Revise the forms of the verb in The Present, Past and Future (Simple, Continuous and Perfect)

Unit 1

Introducing people

I. Phonetic Training

1. In the English language the consonant sounds ð, θ, w, r, ŋ deserve very careful attention. Your English will not sound good if you dont pronounce them correctly. Read the following words paying attention to these sounds and dont forget about them during your course of studies.

θ ð

Theme. Thief. Thick. These. This one.

Thin. Therapy. That one. Those.

Thorn. Thought. The old. The rich. Their chance.

Thirst. Theatre. When then. Go there.

Thatch. Thanks. Praise them.

Thankless. Thankful. Those things.

Thousand. Athens. A good thing though.

Monthly. Worthless.


W r

Weak. Will. Wit. West. Wet. Read. Real. Wrist. Rest. Wrench.

Ward. Wood. Wound. Wonder. Roar. Room. Rule. Row.

Worm. Work. Warm. World. Ray. Rail. Road. Rare. Robe.

Award. Swing. Quarter. Quick. Green. Brain. Drink. Frame. Lorry.



Singer. Hanger. Ringer. Stringer.

Changing. Ringing. Singing. Hanging.

Brining. Banging. Bunging. Dinging.

Springing. Belongings. Ganger. Twanging.

Note 1. Pay attention to the fact that the letter combination th at the beginning of the pronouns, adverbs and prepositions is pronounced as [ð], in all the rest part of speech it is pronounced as [θ].

E.g.: this thorough

that thoroughfare

though think

then thought

thus thoughtful

2. The essential thing about the vowels in the English language is that their length and openness influence the meaning of the word.

Mind the following differences:

Each. Itch. Bad. Bed. Port. pot.

Pool. Pull. Seal. Sill. Batter. Better.

Sport. Spot. Fool. Full. Soup. Soot.

Wheel. Will. Band. Bend. Cord. Cod.

Feat. Fit. Latter. Letter. Short. Shot.

Booth. Broom. Tool. Took. Dew. Duty.

Peal. Pill Sand. Send. Stork Stock.

Seat. Sit. Pat. Pet. Board. Body.

Leave. Live. Man. Men. Forks. Fox.


One more peculiarity of the English sounds is the diphthongs. Train reading of the following words.

ei ai au ou oi εə juə
Pain. Time. Bow. Pole. Point. Beer. Wear. Cure.
Dame. Type. How. Bone. Boil. Year. Tear. Secure.
Mail. Mine. Allow. Tone. Coil. Tear. Fair. Fuel..
Jail. Nine. Anyhow. Moan. Moist. Engineer. Dare. Insure
Drain. Vice. Endow. Joke. Noisy. Pioneer. Ware. Pure.


The sound [ə:] stands apart from all other vowel and is found in the following letter combinations: i+r, e+r, u+r, if it is followed by a consonant:

bird, girl, purse, nurse, perspective, etc.

But if this letter combination is followed by a vowel, the pronunciation will be different:

e.g.: pure [pjuə], direct [di`rect] or [dai`rect], mere [miə], interference [intə`fiərəns].


Training rhymes.


Fat Pat

`When Im ten, `Fat Pat,

Ill `get a pen. Had a fat cat.

`Then I shall write, `Pats `fat cat

Like `brother Ben. Sat in Pats hat.


Pat has two pets: A black fat cat

A cat and a rat, Sat on a black mat

Pat likes his pets And ate a fat black rat.

And his pets like Pat.

Note. Pay attention to the English Intonation. It is either rising or falling and very rare calm at the end of the phrase.



II.Grammar Revision

The verbs to be and to have

The verb to be

Revise the form of the verb to be in the Present, Past and Future (Simple, Continuous and Perfect).

Present Simple Past SimpleFuture Simple

I am I was I shall (will)

You are You were You will be

He He We shall (will) be

She is She was They will be

It It He

They are They were She will be

We are We were It


Present ContinuousPast ContinuousFuture Continuous

am was being will being (seldom used)

are being were


Present PerfectPast PerfectFuture Perfect

have been had been will (shall) have been



Note. The form shall is rarely now used for the Future. It is substituted by will or the contracted form ll, e.g. Ill, well, youll, hell


The verb to be as Notional, Auxiliary and Modal.

A.The verbto beas anotional verbin the meaning , ( - , , , , , , ), etc.

E.g. I am a future economist.

My father was a student of economics, when he was young

Well be the experts in the world economy after graduating from our University.

The interrogative and negative forms of the verb to be are formed by means of placing the verb to be before the subject of the sentence (for questions) and putting the particle not after it (for negative sentence).

B.The verb to beas anauxiliary verbis used to form the finite forms of the English verb forms system. Note that in this case it can acquire almost all the verb forms systems such as Simple, Continuous and Perfect:

E.g. 1.) am, is, are;

2.) is being, am being, are being;

3.) was being, were being;

4.) will be being;

5.) has been, have been, had been, will have been.

E.g. I am given a good piece of advice.

I was given a good piece of advice.

I will be given a good piece of advice.

A new supermarket is being built opposite us.

A new school was being built opposite us, when I was a child.

A new school will be being built opposite us, when I become a student (seldom used).

A new campus has already been built in our University.

A new campus had already been built before I entered the University.


The interrogative and negative forms of such sentences are formed by means of putting the first auxiliary at the beginning of the sentence (for the general question) or after the interrogative world (for the special question) and putting the particle not after the first auxiliary (for the negative sentences).

E.g. Is Paris situated in France? - Yes, it is.

Is Pittsburg not situated in Russia? No, it is not.

Pittsburg isnt in America.

Is a new school being built opposite your house?


C. The verb to be as a modal verbexpresses the attitude of the speaker towards the action, expressed by the notional verb.

The verb to be in this meaning expresses ones obligation or duty to fulfill a certain action because this action has been planned before. In this case the verb to be has only two forms: Present and Past Simple.

.-. , .


E.g. Im to pass my exam tomorrow, so I cant come to your party tonight.

, .

It is translated into Russian as , , , .

This woman was to become my mother


He is to fulfil the task immediately.


Interrogative sentences are formed by placing the verb to be in the first position. In negative sentences one must put the particle not after the verb to be.

E.g. I am not to do this task now, so I am free. - , .

Is he to do this task now? ?


Training exercises

Ex.1. Say whether the verb to be is notional, modal or auxiliary. Explain your choice. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. There are more than 6500 periodicals, publishing advertisements.

2. This girl was to become his wife.

3. They have been wandering about the forest for an hour but couldnt find this small wooden house.

4. Teenagers are fond of rock and metal.

5. Their request was to start it all over again.

6. It was like rain which started suddenly.

7. Be careful! You are going to fall.

8. Sophia is to go through it all over again.

9. He is not a liar. I dont know why he has insisted on it.

10. He was to spend 5 years in prison.


Ex. 2. Put the correct form of the verb to be into the blanks. Translate the sentences into Russian. Say whether the verb is notional, auxiliary or modal.


1. They(to be) looking for a better position.

2. Toms idea (to be) to get there by air.

3. He couldnt visit their party because he (to be) to meet his mother at the station.

4. Moviemaking (to be) an art.

5. Everybody knew he (to be) to become a doctor as his father.

6. I (not to be) going to stop, Ill continue my research.

7. Paul (to be) to decide everything himself. There (to be) nobody to help him.

8. These (to be) jobs where you work with your hands.

9. He (to be) terrible at numbers and figures.

10. It all (to be) done before he came home.

11. They (to be) waiting for half an hour already but nobody has come yet.

12. I (to be) promoted next month. My boss promised.


Ex. 3. Translate the sentences into English using the correct form of the verb to be.


1. .

2. , .

3. .

4. , .

5. , .

6. 2 , .

7. .

8. , .

9. : .

10. .

The verb to have.

Revise the forms of the verb in The Present, Past and Future (Simple, Continuous and Perfect).

Present SimplePast SimpleFuture Simple

I, You, We, They have I, You, We, They, I, We shall have

He, She, It has He, She, It had You, He, She, It will have

Present ContinuousPast ContinuousFuture Continuous

I am having I, He, She, It was having I, We shall (will) be having

You are having You, We, He, You, She, He will She, It is having They were having be having


Present PerfectPast PerfectFuture Perfect

I, We, They, You have had I, He, We had had I, He, We will

She, he, it has had (shall) have had

The verb to have as a Notional, Auxiliary and Modal verb.

A. The verb to have as a notional verb is used in the meaning of , -.

E.g. I have a dog.

Our University has many faculties.

My father had a dog when he was a child.


Note 1. You can say I have or I have got, he has or he has (hes) got.

E.g. I have a headache or

Ive got a headache.

I havent got a car, but Ive got a motorbike.


Note 2. Negative and interrogative sentences are:

I havent got; Have you got?

I dont have; Dou you have?

(Have you a car? is very rarely used).


Note 3. Mind that the verb to have is not used in the continuous form in its notional meaning.

But is used in the continuous form in the expressions:

to have a good time

to have breakfast (dinner, supper, etc.)

to have a smoke

to have a rest, etc.


B. The verb to have as an auxiliary verb is used to form the finite verb forms (Perfect and Perfect Continuous). It indicates the character of the action and is not translated into Russian.

E.g. We have just finished the job and are ready to go out.


They have been doing this boring job so long that they had got used to it.

, .

Note. To express a question you must put the first auxiliary before the subject; for a negative form place not after the auxiliary.


C. The verb to have as a modal verb is used in the meaning of necessity or obligation. In this case you have no other way out but fulfill this action. It is translated into Russian as , , , .


E.g. You have to pass a test before you get a driving license.

, .

We had to walk home last night there were no buses.



Note. In questions and negatives we use the auxiliaries do/does, did.


E.g. What time do you have to go to the dentist tomorrow?

Im not working tomorrow, so I dont have to get up early.

Why did you have to leave the party early?



Training exercises


Ex.1. Say whether the verb to have is notional, auxiliary or modal. Translate the sentences into Russian.

2. Have you got an umbrella?

3. Can I have a newspaper? Yes, I have finished with it.

4. Im looking for Paula. Have you seen her?

5. In many countries men have to do military service.

6. Does Jill have to work on Sundays?

7. They dont read much. They dont have many books.

8. Its a nice house but it hasnt got a garden.

9. The shirts have been ironed.

10. They arent rich. They havent got much money.

11. I have been looking for my key everywhere but I cant find it.

12. Why did they have to leave the party so early?

13. Sue is having a party tonight. She has invited a lot of people.


Ex.2. Put the correct form of the verb to have (positive or negative). Say whether the verb is notional, auxiliary or modal. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. They ______________ any children. They are unhappy about it.

2. I ________________ lost my passport. I cant find it anywhere.

3. The bridge is closed at the moment. It _______________ been damaged recently and it _______________ been repaired yet.

4. Its late. I ______________________ to go now. Ill see you tomorrow.

5. Many houses ________________ been knocked down recently in our district.

6. I know this woman but I ___________________ forgotten her name.

7. Whats wrong? I ___________________ something in my eye.

8. They like animals. They _________________ three dogs and two cats.

9. I ______________________ bought some new shoes. Do you want to see them?

10. Where are the chocolates? ________________________ you eaten them all?

11. You cant park your car here for nothing. You ________________ to pay.

12. ___________ you ______________ any brothers or sisters?


Ex.3. Translate the sentences into English using the correct form of the verb to have.

1. . .

2. (to travel) 10 .

3. (Ian) . .

4. ?

5. .

6. . .

7. . ?

8. - .

9. . .

10. . .


English Noun


A noun is a part of speech which denotes an object (a thing or a living being). It can be countable or uncountable.


Countable nounsare things we can count. We can say one apple, two apples, etc. A countable noun can be singular (an apple) or plural (apples), You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without the articles a/an, the or the pronouns my, his, some, etc.)


E.g. I want a banana.

Theres been an accident on the road.

You can use my computer.


Plural countable nouns can be used alone or with the, some, any, many, few.


E.g. I like bananas.

Accidents can be prevented.

We sang some songs at the party.

There were few people in the room.


Uncountable nouns denote the things we cannot count. They have only one form: sand, rice, water.

E.g. I eat rice every day.

There is no electricity in this village.


You can use uncountable nouns alone or with the, my, some, any, much, little, etc.


E.g. Can you hear music?

Did you buy any juice?

I have little work now.


Training exercises


Ex.1. Some of these sentences need a/an. Correct the sentences which are wrong. If the sentence is already correct, put 'right'.

1. Jim goes everywhere by bike. He hasn't got __ car. ...a car...

2. Ann was listening to music when I arrived. ...RIGHT

3. We went to very nice restaurant last weekend.

4. I clean my teeth with toothpaste.

5. I use toothbrush to clean my teeth.

6. Can you tell me if there's bank near here?

7. My brother works for insurance company in London.

8. I don't like violence.

9. Can you smell paint?

10. We need petrol. I hope we come to petrol station soon.

11. I wonder if you can help me. I have problem.

12. John has got interview for job tomorrow.

13. Liz doesn't usually wear jewellery but yesterday she was wearing necklace. ..

14. I think volleyball is very good game.

Ex.2. Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Use a/an where necessary.


accident biscuit blood coat decision electricity key letter moment

music question sugar


1. It wasn't your fault. It was ...an accident....

2. Listen! Can you hear ...music?..

3. I couldn't get into the house because I didn't have _____________

4. It's very warm today. Why are you wearing ________________?

5. Do you take___________ in your coffee?

6. Are you hungry? Would you like ___________ with your coffee?

7. Our lives would be very difficult without _____________ .

8. I didn't phone them. I wrote _________ instead.

9. The heart pumps _____________through the body.

10. Excuse me, but can I ask you _____________________ ?

11. I'm not ready yet. Can you wait _______________, please?

12. We can't delay much longer. We have to make _________soon.

Ex.3. Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Sometimes the word needs to be plural (s).


air country day friend meat language letter patience people

photograph queue space


1. I had my camera but I didn't take many ...photographs. ...

2. There are seven ________ in a week.

3. A vegetarian is a person who doesn't eat ______________.

4. Outside the cinema there was ______ of people waiting to see the film.

5. I'm not very good at writing _____________ .

6. Last night I went out with some ________________ of mine.

7. There were very few ________ in the shops today. They were almost empty.

8. I'm going out for a walk. I need some fresh __________________.

9. George always wants things quickly. He's got no _____________ .

10. Do you speak any foreign _____________?

11. Jane travels a lot. She has been to many _____________ .

12. Our flat is very small. We haven't got much ___________ .

Note 1. Many nouns in English can be used both as countable and uncountable. It depends upon the context.


E.g. Did you hear a noise? (=a particular noise)

There is a hair in my soup. (=one single hair)

Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time!

Two coffee and an orange juice, please. (in a restaurant=two cups of coffee and a glass of orange juice).


Note 2. There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but countable in Russian.

accommodation advice baggage luggage behaviour bread chaos weather information luck work furniture news progress


Ex.4. Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct?


1. 'Did you hear noise / a noise just now?' 'No, I didn't hear anything.' ('a noise' is correct)

2. a If you want to know the news, you can read paper / a paper.

b I want to write some letters but I haven't got a paper / any paper to write on.

3. a I thought there was somebody in the house because there was light / a light on inside,

b Light / A light comes from the sun.

4. a I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have time / a time for breakfast.

b Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, we had wonderful time / a wonderful time.'

5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful advice / advices.

6. We had very good weather / a very good weather while we were on holiday.

7. We were very unfortunate. We had bad luck / a bad luck.

8. It's very difficult to find a work / job at the moment.

9. Our travel / journey from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.

10. When the fire alarm rang, there was total chaos / a total chaos.

11. I had to buy a / some bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.

12. Bad news don't / doesn't make people happy.

13. Your hair is / Your hairs are too long. You should have it / them cut.

14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but the damage / the damages to the car was / were quite bad.

Ex.5. Complete the sentences using these words. Sometimes you need the plural (-s).


chair experience experience furniture hair information

job luggage permission progress work


1. I didn't have much ...luggage... - just two small bags.

2. They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of ___ .

3. There is room for everybody to sit down. There are plenty of ______.

4. We have no __________ , not even a bed or a table.

5. 'What does Alan look like?' ' He's got a long beard and very short _ .

6. Carla's English is better than it was. She's made _______________.

7. George is unemployed. He's looking for a ___________________ .

8. George is unemployed. He's looking for _____________________ .

9. If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for ____________ .

10. I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough _____ .

11. Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her _______.

III. Introducing people

A. Formulae of introduction

- Let me introduce myself. My name is Michael.

- Nice to meet you, Michael. Im Ann.


- And this is my friend, Paul.

- Nice to meet you, Paul too.


- Meet my parents Mr. and Mrs. Scout.

- Glad (happy, pleased) to meet you. My name is Martha.


- Excuse me, my name is Richard Stewart. Im a journalist. Id like to take an interview.

- Its nice to meet you. How can I help you?


- Hello! Hi! (.)

- How do you do? - How do you do? (.)


- You must be our new colleague? Hi!

- Hello! My name is Edward Green.


- How do you do? How do you do?

- How are you? Nice (well/not so well/so-so), thanks.


- Hello, Harry, its nice to meet you.

- Hi! Nice to meet you, too.




Use these expressions to thank one (1) or after one thanks you (2).

(1) (2)

Thank you. You are welcome.

Thank you very much. Im glad that I could help you

It was very nice of you. Glad that I could help.

I appreciate your help. Dont mention it.

I appreciate it. It was nothing.

Thanks, anyway. My pleasure.




Training exercises

1.) Introduce yourself to somebody in the street. - You want to know the time. Dont forget to thank the people.

2.) Introduce yourself to somebody in the street. You want to know the directions.

3.) Introduce yourself to somebody in the street. You want to know where you can have a bite.

4.) Introduce your friend to your family.

5.) Introduce your new friend to your classmates.

6.) You are a bank chairman. Introduce a new colleague to your staff.

7.) Thank smb for doing smth special for you


Give 5 examples.



B. Watch the film Family Album, USA (Episode 1). Follow the guide to the film given in the manual Traditions and Habits of American People



Unit 2


allrefrs.ru - 2021 . !