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Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase

1. Lorries are vehicles … . 2. are usually classified … . 3. The first motor lorry was … . 4. … enjoy in intercity freight delivery. 5. … were widely used in, and in … they … horse-drawn equipment.


4. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your answers.

1. A motor car designed to carry passengers is lorry. 2. Lorries were widely used in World Wars. 3. Lorries are classified according to the number of axles. 4. The manufacture of lorries is increasing every year. 5. The axles of heavy lorries are so spaced that the distances between axles centers is not more than one-half times the overall diameter of wheel and tyre.


Answer the following questions.

1. What type of vehicle is defined as lorry? What is it designed for? 2. What was the first motor lorry like? 3. How are lorries usually classified? 4. What is an articulated vehicle?

MINI TEST 5 (Unit 5)

Translate word combinations given below.

1. four wheel-drive vehicle. 2. to carry goods. 3. six-horsepower engine. 4. short wheelbase jeep. 5. belt drive. 6. horse-driven wagon. 7. freight delivery. 8. separate axle. 9. reverse speed. 10. forward speed.


Find definitions to given words.

1.Monopoly. 2. Lorry. 3. Speed. 4. Freight. 5. Wagon.

A. Wheeled vehicle for carrying goods. B. Complete control. C. Load. D. Rapidity of movement. E. Long, low, open-motor vehicle for carrying goods by road.

Fill in the gaps in the sentences.

1. A lorry is a vehicle designed to perform … . 2. A lorry carries a quarter of the … . 3. Lorries have almost complete control in … . 4. The first motor lorry was equipped with a …with two speeds forward and one in reverse. 5. … of motor lorries may be made up of many axles.

A. Axle assemblies. B. Special services. C. Belt drive. D. Intercity freight. E. Freight delivery.


Match the synonyms.

1. Lorry. 2. Freight. 3. Monopoly. 4. Perform. 5. Seat belt.

A. Truck. B. Do. C. Load. D. Control. E. Safety belt.


Match the antonyms.

1.Separate. 2.Thefirst. 3.Heavy. 4.Large. 5.Straight.

A. Small. B. The last. C. Articulated. D. Single. E. Light.


Name the following component parts of the vehicle.

1. … – a strong belt in a car that is fastened around the passenger to hold smb. in smb's seat. 2. … – the distance between the front and rear wheels of a vehicle. 3. … – a metal bar that connects a pair of wheels on a car or other vehicle. 4. … – link that joins two parts. 5. … – the circular band that helps to take the power from an engine to the wheels for turning the wheels of a vehicle.


7. Translate the 1st, 2nd and 3d paragraphs of the text.


Translate the words and learn them.

expansion supply
environment accelerator
change torque
urban gear-type
rural emission
source advantage
power obstacle
inventor volume
direct current protect
alternating current propel

Read and translate the text.


Expansion of the total potential automotive market in the future and concern for the environment may be expected to change cars of the future. Special-purpose vehicles designed for specific urban or rural functions, with appropriate power system for each type of use, may be needed. Possibilities include electric, solar, steam, gasturbine, hybrid combinations, and other power sources.

Modern electric cars and trucks were manufactured in small numbers in Europe, Japan, and United States beginning in the 1980s.

However, electric propulsion is only possible for relatively short-range vehicles, using power from batteries of fuel cells. In a typical system, a group of lead-acid batteries, connected in a series, power electric AC induction motors to propel the vehicle. A solid state rectifier, or power inventor, changes the direct current supplied by the battery pack to an alternating current output that is controlled by the driver using an accelerator pedal to vary the output voltage. Because of the torque characteristics of the electric motors, conventional gear-type transmissions are not needed in most designs.

Compressed gas and blends derived from methanol and ethanol are being studied as fuels for the future because they may be produced from readily available biomass sources and have potential for high efficiency and lower emissions.

Gas turbines have been tested extensively and have good torque characteristics, operate on a wide variety of fuels, have high power-to-weight ratios, meet emission standards, and offer quiet operation. Some studies have shown that the advantages of the system are best realized in heavy-duty vehicles.

Nuclear energy offers the advantage of extremely low fuel weight. The obstacle for automotive use, however, is the great weight and volume of shielding required to protect the occupants from excessive nuclear radiating.

The advent during the 1990s of regulating requiring "zero emissions" from some vehicles in certain areas rekindled world interest in new battery technology. Battery system that offers higher energy density became the subject of joint research by auto industry scientists. Non commercial solar powered electric demonstration vehicles were built by universities and manufactures.


3. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your answers.

1. Electric propulsion is not possible for relatively short-range vehicles, using power from batteries of fuel cells. 2. Conventional gear-type transmissions are not needed in electric motors. 3. Readily available biomass sources may serve as fuel with high efficiency and lower emissions. 4. Nuclear energy has no obstacles for automotive use. 5. Solar powered electric vehicles were not yet built by manufactures.


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