Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous
1. Форма Present Perfect образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to have в Present Simple (т.е. have/has) плюс третья форма основного глагола.
У правильных глаголов третья форма образуется от основы глагола прибавлением окончания –ed, а неправильные глаголы образуют эту форму особым образом (см.табл. неправильных глаголов в Приложении.).
При употреблении формы Present Perfect необходимо помнить, что она обозначает прошедшее действие (и переводится на русский язык глаголами в прошедшем времени), но ситуативно всегда связана с настоящим временем, т.е. результат действия выраженного этой формой актуален в настоящем времени.
E.g. Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.
В данном случае эта связь с настоящим осуществляется за счет ситуации в настоящем времени – у Тома нет ключа (как результат потери его).
E.g He told me his name but I have forgotten it. – На настоящий момент (сейчас) я не помню его имени, хотя когда-то в прошлом он мне называл свое имя.
E.g I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? Здесь связь вопроса с настоящим в ситуации – подтексте: ты не знаешь, где она сейчас?
В предложениях типа:
– Oh, I have (I’ve) cut my finger!
– The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.
Связь с настоящим в том, что это – сообщение о событиях, имеющих место недавно.
(Я порезал палец, вот он, мне нужен антисептик сейчас.
Полиция арестовала двоих в связи с ограблением, о котором в настоящий момент все знают).
Таким образом, контекст (явный или скрытый) подскажет вам, что прошлое действие связано с настоящим и требуется употребление формы Present Perfect.
Note 1. Наречия, сопутствующие форме Present Perfect – just («только что», «как раз»), already («уже»), yet («еще нет» в отрицательных предложениях и в вопросительных – «уже»).
E.g. Would you like something to eat? – No, thanks, I’ve just had lunch. (В подобных предложениях необходимо обратить внимание на двойное употребление глагола “have” – в первом случае – это вспомогательный глагол, во втором – причастие II основного глагола).
E.g Don’t forget to post the letter. – I have already posted it. (В этом случае “already” обозначает, что действие свершилось раньше, чем ожидалось).
E.g Has it stopped raining yet? (Дождь уже перестал? – говорящий ожидает, что какое-то событие должно скоро произойти и спрашивает об этом.)
I haven’t posted the letter. (Я еще не отослал письмо. – действие ожидаемое, но не выполненное).
Note 2.Не путайте “yet” и “still” в отрицательных предложениях. “Still”, так же как и “yet” употребляется, когда действие еще не завершено и переводится с помощью русского языка «все еще», но наречие “still” более эмоционально и выражает не только то, что действие все еще не имеет места, но и включает в себя эмоциональный компонент удивления и нетерпения.
E.g. She said she would be here an hour ago, and she still hasn’t come. Ей следовало быть здесь час назад, а ее до сих пор нет. (И неизвестно придет или нет, говорящий недоволен).
I wrote him last week. He hasn’t replied yet. (Говорящий ждет, что на его письмо скоро ответят).
2. Present Perfect Continuousупотребляется в английском языке, когда говорящий заинтересован в процессе действия, нежели в его завершении к настоящему моменту, независимо от того, завершено оно или нет и, как правило, данное действие продолжалось в течение какого-то периода времени и, чаще всего, продолжается и в настоящий момент (хотя оно может быть завершено, но на время). На русский язык оно переводится только настоящим временем.
E.g. My hands are dirty. I have been repairing my car. (Руки – грязные, я ремонтирую машину.)
Период времени часто обозначен в предложении с помощью обстоятельств с предлогами for, during, since.
E.g. I have been repairing my car since early morning. Я ремонтирую машину с раннего утра. (Утро еще не закончилось.)
I have been repairing it for 2 hours already. – Я ремонтирую ее уже 2 часа. (Прервался только на несколько минут.)
1.– What’s happened? Your finger is bleeding.
- I have been cutting the onions and I’ve cut my finger.
- Что случилось? У тебя кровь на пальце.
- Я режу лук (действие еще не закончено) и порезал палец (результат налицо).
2.– I’ve already cut the onions, what shall I do next? (Я порезал лук, что делать дальше?)
Ex.1. Compare the use of Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Is your brother at home? – Sorry, no. He has gone to New York.
2. Why are you crying? – Don’t worry. It’s only because I’ve been chopping onions.
3. You’re looking very smart. – Thanks. I’ve been to the hairdresser.
4. You look dreadfully tired. – Yes, I am. I’ve been doing an exam all morning.
5. Can you give me a lift to work? – I’m afraid, I can’t. I’ve sold my car recently.
6. Why do you want the antiseptic? – Because I’ve cut my finger.
7. You dance much better than you used to. – Thank you. Actually, I’ve been attending the dancing classes.
8. Can I have a piece of cake? – Oh, I’m so sorry, I’ve eaten it all.
Ex.2. Use the words given to complete the sentences. Put the verbs in the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous.
1. John’s terribly upset. ...He’s broken... (he/break) off his engagement to Megan. Apparently ... she’s been seeing… (she/see) someone else while ...he’s been… (he/be) in Africa.
2. Can you translate this note from Stockholm? I understood Swedish when I was a child, but __________________ (I/forget) it all.
3. What’s that dent in the side of the car? ____________ (you/have) an accident?
4. I’m sorry, John’s not here; ______________ (he/go) the dentist. ____________ (he/have) trouble with a tooth.
5. This cassette recorder is broken. _____________(you/play) with it?
6. Your Italian is very good. ________________ (you/study) it long?
7. Do you mind if I clear the table? ______ (you/have) enough to eat?
8. I’m not surprised _______________ (he/fail) that exam. _______ (he/not/work) hard recently.
9. Oh no! __________ (the children/cook). Look at the state of this kitchen!
10. How many times __________ (Wendy/be) late for work this week?
11. I’m going to give that cat some food. _______ (it/sit) on the doorstep for hours. I’m sure it’s starving.
12. _____________ (I/do) grammar exercises all morning. I deserve a treat for lunch.
13. ______________ (you/not/buy) your mother a present? That’s really mean of you!
14. I saw Katie yesterday. __________ (she/work) in Australia for the past year. Did you know?
15. Now where are my keys? This is the third time _______ (I/lose) them today!
16. __________ (you/ever/play) chess? You should try it. I’m sure it’s the sort of game you’d like.
17. Oh do be quiet. ____________ (you/grumble) all day!
18. __________________ (your tennis/really/improve)! __________ (you/practices) in secret?
Ex.3. Put the verb into the correct form: Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous.
1. Where have you been? …Have you been playing… (you/play) tennis?
2. Look! Somebody _________________ (break) that window.
3. You look tired. ____________________ (you/work) hard?
4. ‘_____________ (you/ever/work) in a factory?’ ‘No, never’.
5. ‘Jane is away on holiday’. ‘Oh, is she? Where _________ (she/go)?
6. My brother is an actor. He ____________(appear) in several films.
7. ‘Sorry I’m late’. ‘That’s all right. I ___________ (not/wait) long’.
8. ‘Is it still raining?” ‘No, it _____________ (stop)’.
9. I __________ (lose) my address book. _______ (you/see) it anywhere?
10. I __________ (read) the book you lent me but I _____ (not/finish) it yet.
11. I _________ (read) the book you lent me, so you can have it back now.
Ex.4. Complete the sentences with one of the verbs in the box in a suitable form. Be careful – some of them are negative. Compare the use of the Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous and Present Continuous.
1. I’m afraid I …I haven’t finished… typing those letters. I’ve been dealing… with customers all morning.
2. That jacket really __________ you. How long ______ you _______ your own clothes?
3. Thank you, but I really__________ any more juice. I _________ Two large glasses already.
4. I can’t find my watch. _________ you ____________ it recently?
5. Paul ___________ from earache since the weekend. He ________ to the doctor twice, but it’s still not better.
6. We __________ why Sara is upset, but she ________ to us for ages.
7. Why ________ you _________ at me? I suppose you _____ a woman on a motorbike before.
Ex.1. Choose the right jobs from the list.
Dancer, farmer, doctor, maths teacher, stuntman, writer, secretary, mechanic.
1. She likes maths and she likes working with children. I think she’ll be a good __________________.
2. He likes animals and he would like to live in the country. I think he could be a good __________________.
3. She would like to work in a hospital and help people to get better. I think she’ll be a good __________________.
4. He likes working with his hands and is good et repairing things. I think he could be a good __________________.
5. He’s not afraid of anything and he’d like to do something exciting. I think he could be a __________________.
6. She is a good typist; she likes writing letters and she would like to work in an office. I think she’ll be a __________________.
7. She loves music and she loves dancing. She would like to be famous. I’m sure she’ll be a ________________.
8. She likes writing and is a very good storyteller. I’m sure she’ll be a very good_______________.
Ex.2. Write down at least one job that would probably be impossible for these people.
1. Someone who didn’t go to the university.
2. Someone who cannot see very well.
3. Someone who is always seasick on a boat.
4. Someone who understands nothing about cars.
5. Someone who will not work in the evenings or at weekends.
6. Someone who is afraid of dogs.
7. Someone who is afraid of heights and high places.
8. Someone who is terrible at numbers and figures.
9. Someone who can’t stand the sight of blood.
10. Someone who is a pacifist, who is anti-war.
Ex.3. Whose jobs these things belong to?
1. board – overhead projector – chalk
2. make-up – script – microphone
3. scalpel – mask – forceps
4. tractor – plough – barn
5. computer – filing cabinet – stapler
6. sewing machine – scissors – needle
A. Read the text and prepare to discuss it.
Choosing an Occupation
One of the most difficult problems a young person faces is deciding what to do about a career. There are individuals, of course, who from the time they are six years old “know” that they want to be doctors or pilots or fire fighters, but the majority of us do not get around to making a decision about an occupation or career until somebody or something forces us to face the problem.
Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things you have to think about as you try to decide what you would like to do. You may find that you will have to take special courses to qualify for a particular kind of work, or may find out that you will need to get some actual work experience to gain enough knowledge to qualify for a particular job.
Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice and help in making your decision. At almost schools, there are teachers who are professionally qualified to counsel you and to give detailed information about job qualifications. And you can talk over your ideas with family members and friends who are always ready to listen and to offer suggestions. But even if you get other people involved in helping you make a decision, self evaluation is an important part of the decision-making process.
Tasks to the Text
Task 1. Give English equivalents to the following Russian words and phrases. Find the sentences with them in the text and make up the sentences of your own in analogy.
столкнуться с проблемой обнаружить
пожарный приобрести знания
большинство из нас обсудить
выбор профессии привлечь других людей
обладать квалификацией для определенной работы
Task 2. Answer the questions. Use the text to help you to answer the questions. Give reasons for your answers
1. What is the most difficult problem for young people when they are about to leave school?
2. Why don the majority of young people hesitate what profession to choose?
3. When do they make a decision about an occupation?
4. What things do you have to think about when choosing an occupation?
5. What should one do to qualify for a particular job?
6. Whom can you turn to for advice when making a decision?
7. What is the most important part of the decision-making process?
baby sitter housepainter
bank teller live-in-companion
barber/hair stylist manager
bus driver pharmacist
computer programmer railroad conductor
construction worker receptionist
doctor security guard
electrician sewing machine operator
employment counselor travel agent
Ex.1. Study the list and think of corresponding personal traits, skills, responsibilities to match these occupations (consult Unit 2).
Ex.2. Analyze your abilities, interests and skills. What job is suitable for you? The following questions will help you.
1. What are my abilities?
2. What special talents do I have?
3. What are my special interests?
4. What are my physical abilities and limitations?
5. What are my attitudes and values?
6. How so I see myself or what is my self-concept?
7. What is my previous experience?
8. What are my educational plans for the future?
9. Am I the kind of person who works well in a large group, or do I work better with only one or two people?
10. Am I willing to accept change?
Ex.4. Family occupation tree.
a) Think about your family’s work history. Answer the following questions:
- Is there a tradition in your family of doing certain kind of work?
- What kind of work ethic do the members of your family have?
- What attitudes toward work have been passed from generation to generation?
b) Create family occupation tree. Draw a family tree and label each person’s name on it, list the jobs he/she held, and any special talents or skills they used.
c) Analyze your own family history and try to answer these questions:
- How many members have worked in similar occupations?
- Do you notice any family trends?
- Which relatives were particularly helpful/inspiring to other family members in career matters?
- Do you think the youngest generation will continue family traditions or create new patterns?
- Did location, educational opportunities or special talents influence any choices?
Ex.5. Analyze the responsibilities of representatives of different occupations. Choose one and report on:
- What the main job description is.
- What kind of training/education/talents are needed.
- Where they might work.
- If they would wear anything special.
- If they need any special tools or equipment.
- If the job is more suitable for man or a woman and why.
- If this job might pay well in Russia, in Europe or America.
- If you would have any interest in this occupation. Why or why not.
Applies principles of accounting to analyze financial information and prepare financial reports: Compiles and analyzes financial information to prepare entries to accounts, such as general ledger accounts, documenting business transactions. Analyzes financial information detailing assets, liabilities, and capital, and prepares balance sheet, profit and loss statement, and other reports to summarize current and projected company financial position, using calculator or computer.
Entertains audience by performing difficult and spectacular feasts, such as leaping, tumbling, and balancing, alone or as member of team. Originates act or adapts stock presentations. May use equipment, such as chairs and teeler board. May juggle.
Keeps official corporation records and executive administrative policies determined by or in conjunction with other officials: Prepares memorandums outlining and explaining administrative procedures and policies to supervisory workers. Plans conferences. Directs preparation of records, such as notices, minutes, and resolutions for stockholders and directors’ meetings. Directs recording of company stock issues and transfers. Acts as custodian of corporate documents and records.
Performs variety of personal services conductive to safety and comfort of airline passengers during flight: Greets passengers, verifies tickets, records destinations, and directs passengers to assigned seats. Assists passengers to store carry-on luggage in overhead, garment, or under seat storage. Explains use of safety equipment, such as seat belts, oxygen masks, and life jackets. Walks aisle of plane to verify that passengers have complied with federal regulations prior to take off. Serves previously prepared meals and beverages. Observes passengers to detect signs of discomfort, and issues palliatives to relieve passenger ailments, such as airsickness and insomnia. Administrates first aid according to passenger distress when needed.
Trains animals to obey commands, compete in shows, or perform tricks to entertain audience: Evaluates animal to determine temperament, ability, and aptitude for training. Conducts training program to develop desired behavior. May organize format of show. May conduct show. May cue or signal animal during performance. May rehearse animal according to script for motion picture or television film or stage or circus program. May train guard dog to protect property. May teach guide dog and master to function as team. Mau feed, exercise, and give general care to animal.
Repairs portable, household electrical appliances, such as fans, heaters, vacuum cleaners, toasters, and flatirons, on assembly line: Refers to inspector’s checklist, or defect-symbol marked on appliance, to identify defective or malfunctioning part. Disassembles appliance to remove defective part, using power screwdrivers, soldering iron, and handtools. Installs new part, and reassemble appliance. Records nature of repair in log or on mechanical counting device. Maintains stock of replacement parts.
Sells articles to highest bidder: Appraises merchandise before sale and assembles merchandise in lots according to estimated value of individual pieces or type of article: Selects article to be auctioned at suggestion of bidders or by own choice. Appraises article and determines or asks for starting bid. Describes merchandise and gives information about article, such as history and ownership, in order to encourage bidding. Continues to ask for bids, attempting to stimulate buying desire of bidders. Closes sale to highest bidder. May write auction catalog and advertising copy to local or trade newspapers and periodicals.
B. Watch the film “Family Album, USA” (Episodes 21, 22 “A Big Fish in a Little Pond”, “Carrier choices”). Follow the directions in the Appendix “Traditions and Habits of American People.”
Topics for discussion
1. Speak on the occupations of your family members. Try to make grounds for your considerations.
2. Say whether it was difficult for you to make a decision about your future occupation. Who helped you to find the right decision?
East or West – Home is Best
I. Phonetic Training