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Fill in the following space with the appropriate word or phrase



1. There are … types of automobiles. 2. Passenger cars are distinguished by … . 3. Top dead center is … . 4. The low limit of piston movement is called … . 5. Each time the piston changes direction of motion … .

4. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your answers.

1. Cars, buses and lorries are three types of automobiles. 2. Passenger cars are, as a rule, propelled by steam-powered engine. 3. Automobile engines have from six up to sixteen cylinders. 4. The lower limit of piston movement is called TDC. 5. The piston completes a cycle each time it changes the direction of motion.

 

Answer the following questions.

1. What are the functions of the automobile? 2. List the main components of an automobile? 3. There are engines of different design. What do they differ in? 4. Describe the passenger car. 5. What activities take place in the engine cylinder?

 

MINI TEST 7 (Unit 7)

Translate the words.

1. self-propelled vehicle. 2. internal combustion engine. 3. horsepower of the engine. 4. number of cylinders. 5. operating cycle. 6. cooling system. 7. upper limit of piston movement. 8. bottom dead center. 9. complete a stroke. 10. change the direction of a motion.

 

Find definitions to the given words.

1. Passenger car. 2. Power. 3. Lorry. 4. Compression. 5. Exhaust.

A. Energy of force that can be used to do work. B. Outlet in the engine for gas that has done its work. C. Automobile for transportation of people. D. Stroke during which a fuel mixture is compressed. E. Long open-motor vehicle for carrying goods by a road.

 

Fill in the gaps.

1. Automobiles are … vehicles for land transportation of people or goods. 2. A passenger car is propelled by an … . 3. Engines may differ in … of cylinders. 4. The lower limit of piston movement is called … . 5. The upper limit of piston movement is called … .

A. internal combustion engine. B. self-propelled. C. bottom dead center. D. top dead center. E. the number.



 

Match the synonyms.

1. Goods. 2. Differ. 3. Operate. 4. Constitute. 5. Operation.

A. Distinguish. B. Materials. C.Work. D. Complete. E. Activity.

 

Match the antonyms.

1. TDC. 2. Lower limit. 3. Self- propelled. 4. Different. 5. Work.

A. Upper limit. B. Horse-driven. C. Idle. D. BDC. E. Similar.

 

Name the component parts of the vehicle.

1. … is the mechanical device for controlling the flow of air, liquid gas in one direction only. 2. … is a shaped chamber in an engine in which gas forces a piston. 3. … is the machine that generates mechanical power. 4. … is the means by which the motor-vehicle is supported on its axles. 5. … is the part of an engine that moves up and down to create power.

 

7. Translate the 3d and 4th paragraphs of the text.

 


UNIT 8.

Translate the words and learn them.

arrangement tool
roof refinements
support reduce
convertible requirements
retractable application
windshield fiberglass
windscreen protect
strength resistance
improve reinforced
visibility wrinkle

Read and translate the text.

BODY



Automotive body designs are frequently categorized according to the number of doors, the arrangement of seats, and the roof structure. Automobile roofs are conventionally supported by pillars on each side of the body. Convertible models with retractable fabric tops rely on the pillar at the side of the windshield for upper body strength as convertible mechanisms and glass areas are essentially non-structural. Glass areas have been increased for improved visibility and for aesthetic reasons.

The high cost of new factory tools makes it impracticable for manufacturers to produce totally new designs every year. New designs usually have been programmed on three- to six-year cycles with generally minor refinements appearing during the cycle. In the past, as much as four years of planning and new tool purchasing was needed for a completely new design. Computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing techniques may now be used to reduce this time requirement by 50 percent or more.

Automotive bodies are generally formed out of sheet steel. Elements are added to the alloy to improve its ability to be formed deeper depressions without wrinkling or tearing in manufacturing presses. Steel is used because of its availability, low cost, and good workability. For certain applications, however, other materials, such as aluminium, fiberglass, and carbon-fiber reinforced plastic, are used because of their special properties. Polyamide, polyester, polystyrene, polypropylene and ethylene plastics have been formulated for greater toughness and resistance to brittle deformation. This material has been designed successfully for some body panels. Tooling for plastic component generally costs less and requires less time to develop than that for steel components and therefore may be changed by designers at lower costs.



To protect body from corrosive elements and to maintain their strength and appearance, special priming and painting processes are used.


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