B. Living Standards (discussion)
1. Let’s have a talk about the living standards. The following questions will help you. While discussing the problem make use of the words and expressions given below.
1. How can you define “the standard of living”?
2. What does it depend on?
3. What are its important factors?
4. What is your family budget?
5. What is your parents’ monthly salary? (How much do they earn a month before (after) tax)
6. How much does your family spend on rent and the bills, on their car, book, entertainment, clothes, food, tuition, holidays, etc.
7. Do you think your family’s standard of living is high or low?
Words and expressions to be used in answers to the questions:
living standard, the balance between, monthly, salary, a salary before tax, a salary after tax, to spend money on smth, rent, public transport fees, foodstuffs, consumer goods, family budget, to pay the bills).
1. The Russian people are considered to be very hospitable. What hospitability is? Are you a hospitable host?
These words characterize a hospitable person: A hospitable person is always:
A hospitable person is always ready:
- receive guests
- to give them a hearty welcome
- to make the quests feel at home
- to encourage the guests
- to entertain the guests
- to treat the guests to smth tasty
- to keep the ball rolling
Besides, a hospitable person must show:
That’s why in the presence of a hospitable person you never feel:
You never find a hospitable person:
No matter how a hospitable person feels and how busy she/he is, you always find a hearty welcome and generous reception.
2. Do you agree with these rules of hospitality? What other qualities of a hospitable person can you mention? Are the laws of hospitality the same or different in different countries. Can you give any examples? Here are some prompts to you.
- In my country usually we invite guests home at the weekend, in the early evening, about seven o’clock. The guests usually bring presents. You can see that in our country you should try to be modest and you shouldn’t show off too much. When we have foreign guests we try to serve traditional meals like sushi, tempura, or sukiyaki. When guests leave, the host and hostess see them out of the house.
- I usually invite my friends for an informal meal. I cook Spanish omelette, which is made with potatoes, onions and eggs, fried in olive oil. Then we have things like cheese, ham which is called Jabugo. And then things like olives, anchovies, mussels. We drink wine or beer. Some people may bring a bottle of wine or something for pudding. We usually meet late in the evening. Of course we dress casually” we just want to be relaxed and comfortable, and talk and laugh together.
- I’m from Texas. Sometimes when our family gets together with other families, we have what is called a ‘pot luck supper’, which can take place in the evening or even at lunchtime. This is an informal occasion held perhaps in the garden, so people dress casually but nicely. Invitations can be written or made by phone, and each person is asked to bring a dish of food. Guests are given a choice of salad or vegetables, or dessert. The hostess doesn’t know exactly what the guests will bring. It is a lovely surprise – to hold a dinner party without knowing what you are going to feed your guests. As the guests arrive, they put their dish on the table and drinks are provided. Some guests might bring a bottle of wine as a present. I really enjoy this kind of entertaining – it’s fun.
D. Watch the film “Family Album” (Episodes 7 “Man’s Best Friend”, 11 “A Place of one’s own”). Follow the directions in the Appendix “Traditions and Habits of American People.”
Topics for discussion
1. To buy a house isn’t easy in this country.
2. My parents and me are very hospitable hosts.
3. Imagine that you have a house to let. What can you suggest to your tenants?
4. The living standard. What is it? The living standard of my family.
5. You are a real estate agent. What houses can you suggest to your clients.
6. The house of my dream.
HEALTH and WELLNESS
I. Phonetic training
1. Listen to the rhyme and repeat it after the speaker:
Why do you cry Willy? When the wind is in the East
Why do you cry? Tis neither good for man nor beast,
Why Willy, why Willy, When the wind is in the North
Why Willy why? The skillful fisher goes not forth,
Whenever we meet you When the wind is in the South
There’s a tear on your eye, It blows the bait in the fish’s mouth
Why Willy, why Willy, When the wind is in the West
Why Willy, why? Then tis at the very best.
2. Learn the tongue-twisters:
A big black bug Swan swam over the sea,
Beat a big black bear, Swim, swan, swim!
A big black bear Swan swam back again,
Beat a big black bug. Well swum, swan!
3. Listen to the song, learn it and sing.
A Ring, A Ring, O’roses
A ring, a ring o’roses
A pocket full of poses.
Jump down, jump down!
All fall down.
The king has sent his daughter
To fetch a pail of water
Jump down, jump down!
All fall down.
The robin’ on the steeple
Is singing to the people
Jump down, jump down!
All fall down.
The wedding bells are ringing,
The boys and girls are singing.
Jump down, jump down!
All fall down.
II. Grammar Revision
Прошедшее время в английском языке образуется прибавлением окончания -ed к основе глагола (у правильных глаголов) или употребляется вторая форма неправильных глаголов (см. таблицу неправильных глаголов).
E.g. clean – cleaned
watch – watched
want – wanted
Note: Обратите внимание на чтение окончания -ed:
[t] – после глухих согласных (stop – stopped [stopt]
[d] – после звонких согласных и гласных (disturb – disturbed [dis'tə׃bd],play – played [pleid])
[id] – после t и d (want – wanted [wontid]
decide – decided [di'saidid]).
Прошедшее время обозначает действия, относящиеся полностью к сфере прошлого и не имеющих связи с настоящим.
Past Simple – прошлые факты или последовательность действий в прошлом.
E.g. The Second World War started on the 1st of September 1939.
Past Continuous – действия в развитии в какой-то момент в прошлом, который может быть обозначен наречием, наречным сочетанием или именной фразой, а также другим действием.
E.g. I looked out of the window and saw that smb was going along the path towards the house.
Past Perfect – действия, предшествующие другому прошедшему действию. E.g. When I arrived at the station, my train had already left.
Past Perfect Continuous – это действие продолжалось в течение какого-то периода времени в прошлом.
E.g. Wehad been talking for 3 hours before she offered me tea.
Note 1 USED TO
Выражение "'used to" относится исключительно к сфере прошлого и обозначает какое-либо действие, которое регулярно повторялось или постоянно производилось в прошлом, в настоящее время это действие не имеет места.
E.g. I used to play tennis when I was a child. Now I don't enjoy it.
He used to live next door to us. (How we are not neighbours).
Mind the expressions where the Past Perfect and Past Simple are used. Try to memorize them.
E.g. No sooner had I entered the room than smb rushed at me.
Hardly had I uttered a word when Mr.Zomby exclaimed "I know that!"
Ex.1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: simple past or past continuous.
1. He (sit) on the bank fishing when he (see) a man's hat floating down the river. It (seem) strangely familiar.
2. It (snow) heavily when he (wake) up. He (remember) that Jack (come) for lunch and (decide) to go down to the station to meet him in case he (lose) his way in the snowy lanes.
3. When I (reach) the street I (realize) that I (not know) the number of Tom's house. I (wonder) what to do about it when Tom himself (tap) me on the shoulder.
4. As the goalkeeper (run) forward to seize the ball a bottle (strike) him on the shoulder.
5. I (look) through the classroom window. A geometry lesson (go) on. The teacher (draw) diagrams on the blackboard.
6. Most of the boys (listen) to the teacher but a few (whisper) to each other, and Tom (read) a history book. Tom (hate) mathematics; he always (read) history during his mathematics lesson.
7. Everyone (read) quietly when suddenly the door (burst) open and a complete stranger (rush) in.
8. I (go) to Jack's house but (not find) him in. His mother (say) that she (not know) what he (do) but (think) he probably (play) football.
9. This used to be a station and all the London trains (stop) here. But two years ago they (close) the station and (give) us a bus service instead.
10. She (promise) not to report me to the police but ten minutes later I (see) her talking with a policeman and from the expression on his face I am sure she (tell) him all about it.
Ex.2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
1. He (give) me back the book, (thank) me for lending it to him and (say) that he (enjoy) it very much; but I (know) that he (not read) it because most of the pages (be) still uncut.
2. When he (see) his wife off at the station, he (return) home as he (not have) to be at the airport till 9.30. 3 He (not have) to pack, for his wife already (do) that for him and his case (be) ready in the hall. 4 He (not have) to check the doors and windows either, for his wife always (do) that before she (leave) the house. 5 All he (have) to do (be) to decide whether or not to take his overcoat with him. In the end he (decide) not to. 6 At 8.30 he (pick) up his case, (go) out of the house and (slam) the door behind him. 7 Then he (feel) in his pockets for the key, for his wife (remind) him to double-lock the front door. 8 When he (search) all his pockets and (find) no key he (remember) where it (be). 9 He (leave) it in his overcoat pocket. 10 Then he (remember) something else; his passport and tickets (be) in his overcoat pocket as well.
3. I (arrive) in England in the middle of July. I (be told) that England (be) shrouded in fog all year round, so I (be) quite surprised to find that it was merely raining. 12 I (ask) another passenger, an Englishman, about the fog and he (say) that there (not be) any since the previous February. 13 If I (want) fog, he said, I (come) at quite the wrong time. 14 However, he (tell) me that I could buy tinned fog at a shop in Shaftesbury Avenue. 15 He (admit) that he never (buy) fog there himself but (assure) me that they (sell) good quality fog and that it (not be) expensive. I suppose he was joking.
4. When the old lady (return) to her flat she (see) at once that burglars (break) in during her absence, because the front door (be) open and everything in the flat (be) upside down. 17 The burglars themselves (be) no longer there, but they probably only just (leave) because a cigarette was still burning on an ornamental table. 18 Probably they (hear) the lift coming up and (run) down the fire escape. 19 They (help) themselves to her whisky too but there (be) a little left, so she (pour) herself out a drink. 20 She (wonder) if they (find) her jewellery and rather (hope) that they had. 21 The jewellery (be given) her by her husband, who (die) some years before. 22 Since his death she (not have) the heart to wear it, yet she (not like) to sell it.
Ex.3. Complete the following conversation using the verbs supplied.
Jean has called to see her boyfriend Gary.
GARY: Jean, I'm surprised to see you.
JEAN: Well, I think you owe me an explanation.
GARY: Me? What about you?(l) I saw(I/see) you in the cafe last night. (2) We hadarranged (we/arrange) to meet at the cinema, if you remember.
JEAN: So why (3) didn't you come (you / not / come) into the cafe if you saw me?
GARY: (4)___________ (I/be) too angry. And cold. (5)_________________ (I/wait) outside the cinema for three-quarters of an hour.
JEAN: But why? (6)____________(you/not/get) my note?
GARY: What note?
JEAN: The note (7)_________(I/leave) here yesterday afternoon. When
(8)__________(I/go) past the cinema yesterday lunchtime (9)_________(I/notice) that (10)____________(they/change) the film. So (11)__________(I/put) a note under your door to tell you.
GARY: (12)________ (I/not/find) any note.
JEAN: It must be here. Let me look. Yes. Oh dear. I'm afraid (13)_________(it/slip) under the mat.
GARY: Oh. I'm sorry I was angry. It's just that, well, while (14)_________(I/wait), I was worried about (15)_________ (what/happen) to you. And then, (16)_________(I/see) you in the cafe. (17)__________(you/laugh) with your friends and (18)_______(I/realize) that (19)________(you/sit) there quite comfortably with them all evening. (20)_________(I/just/lose) my temper.
JEAN: Never mind. Let's forget it. Where shall we go now?
Ex.4. Supply suitable verbs for the following conversation.
Ann is getting ready to leave her office. A colleague, John, comes into the room.
JOHN: Oh, Ann, I'm glad I've caught you. Can you stay on and help us finish some work?
You remember the new client I (1) was telling you about yesterday? Well, we've got to do a presentation to her tomorrow.
ANN:................................. But I (2)_____just______.
JOHN: You don't have to go, do you, though? You (3)_________ your shopping at lunchtime, (4)_________(not) you?
ANN:................................. And now I want to go home.
JOHN:............................... Oh, come on Ann, please. It'll only be for an hour.
ANN: That's what you (5) ________last time. I (6)____________ letters for two hours, when I (7) ______ nearly them all, you (8)_____________me do half of them again because you (9)___________(not) me the right address file, so I (10)__________them all wrong!
JOHN: OK, if that's how you feel about it. But next time you need help, don't be surprised if I remind you that you (11)_____________to help me!
Ex.5. Complete these sentences with use(d) to... + a suitable verb.
1. Dennis gave up smoking two years ago. He ...used to smoke... 40 cigarettes a day.
2. Liz................. a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car.
3. We came to live in Manchester a few years ago. We in Nottingham.
4. I rarely eat ice cream now but I... it when I was a child.
5. Jim.............. my best friend but we aren't friends any longer.
6. It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work since the new road was opened. It more than an hour.
7. There........... a hotel opposite the station but it closed a long time ago.
8. When you lived in London,....... to the theatre very often?
Ex.6. Compare what Carol said five years ago and what she says today:
FIVE YEARS AGO TODAY
I'm a hotel receptionist. My dog died two years ago.
I travel a lot. I eat lots of cheese now.
I play the piano. I work very hard these days.
I'm very lazy. I don't know many people these days.
I don't like cheese. I work in a bookshop now.
I've got a dog. I don't go away much these days.
I've got lots of friends. I read a newspaper every day now.
I never read newspapers. I haven't been to a party for ages.
I don't drink tea. I haven't played the piano for years.
I go to a lot of parties. Tea's great! I like it now.
Now write sentences about how Carol has changed. Use used to/didn't use to /never used to in the first part of your sentence.
1. She used to travel a lot but she doesn’tt go away much these days....
2. She used......... but.............................................
Ex. 7. Now write true sentences about yourself, using used to or didn't use to do 2-3 years ago and what you don't or do now.
Model: I used to go on holidays with my parents, but now I go with my friends.
III. Health and Wellness
cheerful long walks
to be well to take a cold shower
a vegetarian some vitamins
on a diet
in good health fruit and vegetables
to keeponeself clean to eat healthy food
the world clean
inner peace insomnia
a good rest to suffer fromweakness
a positive attitude memory loss
to have good sleep to havesome tests
a good self image cough
a good family injection
many friends flu
love bad pain
to have sore throat to test one’sblood
earache to take syrup
to eat fatty food
take away food
emotional epidemic disease
Ex 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements; the examples bellow may be helpful.
– If you want to live to 100 you should keep fit and eat healthy food.
– I can’t but agree with you. If you want to live to 100 you should keep fit and eat healthy food.
– To be healthy means to eat fatty foods.
– I’m afraid you are wrong. To be healthy means to eat different fruit and vegetables.
1. To be well means to be spiritually, mentally and physically healthy.
2. If you don’t want to have a toothache you should visit the dentist twice a year.
3. Children are usually afraid of injections.
4. If you got sick, don’t consult the doctor.
5. Healthy food means ice cream, cakes, bread and sweets.
6. If you want to keep in good health don’t keep negative feelings. Try to develop a positive attitude.
7. A health freak (a person who thinks only of his/her health) gets up late, takes drugs and alcohol and is fond of take away food.
8. To be healthy means to keep oneself clean, to take long walks and to be on a diet.
9. To be on a diet is dangerous for your health.
Ex 2. Fill the gaps with words related to the words in capitals.
Children often pick up ______________ disease at school. INFECT
Our family doctor could find nothing wrong with me, so I had to go to see a_________________. SPECIAL
Even though forty cars were involved in the accident, there were no serious _______________. INJURE
Before going abroad I had to have seven ______________. INJECT
Afterwards my arm was ________________ for several days. PAIN
A. Read the text and do the given tasks.
Get acquainted with Henry!
Henry is a clerk in an office in town. He’s also a health freak. He wants to live to be a hundred, so health is very important to him.
He gets up at five o’clock in the morning and lifts weights for thirty minutes. For breakfast he eats spinach and a raw egg with garlic and chilli pepper. It tastes disgusting, but he thinks it’s good for him. Then he runs for an hour in the park, even if the weather is bad. He leaves for work at seven o’clock/ he never goes by bus or by train and he thinks that cars are extremely dangerous. So he walks everywhere – with a mask over his nose and mouth. He also wears a uniform which he designed to protect himself from dust and dirt.
At the office he washes his hands ten times a day and he wears gloves to pick up the telephone in case it’s dirty. He takes his lunch to work with him. He eats fifteen sunflower seeds and one onion. He is sure that the lunch which the firm provides isn’t good for him.
After work he rushes home to water the plants. He has hundreds of plants because they provide oxygen. In the evening he sometimes listens to the radio, but he never watches television because it might damage his eyesight.
On Monday he goes to a deep breathing class and on Thursdays he goes to a vegetarian cookery class. He rarely goes to the cinema or to the theatre – there are far too many germs (a small living thing which can make you ill). He goes to bed early. In summer he sleeps in a tent in the garden. At the weekend he goes camping in the country, but he never sits in the sun. on the first day of every month he goes to the doctor’s, just to make sure that he isn’t ill. After all, he doesn’t want to find himself in hospital.
Task 1. What about you? Make a list of ten differences between your lifestyle and Henry’s. The example below can be helpful:
I don’t lift weights before breakfast.
I don’t _________________________________________________
Besides I don’t ___________________________________________
More than that I never _____________________________________
Task 2. Work with a friend. Henry is giving an interview for a health magazine. Imagine that you are Henry and the interviewer. Ask and answer 10 questions about Henry’s routine and lifestyle. For example:
Interviewer: What do you have for breakfast?
Henry: I always have spinach for breakfast.
Interviewer: What time do you go to bed?
Henry: I never go to bed later than 9 o’clock.
Task 3. More about Henry