of institutes in our town. We have the Medical Academy, the Zabaikalsky National Humanitarian University, the Chita National University, the Zabaikal Institute of the Siberian University of Entrepreneurship, the Chita Institute of Baikal National University of Economics and Law. I had some doubts about wanting to go this or that institute. My parents and I visited almost all of them and finally we chose the last one, as the Institute meets the diverse interests and needs of the freshmen. The Institute has three faculties – the Faculty of Economics, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Finance and Computer Science.

The faculty of Economics includes the following departments:

• World Economy,

• Commerce (Business Organization),

• State and Local Management

• Economic Theory

• Psychology of Personnel Management.


The Faculty of Law includes the departments of:

• Civil Law,

• Criminal Law


The faculty of Finance and Computer Science includes such departments as:

• Finance,

• Credit,

• Accounting and Auditing,

• Computer Science in Economics.


The Institute is dedicated to the discovery, development, communication, and application of knowledge in a wide range of academic and professional fields. It prepares students to assume roles of leadership, responsibility, and service to society. Founded in 1958 as a small educational branch of the Irkutsk Institute of National Economy, the Institute is one of the largest institutes in the Zabaikalsky Krai. In 2002 the name of the institute was changed to the Chita Institute of Baikal National University of Economics and Law to more accurately reflect its expanding role as a leader of teaching, research, and public service for the town and the Krai.

Admission to-this institute is selective and highly competitive. In considering freshmen applicants, the interview includes a review of the strength of the secondary school program and the grades earned in these courses, including letters of recommendations, test scores and extracurricular activities. Only the pick of the schools are able to pass the exams. The competition is stiff. As I've already mentioned, students here study Accounting, Computer Science in Economics, Finance, Management, Marketing, Law and World Economy. Competitive, highly technical, or labor intensive degree programs are portrayed as five-year courses. One may feel confident enough to tackle a heavy load his first semester. It is very important to the freshmen to get their feet on the ground and make good grades. Students have credits and exams at the end of each semester.

The location of the institute is very comfortable. It lies in the center of the town and it doesn't take much time to get to the institute from almost anywhere. It's a brick two-story building arranged in an angle. The Institute is a little world of its own. People are Institute's most valuable asset. The Institute strives to maintain an environment which encourages all students to achieve their personal and professional goals. In this environment, each person's individuality and contributions are respected.

So I enrolled in the Chita Institute of Baikal National University of Economics and Law. My parents were very pleased as they thought that I should get a really good knowledge of the organization of business not to mention the knowledge of two foreign languages. My father was very happy that I decided to follow in his footsteps.



Vocabulary 2:


to study for the diploma (degree) готовиться к получению диплома

to be fresh from school прямо со школьной скамьи

to get higher education получить высшее образование

two-shift system of studies 2-х сменная система обучения

the Institute is in session from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. институт работает

с 8 утра до 8 вечера

out-of-town students иногородние студенты

competition конкурс (для поступления в


to miss the lessons пропускать занятия

to give the lectures on читать лекции по...

I'm specializing in я специализируюсь в


to lecture on smth читать лекции по

to be popular with the students он пользуется уважением среди


dean декан

dean's office деканат

to take an exam сдавать экзамен

to pass an exam сдать экзамен

to fail at the exam (in English) провалить экзамен по

английскому языку

preliminary exam зачет

to be permitted to take an exam быть допущенным к экзамену

final examination государственный экзамен

crib шпаргалка

record book зачетная книжка

to have smth at one's finger tips знать все, как свои пять пальцев

to attend lectures on посещать лекции по


we are doing the Passive Voice мы проходим пассивный залог по

in grammar грамматике


the lecture (lesson) seemed лекция (урок), казалось,

to drag on for hours тянулась часами


I like (don't like) the way Мне нравится (не нравится),

he delivers lectures, (conducts lessons) как он читает лекции

(проводит занятия)

to hand in the diplomas вручать дипломы

tutor, supervisor куратор

to read up for the examinations,

to sit up for the examinations готовиться к экзаменам

second exam переэкзаменовка

to give a mark (a "five") поставить оценку (пятерку)

to feel somewhat tongue-tied чувствовать себя неуверенно

ignorant невежественный

stupid, dull тупой

I have no head for maths я плохо усваиваю


to lag behind in отставать (в учебе)

to learn with ease учиться легко

clever, smart, bright умный, способный


Training exercises

Ex.1. Choose the right expressions to describe the following situations.

a) at the examination

b) my first examination-time

c) my first lecture at the University

d) my first lesson of Chinese

e) my first English lesson at the University

f) my fellow-students

g) the subjects I am learning

h) my first day at the University.

Ex.2. Illustrate the following situations in the dialogues. Make use of the expressions from the list which are characteristic of colloquial speech:

well; just; so; ok; then; I see; A good idea! I guess; I think; I don't mind; All right! What about you? Well, you lead; I wouldn't mind; that'll do; I wouldn't mind doing; I'd rather; I'd better; Awfully nice! Good heavens!

a) A teacher and a student at the examination.

b) A teacher and some students at the lesson.

c) Two students after the exam.

d) Two students before the exam.

e) Two students are talking over the telephone about coming exams.

f) Two students are talking about their first impression of the University.

g) An interview of a youth's paper and some students are talking about the examination time, which has just finished.

F. Watch the Film “Family Album USA” (Episode 9 “It’s up to you”). Follow the directions in the Appendix “Traditions and Habits of American People.”

Topics for discussion:

1. The Role of Higher education at present.

2. The Most Successful System of Education (in my opinion).

3. The University of the Future.

4. If I were a Rector of the University.



Why do people travel?

I. Phonetic Training

1. Listen to the rhyme and repeat it after the speaker. Learn the rhyme by heart.

a) Never trouble trouble

Till trouble troubles you.

It only doubles trouble,

And troubles others too.

b) Solomon Grundy was born on Monday

Christed on Tuesday,

Married on Wednesday,

Fell ill on Thursday,

Died on Saturday,

Buried on Sunday,

That was the end of Solomon Grundy.

2. Read and learn tongue-twisters

a)Can you measure pleasure?

Pleasure is immeasurable.

If it were measurable

It wouldn’t be so pleasurable.


b) I thought a thought.

But the thought I thought wasn’t the thought I thought I thought.

If the thought I thought I thought had been the thought I thought,

I wouldn’t have thought so much.


3. Listen to the song. Learn it by heart and sing.


Karen and Alic Maywood


Come with me to Pasadena

Today at ten we will arrive

I have been in Pasadena

For a great deal of my life.


Come with me to Pasadena

If you want to have some fun

Watch the dancing seniorinas

In the heat of the sun.


When I woke up today

I heard someone say,

“Girl, it’s raining and

They’re expecting snow”


And this morning I knew

What I had to do

Take the next plane

And finally go.



Come with me to Pasadena

Today at ten we will arrive

I have been in Pasadena

For a great deal of my life.


Come with me to Pasadena

If you want to have some fun

Watch the dancing seniorinas

In the heat of the sun.


We are going to Greece

Take a trip to Paris

To escape from the

Stress and the strain


Saving money each day

There must be a way

To get out

In the gather again.



II. Grammar Revision


Future Tenses

Future Simpleобозначает факты и действия, относящиеся к будущему. Часто мы употребляем Future Simple, когда решение о выполнении действия, принято в момент речи.

Note: Мы употребляем сокращенную форму I’ll,he'll вместо I shall, he will.

E.g. I'll graduate from the Institute in 2012.

Did you phone Ruth? - Oh, no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.

Future Continuousобозначает действие, которое будет в развитии в определенный момент в будущем. Момент может быть обозначен другим действием или наречием (именно фразой).

E.g. 1) – Is it all right if I come at 8.30?

– No, I'll be watching the foot ball

2)At 10 o'clock tomorrow Sally will be working in her office.

3) When you come home I'll be passing by Newcastle on the train already.

Future Perfectупотребляется для обозначения действия, которое завершится к какому-то моменту в будущем. Момент также может быть обозначен другим действием или наречной (именной) фразой.

E.g. We are late. The fill will already have started by the time we arrive at the cinema.

Next year Ted and Amy will have been married for 25 years.

Future Perfect Continuousупотребляется для обозначения действия, которое предположительно будет длиться в течение какого-то периода времени в будущем и еще не закончится.

E.g. By 2010 I'll have been studying at the University for 3 years.

Note 1.

You remember that you can use Present Simple or Present Continuous to denote a future action. (See Unit ...).

You can also use the expression "to be going to" instead of the Future Tense. The difference is:

Present Continuousis used to denote a future action when it (future action) is planned, and it is likely to take place.

E.g. I can't come to the party. I'm meeting my mother at the station. (The action will not take place only if some emergency case occurs).

Present Simpleis used to denote a future action if it (future action) is scheduled, or takes place according to the timetable.

E.g. The train arrives in Manchester at 9.00 a.m.

To be going tois used to denote a future action when we have already decided to do smth but it may not take place.

E.g. We decided to have a party. We are going to invite a lot of people.

Cf. We decided to have a party. We are inviting our Boss.

Note 2.

The expression "to be going to" is also used to denote future happenings (when smth is going to happen, because of the situation "now").

E.g. Look at those black clouds. It is going to rain.

I feel terrible. I think, I'm going to be sick.

It's so slippery. I'm going to fall

Training exercises:


Ex.1. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

A Ben: Are you busy this week, Sam?

Sam: Not particularly. (1) I revise/I’m revising until Wednesday because I've got an exam, but (2) that only lasts/that is only lasting until midday and then I'm free.

В Pat: Oh dear, I've spilt my coffee.

Alan: (3) I get/I’ll get a cloth.

С Will: What time (4) does your evening class finish/is your evening class finishing?

Liz: Half past nine.

Will: (5) Shall I come/Do I come and collect you?

Liz: Thanks, but (6) I meet/I'm meeting my sister for a drink.

D Mike: Mum, (7) will you talk/are you talking to Dad for me?

Mum: What's the problem?

Mike: Last week he said I could use the car at the weekend but now (8) he doesn't let/he won't let me after all. I need it to get to the match (9) I play/I'm playing on Sunday.

Mum: OK. (10) I try/I'll try to make him change his mind. I expect (11) he's agreeing/he'll agree when I explain.

E Valerie: How soon (12) are you/will you be ready to leave?

Sophie: Oh I can't go out until (13) it will stop raining/it stops raining. I haven't got a coat.

Valerie: OK. I don't think (14) it goes/it will go on for long. (15) I tidy/I’ll tidy my desk while (16) we're waiting/we wait.

Ex.2. Complete the following conversation by expanding the sentences as shown.

Greg is taking to his personal assistant, Brian, about a business trip he is taking tomorrow.


Greg: Have you completed the arrangements for my trip yet, Brian?

Brian: Well, I've made the reservations, but there are still some details to confirm. (1) ...Your plane leaves... (Your plane/leave) at eight-thirty, so (2) _______ (I/collect) you from your house at six.

Greg: Six! (3)_______(I/have to) get up in the middle of the night.

Brian: I'm sorry, it's unavoidable. You have to check in by seven and I think (4) _______ (there/probably/be) a long queue.

Greg: Oh, very well. What about my meetings?

Brian: First, (5) ___________ (the Managing Director/come) to

the airport to meet you.

Greg: Good. (6) _____ (we/be) able to talk on the way to the


Brian: (7) ________ (the conference/not/open) until noon. (8)________ (I/make sure) you have a programme before you leave.

Greg: Thank you. (9) ________ (I/read) it on the plane, I expect. Now, let's get on with some of today's work!

Brian: By all means.


Ex.3. Put in the correct form of the verb.


Ann: Are you two going out?

Bill: Yes? Why?

Ann: It just said on the radio that (1)…it’s going to snow…(it/snow).

Bill: Oh, did it? I (2)…’ll take…(I/take) my big coat then.

Joe: Good idea. So (3)…will I… (I).



Colin: We’ve run out of biscuits.

Dave: Yeah, I know. (4)………………..(I/get) some this afternoon. I’ve got them on my list.



Ed: Jenny’s had her baby.

Gail: Really? That’s wonderful! (5)……………. (I/send) her some flowers.

Ed: (6)……………..(I/visit) her this afternoon. (7) ……………..(I/give) them to her for you if you want.

Gail: (8)………….(you)? Thanks very much. In that case, (9) ………………..(I/go) and buy them right away.



Ian: Casablanca is on at the Art Cinema this week.

Jill: Yes. (10)…………….(I/see) it with Roger.

Ian: Oh.



Ken: I haven’t got a clean shirt. (11)………………(you/wash) one for me?

Lily: No, (12)…………..(I/not). You can do your own washing.

Ex.4. Complete the conversations using the verbs given.

Mary and Nigel run a shop together. Monday

Mary: I don't know what (1) ... we/re going to... (we / do). We've hardly made any money for ages.

Nigel: I think we should advertise. We can send out leaflets.

Mary: Yes. (2) ...That will probably get... (that / probably / get) our name more widely

known. But do you think (3)... (people / come) into the shop?

Nigel: Well, we could try advertising in the local paper.

Mary: That might be better. (4). (I / phone) and find out their rates. And

what about local radio?

Nigel: Good idea. (5) (I / phone) them?

Mary: OK, thanks.


Mary: We haven't got enough money to pay for all the advertising we need. I've been in

touch with the bank. (6)............... (I / see) the manager on Friday.

Nigel: (7).................. (he / give) us a loan, do you think?

Mary: I hope so.


At the bank


Manager: So you want to borrow some money. How do want to spend it?

Mary: (8).................... (we / advertise) on local radio and in the paper. We've

planned it carefully. We only need £500.

Manager: Very well. (9) ………….(the bank / lend) you the money. But you must pay us back

in three months. Can you do that?

Mary: (10)........................ (we / do) it, I promise.

Manager: Now, go and see the loans clerk and (11) (he / help) you fill in the

necessary forms.
Mary: Thank you for your help.

Manager: You're welcome.

Ex.5. Read the situations and write what you would say in each case. Use will/shall, going to or the present continuous. There may be more than one correct answer for some situations, but remember that going to is usually used for actions that have already been decided on.

1. You make your friend a cup of sweet coffee, then she tells you she doesn't take sugar. Offer to make her another one. ...I'm sorry, I'll таке уои another one.. .

2. A colleague asks you why you've brought your sports kit to the office. Explain that you have arranged to play tennis after work........................................................................................

3. A friend asks about your holiday plans. Tell her that you've decided not to go abroad this year..........................................

4. Your brother lent you some money last week. Promise to pay him back at the weekend.

5. A friend is telling you about her wedding plans. Ask her where they plan to go for their honeymoon.......... ?

6. Your sister has bought some very cheap CDs. You want to get some too and you've asked her several times where she got them, but she refuses to tell you. Ask why she refuses to tell you.......................................................................... ?

7. Some friends have asked you to have lunch with them and then go to see a film. Agree to have lunch but refuse to go to the film because you've already seen it...................................

8. You failed an exam last year. Since then you've been working hard. Tell your teacher it's because you're determined not to fail again....................................................

9. Your neighbour is playing loud music late at night. You get angry and ask him to turn the volume down......................... ?

10.You've been offered the starring role in a Hollywood film and have accepted. Tell your friends about it.

Ex.6. Complete the following conversations by putting the verbs in the right tense.

A Mick is watching television when his sister Vanessa comes into the room.

Mick: What are you doing in your dressing-gown? It's only eight o'clock.

Vanessa: I don't feel very well. (1) ... I'm going to have... (I/have) an early night.

Mick: Oh, dear. I hope (2) ... you feel... (you/feel) better in the morning.

Vanessa: So do I. (3)................. (I/meet) my new boss at ten o'clock.

Mick: I think (4) ...................... (I/make) some tea when the news (5)

..................... (finish). (6)................. (I/bring) you a cup?

Vanessa: No, don't bother. (7)...... (I/try) and go straight to sleep. Thanks


Mick: OK. Sleep well.

В Sandy and Alison are students who have been sharing a flat. Sandy is leaving to do a

course abroad.

Sandy: It's hard saying goodbye after so long.

Alison: We must keep in touch. (8)..... (you/remember) to send me

your address when (9)................. (you/get) to the States?

Sandy: Of course. (10) ................. (I/probably/not/have) time next week,

because (11) .................... (my course/start) the day after (12)

.................... (I/arrive), and (13) .................... (I/spend) the

weekend with some old friends of my father's.
Alison: Well, you can phone.
Sandy: Yes, I guess so. Do you know what (14)......... (you/do) this

time next Sunday?

Alison: (15).................. (I/get) ready to go to London.

Sandy: OK. So, (16) ...................... (I/phone) about three o'clock next Sunday.
Alison: Great. (17).................... (I/wait) for your call.


Degrees of comparison

(adverbs and adjectives)

Прилагательные имеют три степени сравнения: положительную (positive) (tall, beautiful), сравнительную (comparative) (taller, more beautiful) и превосходную (superlative) (the tallest, the most beautiful).

Правила написания:

1) если прилагательное заканчивается на согласную, перед, которой стоит ударная гласная эта согласная, удваивается: thin – thinner – the thinnest.

2) если прилагательное заканчивается на -y, перед которой стоит согласная, -y меняется на –i: happy – happier – the happiest.


Положительная (positive) Сравнительная (comparative) Превосходная (superlative) Примечания
(a) big strong busy clever narrow simple polite severe bigger stronger busier cleverer narrower simpler politer severer the biggest the strongest the busiest the cleverest the narrowest the simplest the politest the severest Односложные и двусложные прилагательные оканчивающиеся на –y, -er, -ow, -le и прилагательные с ударением на последний слог.
(b) famous interesting more famous more interesting the most famous the most interesting Большая часть двусложных и многосложных прилагательных
(c) good bad many much little few better worse more     less the best the worst the most     the least Прилагательные составляющие исключения из правил


1. Прилагательные far и old имеют две формы сравнительной и превосходной степени:

Far – farther – the farthest (расстояние)

further – the furthest (время и расстояние)

Old – older – the oldest (выражает возраст, употребляется в конструкции с than)

elder – the eldest (о членах одной семьи)

2. Сравнительные конструкции:

a) as…as, not so … as, as … as possible (положительная степень прилагательного)

Ann’s brother is as tall as his father.

Ann’s brother is not so tall as his father.

Your letter must be as short as possible.

b) конструкция с than, the … the better (сравнительная степень прилагательного)

Ann’s brother is taller than she.

- Your letter is very short.

- The shorter the better.


III. Why Do People Travel?

Travel is not about getting from point A to point B. At best that's tourism – at worst transportation – across a more or less sterile landscape. Real travel is about soaking up the local flavor, getting a sense of other people's lives, and their history.

Never overlook the local people. They are always proud of their town, their county, their country, and their heritage. And every little town has a little something somewhere that's interesting, that you can only find through the local people. If you recognize them by being friendly and saying, "Hello, I'm not from around here," you'll be surprised what you get back in return. They'll often bend over backward to help, simply because you're not a typical Joe Blow tourist blowing through town. Shaun, Bandera, Texas

One of the many paths to enlightenment is the discovery of ourselves, and this can be achieved whenever one truly knows others who are different. Edward T. Hall, USA, from The Dance of Life

Travelling is almost like talking with men of other centuries. Rene Descartes, France


The act of travelling can be described by a number of synonyms. They all describe the act of going from one place to another (that is why they are synonyms), but differ by the length of time taken by that act, by its purpose, destination or by the methods of travelling.

Ex1. Give definitions to the following words using English-English dictionary:

travel (n.), journey (n.), voyage (n.), trip (n.), tour (n.), cruise (n.), hitch-hiking (n.).

Fill in appropriate words (consult the list of synonyms above):

1. I’d be delighted to go on a sea …, but my wife has never been a good sailor, so we can’t join you. 2. Last week we made a wonderful … to the mountains. It took us four hours by coach. 3. The Italian … was really exciting. We visited a number of wonderful towns and then returned to Rome. The … back to Moscow by railway took us about three days. 4. It is delightful to come ashore after a long … and to feel solid ground under one’s foot. 5. Many times on his long … in the depths of Africa, in the jungle of the Amazon he faced danger, starvation and death. 6. At the beginning of the last century going from Petersburg to Moscow was described as “…”. Now it is but a night’s … by a night train, a six hours’ … by daytrain or an air … of an hour and a half. 7. I’m just reading a very amusing book about a pleasure party making a Caribbean … in somebody’s yacht. 8. Young people are fond of … as a way of visiting new places and seeing things: it is cheap and gives one a feeling of freedom and infinite horizons. 9. I’m told you’re going on a … to the Far East. 10. They’re planning a … of some Baltic resorts. They’ve a new car, you know. 11. You’re looking pale. A … to the seaside will do you good.


Vocabulary 1:

booking-office, ticket-office luggage, baggage
cabin, compartment luggage-van
cargo-ship fare
engine locomotive porter
dining-car, dinner rough sea
sleeper, sleeping-car to sail, sailor
smoker (smoking-car) to call at a port
flight to go ashore
deck, on deck on shore
steamer to look inviting
platform a home-lover/ stay-at home/ a home-stay type
to go on a journey (trip, voyage, a package tour) guide
to travel by air (train, boat, cruiser, liner, etc.), to travel on foot local train
to change from train to boat (cruiser, liner). freight train
to be seasick, to be travelsick (in any kind of transport), to be airsick fast train, express train
single ticket direct/through train
return ticket  
to travel/go first (business, economy) class  
to be due at (a place)  

Training exercises:

Ex1. Translate the following into English:

1. В какие порты будет заходить «Победа»? Зайдет ли она в Дувр? 2. Я не очень люблю морские путешествия. Я плохо переношу море и всегда страдаю морской болезнью. 3. Сегодня вечером наш пароход зайдет в Неаполь. Там мы пересядем в поезд и завтра будем в Риме. 4. Он не мог позволить себе ехать на поезде. Плата за проезд была слишком высока. Домой он добирался пешком и на попутных машинах. 5. В прошлом месяце группа наших студентов совершила интересную поездку по Англии. 6. Море было бурное, и несколько дней пассажиры не выходили из кают. Некоторые из них накануне хвастали, что не знают, что такое морская болезнь. Но и они не показывались на палубе. 7. Свое первое путешествие он совершил на борту старого грузового судна, направлявшегося в Европу. 8. В поезде был всего лишь один спальный вагон, в котором не было ни одного свободного места. Вагона-ресторана не было совсем. Начало поездки нельзя было считать удачным. 9. У вас есть билет на поезд прямого назначение? Терпеть не могу пересадок, особенно если много багажа.


Vocabulary 2:



1. … is … traveling by • train 2. It is
• plane • quick
• car/coach • cheap
• ship • comfortable
on • foot • safe
3. You are sure to 4. You can
• have fun • watch the beautiful scenes the land bellow you
• enjoy speed •enjoy fresh (sea) air
• enjoy safety • stop when and where you want
• get pleasure • admire the beauty of Nature
• have good time • go on excursions
• enjoy comfort • meet different people
5. It is not at all 6. All you need is:
• dangerous • to book a ticket
• expensive • to take a through train
• tiring • to get a cabin
• troublesome • a rucksack
7. Of course it is not pleasant if 8. But still I find it
• the weather is bad • fascinating
• you fly above the clouds • enjoyable
• your companion is a bore • fantastic
• you got lost • useful
• you ride on a bumpy road • exciting

Training exercises:

Ex 1. Respond to the statements below to say about yourself. Choose the answer from the table; you may use the examples in the box.

· The best way of travelling is travelling by ship.
· I also think that travelling by ship is the best way of travelling.
· Hitchhiking is cheap and safe.
· As for me, I don’t think that hitchhiking is cheap and safe at all. It’s dangerous and tiring.

· Travelling by plane is quick and comfortable.

· Travelling by ship you are sure to get pleasure and to enjoy comfort.

· Travelling on foot you can stop when and where you want and watch the beautiful scenes.

· Travelling by bus is very tiring.

· Travelling by train is cheap. It’s not at all expensive. All you need is to book a ticket and to take a through train.

· Travelling by ship you can enjoy fresh sea air and admire the beauty of Nature.

· Travelling by plane is fascinating. But it’s not pleasant if the weather is bad or you fly above the clouds.

· Travelling by car is not at all troublesome. You’re to have a good time and to enjoy safety. But it’s not pleasant if you ride a bumpy road.

· Travelling on foot is good foe health an d cheap. All you need is a rucksack. But it’s not pleasant if you got lost.

· Travelling by ship is fantastic. But it’s not pleasant if you’re sea-sick.

· Travelling by train is not at all dangerous. You’re to get pleasure and to enjoy safety. But it’s not pleasant if your companion is a bore.

· Hitchhiking is useful and enjoyable. You can go on excursions and meet different people.



Ex 2. Agree or disagree with the following statements; the examples in the box may be helpful:

· Travelling by plane is the greatest way of travelling.
· You’re right. Traveling by plane is the greatest way of traveling indeed.


· Travelling on foot is the quickest way of traveling.
· No, you’re wrong. Traveling on foot isn’t the quickest way of traveling at all. Traveling by plane is the quickest way of traveling.

1. Travelling on foot is the cheapest way of travelling.

2. Travelling by car is rhe slowest way of travelling.

3. Travelling by car is more comfortable than travelling on foot.

4. Travelling by train is more dangerous than travelling by plane.

5. Travelling by ship is cheaper than travelling by plane.

6. Travelling by plane is the cheapest way of travelling.

7. Travelling bu plane is quicker than hitchhiking.

8. Travelling on foot is more expensive than travelling by coach.

9. Travelling by train is slower than travelling by car.

10. Hitchhiking is more comfortable than travelling by plane.

11. Travelling by train is safer than travelling by plane.

12. Travelling by plane is the fastest way of travelling.

13. Travelling by car is more useful than travelling on foot.

14. Travelling by ship is the most expensive way of travelling.

15. Travelling by plane is the most tiring way of travelling.

Ex 4. If the vehicle and the verb can be used together, tick the correct space in the table.

  car bicycle boat/ship bus motorbike plane taxi train
get into/get out of                
get on/get off                

Ex 5. Imagine that you work for a travel agency. You must provide your clients with exhaustive information. Write about advantages and disadvantages of each way of travelling.

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