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Name the specialities. One of them is a designated driver



1. … someone who designs or builds things such as roads, railways, machines.

2. … someone whose job is to repair vehicles and machines.

3.… someone at a social event who agrees to drink no alcohol and drive their friends home. 4. … skilled and trained person who investigates and designs engines, machines etc. 5. …someone who drives a vehicle, especially as their job.

 

7. Translate the 1st and the 3d paragraphs of the text.


 

UNIT 3.

Translate the words and learn them.

depend on weight
off-road use front
facility rear
durable wheel
overload suspension
resistance propulsion
condition location
performance distribution
road height
stability layout

Read and translate the text.

VEHICLE DESIGN

Vehicle design depends to a large extend on its intended use. Automobile for off-road use in countries that lack service facilities must be durable, simple systems with high resistance to severe overloads and extremes in operating conditions. Conversely, the customers for products that intended for the high-speed, limited-access road systems in Europe and North America expect more passenger comfort options, increased engine performance, and optimized high-speed handling and vehicle stability. Stability depends principally on the distribution of weight between front and rear wheels, the height of the centre of gravity and its position relative to the aerodynamic centre of the vehicle, suspension characteristics, and whether front or rear wheels are used for propulsion.

Weight distribution depends principally on the location and size of the engine. The common practice of front mounted engines exploits the stability that is more readily achieved with this layout. The development of aluminium engines and new manufacturing processes, have however, made it possible to locate the engine at the rear without necessarily compromising stability.



Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with the correct word or phrase.

1. Vehicle design depends first of all ... .2. Vehicle stability depends principally on such factors as … . 3. … depends principally on the … of the engine.

4. The stability is more readily achieved with … .

Answer the following questions.

1. Vehicle design depends on its intended use. What automobiles are commonly used in countries that lack service facilities? 2. What comfort do most customers expect of new vehicle designs? 3. What does weight distribution depend on?

4. What factors provide vehicle stability?

 

MINI TEST 3 (Unit 3)

Translate the word combinations given below.

1. vehicle design. 2. rear wheels. 3. aerodynamic center. 4. weight distribution. 5. intended use. 6. increased engine performance. 7. service facility. 8. suspension characteristics. 9. limited-access road system. 10. weight distribution.

Find definitions to the given words.

1.Design. 2. Option. 3. Comfort. 4. Off-road use. 5. Customer.

А. Physical well-being. B. Drawing or outline. C. Right or power of choosing.

D. A person who buys things. E. Use in broken ground, rugged country.

Fill in the gaps in the sentences.

1. Vehicle design depends on its … use. 2. Automobile has to be with high … to severe overloads. 3. A … for products intended for limited-access road system expect more comfort options. 4. Stability depends on the … between front and rear wheels. 5. Weight distribution depends on the location and size of the … .



A. Engine. B. Customer. C. Intended. D. Distribution of weight.

E. Resistance.

 

Match the synonyms.

1. Performance. 2.Position. 3. Propulsion. 4. Operate. 5. Customer.

А. Notable action. B. Layout. C. Work. D. Propelling force. E. User.

Match the antonyms.

1. Increase. 2. Front wheels. 3. Common. 4. High-speed. 5. Front-mounted engine.

А. Decrease. B. Unusual. C. Rear wheels. D. Low-speed.

E. Rear-mounted engine.

 

Name the following component parts of a car.

1.Propelling force driving a vehicle forward is … . 2.Means by which a motor-vehicle is supported on its axles is … .3.A machine that generates mechanical power is … .4.A round object that turns round to make vehicle move is … . 5.The main part of any vehicle where the seats are is … .

 

7. Translate the 1st paragraph of the text.


UNIT 4.

Translate the words and learn them.

articulated bus suburban
self-propelled tour
carry limit
route luggage
compete seat
provide rack
develop stroke
flexibility horsepower
coach brake
accommodate hitch

Read and render the text.

BUSES

A bus is a self-propelled road vehicle, designed to carry more passengers than any automobile, generally on a fixed route. It was developed at the beginning of the 20th century to compete with streetcars by providing greater route flexibility. The bus was a natural outgrowth of the horse-driven coach. Today buses are defined as vehicles that accommodate more than 10 passengers.



There are four main types of buses: city or transit, suburban, intercity or tour, and school. The city bus operates within the city limits and is characterized by low maximum speed, low-ride platform, provision for standing and wheelchair passenger, two entrances on the curb side, low-back seats, and no luggage space.

The suburban bus is designed for short intercity runs and has high-back seats, luggage compartments and racks, and a single front entrance. The intercity type has a high-ride platform to provide maximum luggage space under the passengers, high-back seats, overhead luggage racks, individual reading lights, and a washroom. A typical intercity coach weighs about 26,000 pounds (12,000 kilograms), has a capacity of up to 47 passengers, a two-stroke-cycle diesel engine with up to 450 horsepower, an electronically controlled automatic transmission, and air brakes. School buses generally consist of a 50-passenger bus body, with special signal lamp and safety provisions, mounted on a long-wheelbase truck chassis.

Articulated buses were first used in Europe in the 1950s. In this arrangement a trailer body is connected to the rear of conventional front-engine bus by means of a hitch, a flexible diaphragm, and a continuous floor panel with accurate mating surface during turn manoeuvres. This arrangement permits up to a 75 percent increase in seating capacity and 20 percent improvement in fuel efficiency per seat-mile. The turning radius is the same as that of conventional bus. Manufacture of this design was begun in the United States in the 1980s by several European firms. Double decking, increased seating comfort and larger glass areas have been trends in tour buses, principally in Europe and Asia.

3. Are the following statements true or false? Explain your answers.

1. A bus is a self-propelled vehicle developed to compete with the horse-driven coach. 2. Modern buses are defined as vehicles that provide seating capacity for more than 10 passengers. 3. The suburban bus is designed for long intercity runs. 4. The typical tour bus has a capacity of up to 47 passengers. 5. Both conventional and articulated buses have the same turning radius.

 


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