Revise the forms of the verb in The Present, Past and Future (Simple, Continuous and Perfect)
I. Phonetic Training
1. In the English language the consonant sounds ð, θ, w, r, ŋ deserve very careful attention. Your English will not sound good if you donТt pronounce them correctly. Read the following words paying attention to these sounds and donТt forget about them during your course of studies.
Theme. Thief. Thick. These. This one.
Thin. Therapy. That one. Those.
Thorn. Thought. The old. The rich. Their chance.
Thirst. Theatre. When then. Go there.
Thatch. Thanks. Praise them.
Thankless. Thankful. Those things.
Thousand. Athens. A good thing though.
Weak. Will. Wit. West. Wet. Read. Real. Wrist. Rest. Wrench.
Ward. Wood. Wound. Wonder. Roar. Room. Rule. Row.
Worm. Work. Warm. World. Ray. Rail. Road. Rare. Robe.
Award. Swing. Quarter. Quick. Green. Brain. Drink. Frame. Lorry.
Singer. Hanger. Ringer. Stringer.
Changing. Ringing. Singing. Hanging.
Brining. Banging. Bunging. Dinging.
Springing. Belongings. Ganger. Twanging.
Note 1. Pay attention to the fact that the letter combination Ц th at the beginning of the pronouns, adverbs and prepositions is pronounced as [ð], in all the rest part of speech it is pronounced as [θ].
E.g.: this thorough
2. The essential thing about the vowels in the English language is that their length and openness influence the meaning of the word.
Mind the following differences:
Each. Ц Itch. Bad. Ц Bed. Port. Ц pot.
Pool. Ц Pull. Seal. Ц Sill. Batter. Ц Better.
Sport. Ц Spot. Fool. Ц Full. Soup. Ц Soot.
Wheel. Ц Will. Band. Ц Bend. Cord. Ц Cod.
Feat. Ц Fit. Latter. Ц Letter. Short. Ц Shot.
Booth. Ц Broom. Tool. Ц Took. Dew. Ц Duty.
Peal. Ц Pill Sand. Ц Send. Stork Ц Stock.
Seat. Ц Sit. Pat. Ц Pet. Board. Ц Body.
Leave. Ц Live. Man. Ц Men. Forks. Ц Fox.
One more peculiarity of the English sounds is the diphthongs. Train reading of the following words.
The sound [ə:] stands apart from all other vowel and is found in the following letter combinations: i+r, e+r, u+r, if it is followed by a consonant:
bird, girl, purse, nurse, perspective, etc.
But if this letter combination is followed by a vowel, the pronunciation will be different:
e.g.: pure [pjuə], direct [di`rect] or [dai`rect], mere [miə], interference [intə`fiərəns].
`When IТm ten, `Fat Pat,
IТll `get a pen. Had a fat cat.
`Then I shall write, `PatТs `fat cat
Like `brother Ben. Sat in PatТs hat.
Pat has two pets: A black fat cat
A cat and a rat, Sat on a black mat
Pat likes his pets And ate a fat black rat.
And his pets like Pat.
Note. Pay attention to the English Intonation. It is either rising or falling and very rare Цcalm at the end of the phrase.
The verbs Уto beФ and Уto haveФ
The verb Уto beФ
Revise the form of the verb Уto beФ in the Present, Past and Future (Simple, Continuous and Perfect).
Present Simple Past SimpleFuture Simple
I am I was I shall (will)
You are You were You will be
He He We shall (will) be
She is She was They will be
It It He
They are They were She will be
We are We were It
Present ContinuousPast ContinuousFuture Continuous
am was being will being (seldom used)
are being were
Present PerfectPast PerfectFuture Perfect
have been had been will (shall) have been
Note. The form УshallФ is rarely now used for the Future. It is substituted by УwillФ or the contracted form Тll, e.g. IТll, weТll, youТll, heТll
The verb Уto beФ as Notional, Auxiliary and Modal.
A.The verbУto beФas anotional verbin the meaning Ђбыть, находитьс€ї (при спр€жении - Ђестьї, Ђбыл, была, былиї, Ђбудут, будем, будетеї), etc.
E.g. I am a future economist.
My father was a student of economics, when he was young
WeТll be the experts in the world economy after graduating from our University.
The interrogative and negative forms of the verb to be are formed by means of placing the verb to be before the subject of the sentence (for questions) and putting the particle not after it (for negative sentence).
B.The verb Уto beФas anauxiliary verbis used to form the finite forms of the English verb forms system. Note that in this case it can acquire almost all the verb forms systems such as Simple, Continuous and Perfect:
E.g. 1.) am, is, are;
2.) is being, am being, are being;
3.) was being, were being;
4.) will be being;
5.) has been, have been, had been, will have been.
E.g. I am given a good piece of advice.
I was given a good piece of advice.
I will be given a good piece of advice.
A new supermarket is being built opposite us.
A new school was being built opposite us, when I was a child.
A new school will be being built opposite us, when I become a student (seldom used).
A new campus has already been built in our University.
A new campus had already been built before I entered the University.
The interrogative and negative forms of such sentences are formed by means of putting the first auxiliary at the beginning of the sentence (for the general question) or after the interrogative world (for the special question) and putting the particle УnotФ after the first auxiliary (for the negative sentences).
E.g. Is Paris situated in France? - Yes, it is.
Is Pittsburg not situated in Russia? Ц No, it is not.
Pittsburg isnТt in America.
Is a new school being built opposite your house?
C. The verb Уto beФ as a modal verbexpresses the attitude of the speaker towards the action, expressed by the notional verb.
The verb Уto beФ in this meaning expresses oneТs obligation or duty to fulfill a certain action because this action has been planned before. In this case the verb Уto beФ has only two forms: Present and Past Simple.
ѕеревод на русский €зык осуществл€етс€ с помощью русского глагола Ђпредсто€ть ч.-л. сделатьї, Ђнужної.
E.g. IТm to pass my exam tomorrow, so I canТt come to your party tonight.
ћне нужно сдавать завтра экзамен, поэтому € не могу прийти завтра к тебе на вечеринку.
It is translated into Russian as должен, должен был, предстоит, предсто€ло.
This woman was to become my mother
Ётой женщине предсто€ло стать моей матерью.
He is to fulfil the task immediately.
≈му предстоит выполнить задание немедленно.
Interrogative sentences are formed by placing the verb Уto beФ in the first position. In negative sentences one must put the particle УnotФ after the verb Уto beФ.
E.g. I am not to do this task now, so I am free. - ћне не нужно выполн€ть это задание сегодн€, € свободен.
Is he to do this task now? Ц ≈му сейчас предстоит выполн€ть это задание?
Ex.1. Say whether the verb Уto beФ is notional, modal or auxiliary. Explain your choice. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. There are more than 6500 periodicals, publishing advertisements.
2. This girl was to become his wife.
3. They have been wandering about the forest for an hour but couldnТt find this small wooden house.
4. Teenagers are fond of rock and metal.
5. Their request was to start it all over again.
6. It was like rain which started suddenly.
7. Be careful! You are going to fall.
8. Sophia is to go through it all over again.
9. He is not a liar. I donТt know why he has insisted on it.
10. He was to spend 5 years in prison.
Ex. 2. Put the correct form of the verb Уto beФ into the blanks. Translate the sentences into Russian. Say whether the verb is notional, auxiliary or modal.
1. They(to be) looking for a better position.
2. TomТs idea (to be) to get there by air.
3. He couldnТt visit their party because he (to be) to meet his mother at the station.
4. Moviemaking (to be) an art.
5. Everybody knew he (to be) to become a doctor as his father.
6. I (not to be) going to stop, IТll continue my research.
7. Paul (to be) to decide everything himself. There (to be) nobody to help him.
8. These (to be) jobs where you work with your hands.
9. He (to be) terrible at numbers and figures.
10. It all (to be) done before he came home.
11. They (to be) waiting for half an hour already but nobody has come yet.
12. I (to be) promoted next month. My boss promised.
Ex. 3. Translate the sentences into English using the correct form of the verb Уto beФ.
1. “овары были отгружены воврем€.
2. ќн Ц человек, на которого можно положитьс€.
3. ≈му предсто€ло стать квалифицированным адвокатом.
4. ћари€ должна скоро подойти, давайте подождем.
5. ќн не был красавцем, но при€тным его можно было назвать.
6. ћы уже 2 часа стараемс€ разгадать эту загадку, но пока все напрасно.
7. Ёта продукци€ из »талии всегда хорошего качества.
8. Ётот офис сейчас реконструируют, там будет располагатьс€ мастерска€ по ремонту обуви.
9. я буду завтра в это врем€ зан€та: € буду просматривать исторические журналы.
10. ћне скоро предстоит поехать в командировку за границу.
The verb Уto haveФ.
Revise the forms of the verb in The Present, Past and Future (Simple, Continuous and Perfect).
Present SimplePast SimpleFuture Simple
I, You, We, They have I, You, We, They, I, We shall have
He, She, It has He, She, It had You, He, She, It will have
Present ContinuousPast ContinuousFuture Continuous
I am having I, He, She, It was having I, We shall (will) be having
You are having You, We, He, You, She, He will She, It is having They were having be having
Present PerfectPast PerfectFuture Perfect
I, We, They, You have had I, He, We had had I, He, We will
She, he, it has had (shall) have had
The verb Уto haveФ as a Notional, Auxiliary and Modal verb.
A. The verb Уto haveФ as a notional verb is used in the meaning of Ђиметь, обладать чем-либої.
E.g. I have a dog.
Our University has many faculties.
My father had a dog when he was a child.
Note 1. You can say УI haveФ or УI have gotФ, Уhe hasФ or Уhe has (heТs) gotФ.
E.g. I have a headache or
IТve got a headache.
I havenТt got a car, but IТve got a motorbike.
Note 2. Negative and interrogative sentences are:
I havenТt got; Have you gotЕ?
I donТt have; Dou you haveЕ?
(Have you a car? Ц is very rarely used).
Note 3. Mind that the verb Уto haveФ is not used in the continuous form in its notional meaning.
But is used in the continuous form in the expressions:
to have a good time
to have breakfast (dinner, supper, etc.)
to have a smoke
to have a rest, etc.
B. The verb Уto have as an auxiliary verb is used to form the finite verb forms (Perfect and Perfect Continuous).Ф It indicates the character of the action and is not translated into Russian.
E.g. We have just finished the job and are ready to go out.
ћы только что закончили работу и готовы прогул€тьс€.
They have been doing this boring job so long that they had got used to it.
ќни делали эту скучную работу так долго, что уже к ней привыкли.
Note. To express a question you must put the first auxiliary before the subject; for a negative form place УnotФ after the auxiliary.
C. The verb Уto haveФ as a modal verb is used in the meaning of УnecessityФ or УobligationФ. In this case you have no other way out but fulfill this action. It is translated into Russian as Ђвынужденї, Ђприходитс€ї, Ђнеобходимої, Ђдолженї.
E.g. You have to pass a test before you get a driving license.
“ебе необходимо сдать тест, чтобы получить водительское удостоверение.
We had to walk home last night there were no buses.
Ќам пришлось вчера вечером идти пешком Ц не было автобусов.
Note. In questions and negatives we use the auxiliaries do/does, did.
E.g. What time do you have to go to the dentist tomorrow?
IТm not working tomorrow, so I donТt have to get up early.
Why did you have to leave the party early?
Ex.1. Say whether the verb Уto haveФ is notional, auxiliary or modal. Translate the sentences into Russian.
2. Have you got an umbrella?
3. Can I have a newspaper? Ц Yes, I have finished with it.
4. IТm looking for Paula. Have you seen her?
5. In many countries men have to do military service.
6. Does Jill have to work on Sundays?
7. They donТt read much. They donТt have many books.
8. ItТs a nice house but it hasnТt got a garden.
9. The shirts have been ironed.
10. They arenТt rich. They havenТt got much money.
11. I have been looking for my key everywhere but I canТt find it.
12. Why did they have to leave the party so early?
13. Sue is having a party tonight. She has invited a lot of people.
Ex.2. Put the correct form of the verb Уto haveФ (positive or negative). Say whether the verb is notional, auxiliary or modal. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. They ______________ any children. They are unhappy about it.
2. I ________________ lost my passport. I canТt find it anywhere.
3. The bridge is closed at the moment. It _______________ been damaged recently and it _______________ been repaired yet.
4. ItТs late. I ______________________ to go now. IТll see you tomorrow.
5. Many houses ________________ been knocked down recently in our district.
6. I know this woman but I ___________________ forgotten her name.
7. УWhatТs wrong?Ф Ц УI ___________________ something in my eye.Ф
8. They like animals. They _________________ three dogs and two cats.
9. I ______________________ bought some new shoes. Do you want to see them?
10. Where are the chocolates? ________________________ you eaten them all?
11. You canТt park your car here for nothing. You ________________ to pay.
12. ___________ you ______________ any brothers or sisters?
Ex.3. Translate the sentences into English using the correct form of the verb Уto haveФ.
1. я плохо себ€ чувствую. ” мен€ болит голова.
2. ћне приходитьс€ проходить пешком (to travel) 10 миль в день.
3. яну (Ian) не приходитьс€ много работать. ” него легка€ работа.
4. ак долго ты уже пользуешьс€ компьютером?
5. я жду уже очень долго.
6. ” мен€ есть фотоаппарат. я могу вас сфотографировать.
7. “ы плохо выгл€дишь. ” теб€ болит голова?
8. ќн наконец-то почистил свои ботинки.
9. ћне завтра придетс€ работать дольше. ” нас срочный заказ.
10. ≈е не будет на работе. ≈й нужно пойти к врачу.
A noun is a part of speech which denotes an object (a thing or a living being). It can be countable or uncountable.
Countable nounsare things we can count. We can say Уone appleФ, Уtwo applesФ, etc. A countable noun can be singular (an apple) or plural (apples), You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without the articles a/an, the or the pronouns my, his, some, etc.)
E.g. I want a banana.
ThereТs been an accident on the road.
You can use my computer.
Plural countable nouns can be used alone or with УtheФ, УsomeФ, УanyФ, УmanyФ, УfewФ.
E.g. I like bananas.
Accidents can be prevented.
We sang some songs at the party.
There were few people in the room.
Uncountable nouns denote the things we cannot count. They have only one form: sand, rice, water.
E.g. I eat rice every day.
There is no electricity in this village.
You can use uncountable nouns alone or with УtheФ, УmyФ, УsomeФ, УanyФ, УmuchФ, УlittleФ, etc.
E.g. Can you hear music?
Did you buy any juice?
I have little work now.
Ex.1. Some of these sentences need a/an. Correct the sentences which are wrong. If the sentence is already correct, put 'right'.
1. Jim goes everywhere by bike. He hasn't got __ car. ...a car...
2. Ann was listening to music when I arrived. ...RIGHTЕ
3. We went to very nice restaurant last weekend.
4. I clean my teeth with toothpaste.
5. I use toothbrush to clean my teeth.
6. Can you tell me if there's bank near here?
7. My brother works for insurance company in London.
8. I don't like violence.
9. Can you smell paint?
10. We need petrol. I hope we come to petrol station soon.
11. I wonder if you can help me. I have problem.
12. John has got interview for job tomorrow.
13. Liz doesn't usually wear jewellery but yesterday she was wearing necklace. ..
14. I think volleyball is very good game.
Ex.2. Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Use a/an where necessary.
1. It wasn't your fault. It was ...an accident....
2. Listen! Can you hear ...music?..
3. I couldn't get into the house because I didn't have _____________
4. It's very warm today. Why are you wearing ________________?
5. Do you take___________ in your coffee?
6. Are you hungry? Would you like ___________ with your coffee?
7. Our lives would be very difficult without _____________ .
8. I didn't phone them. I wrote _________ instead.
9. The heart pumps _____________through the body.
10. Excuse me, but can I ask you _____________________ ?
11. I'm not ready yet. Can you wait _______________, please?
12. We can't delay much longer. We have to make _________soon.
Ex.3. Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Sometimes the word needs to be plural (s).
air country day friend meat language letter patience people
1. I had my camera but I didn't take many ...photographs. ...
2. There are seven ________ in a week.
3. A vegetarian is a person who doesn't eat ______________.
4. Outside the cinema there was ______ of people waiting to see the film.
5. I'm not very good at writing _____________ .
6. Last night I went out with some ________________ of mine.
7. There were very few ________ in the shops today. They were almost empty.
8. I'm going out for a walk. I need some fresh __________________.
9. George always wants things quickly. He's got no _____________ .
10. Do you speak any foreign _____________?
11. Jane travels a lot. She has been to many _____________ .
12. Our flat is very small. We haven't got much ___________ .
Note 1. Many nouns in English can be used both as countable and uncountable. It depends upon the context.
E.g. Did you hear a noise? (=a particular noise)
There is a hair in my soup. (=one single hair)
Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time!
Two coffee and an orange juice, please. (in a restaurant=two cups of coffee and a glass of orange juice).
Note 2. There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but countable in Russian.
Ex.4. Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct?
1. 'Did you hear
2. a If you want to know the news, you can read paper / a paper.
b I want to write some letters but I haven't got a paper / any paper to write on.
3. a I thought there was somebody in the house because there was light / a light on inside,
b Light / A light comes from the sun.
4. a I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have time / a time for breakfast.
b Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, we had wonderful time / a wonderful time.'
5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful advice / advices.
6. We had very good weather / a very good weather while we were on holiday.
7. We were very unfortunate. We had bad luck / a bad luck.
8. It's very difficult to find a work / job at the moment.
9. Our travel / journey from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.
10. When the fire alarm rang, there was total chaos / a total chaos.
11. I had to buy a / some bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.
12. Bad news don't / doesn't make people happy.
13. Your hair is / Your hairs are too long. You should have it / them cut.
14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but the damage / the damages to the car was / were quite bad.
Ex.5. Complete the sentences using these words. Sometimes you need the plural (-s).
chair experience experience furniture hair information
1. I didn't have much ...luggage... - just two small bags.
2. They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of ___ .
3. There is room for everybody to sit down. There are plenty of ______.
4. We have no __________ , not even a bed or a table.
5. 'What does Alan look like?' ' He's got a long beard and very short _ .
6. Carla's English is better than it was. She's made _______________.
7. George is unemployed. He's looking for a ___________________ .
8. George is unemployed. He's looking for _____________________ .
9. If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for ____________ .
10. I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough _____ .
11. Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her _______.
III. Introducing people
A. Formulae of introduction
- Let me introduce myself. My name is Michael.
- Nice to meet you, Michael. IТm Ann.
- And this is my friend, Paul.
- Nice to meet you, Paul too.
- Meet my parents Mr. and Mrs. Scout.
- Glad (happy, pleased) to meet you. My name is Martha.
- Excuse me, my name is Richard Stewart. IТm a journalist. IТd like to take an interview.
- ItТs nice to meet you. How can I help you?
- Hello! Hi! (неофиц.)
- How do you do? - How do you do? (офиц.)
- You must be our new colleague? Hi!
- Hello! My name is Edward Green.
- How do you do? Ц How do you do?
- How are you? Ц Nice (well/not so well/so-so), thanks.
- Hello, Harry, itТs nice to meet you.
- Hi! Nice to meet you, too.
Use these expressions to thank one (1) or after one thanks you (2).
Thank you. You are welcome.
Thank you very much. IТm glad that I could help you
It was very nice of you. Glad that I could help.
I appreciate your help. DonТt mention it.
I appreciate it. It was nothing.
Thanks, anyway. My pleasure.
1.) Introduce yourself to somebody in the street. - You want to know the time. DonТt forget to thank the people.
2.) Introduce yourself to somebody in the street. Ц You want to know the directions.
3.) Introduce yourself to somebody in the street. Ц You want to know where you can have a bite.
4.) Introduce your friend to your family.
5.) Introduce your new friend to your classmates.
6.) You are a bank chairman. Introduce a new colleague to your staff.
7.) Thank smb for doing smth special for you
Give 5 examples.
B. Watch the film УFamily Album, USAФ (Episode 1). Follow the guide to the film given in the manual УTraditions and Habits of American PeopleФ